Matching Items (19)

Local Policing in the Context of Immigration Research Data

Description

The research project entitled “Local Policing in the Context of Immigration” (LPCI) was active from 2007 through 2016. The purposes of the study were to explore and describe the types

The research project entitled “Local Policing in the Context of Immigration” (LPCI) was active from 2007 through 2016. The purposes of the study were to explore and describe the types of local policies and policing practices that local jurisdictions and police agencies throughout the United States were undertaking with regard to police encounters with immigrants (specifically, unauthorized or undocumented immigrants), and to investigate the characteristics of local communities that were associated with these various approaches to immigration policing as well as the potential consequences of local immigration policing for immigrants, communities, and the nation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-08

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A Multilayered Jurisdictional Patchwork: Immigration Federalism in the United States

Description

This article focuses on the immigration-related demands currently being placed on local police in the United States and the emergence of what we call a “multilayered jurisdictional patchwork” (MJP) of

This article focuses on the immigration-related demands currently being placed on local police in the United States and the emergence of what we call a “multilayered jurisdictional patchwork” (MJP) of immigration enforcement. We report results from nationwide surveys of city police chiefs and county sheriffs and intensive fieldwork in three jurisdictions. The enforcement landscape we describe is complicated by the varying and overlapping responsibilities of sheriffs and city police, and by the tendency for sheriffs to maintain closer relationships with federal Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) authorities. We conclude by reflecting on the implications of the MJP—for immigrants, for their communities, and for the evolving relationship between levels of government in the federal system.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011-12-22

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Smart Decarceration in Arizona: Exploring the Options for Reducing Correctional Populations

Description

The tough on crime movement in the United States was prevalent in the 1970's through 1990's; however, it seems to have never left Arizona. Arizona has the 6th highest prison

The tough on crime movement in the United States was prevalent in the 1970's through 1990's; however, it seems to have never left Arizona. Arizona has the 6th highest prison population in America. According to the Arizona Department of Corrections, there are over 42,000 people incarcerated in Arizona and about half of those people have been in prison before. Other states populations are going down; ours is going up. While rising prison populations may not directly affect everyone in Arizona, they do have an indirect effect on everyone in Arizona. Recommendations to reduce correctional populations are often limited to "silos" of the correctional system. This is problematic, as only attending to one area of the system invites the other areas to block that progress. Seven steps that involve the entirety of Arizona's criminal justice system could help reverse the effects of Arizona's "tough on crime" era and reduce correctional populations. These steps should occur before, during, and after prison.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Peripheral Matters: The Emergence of Legalized Politics in Local Struggles Over Unauthorized Immigration

Description

National immigration policy meets the realities of unauthorized immigration at the local level, often in ways undesired by residents, as exemplified by the dramatic rise of local anti-immigrant legislation in

National immigration policy meets the realities of unauthorized immigration at the local level, often in ways undesired by residents, as exemplified by the dramatic rise of local anti-immigrant legislation in US states and municipalities. Scholars have studied why some states and municipalities, but not others, engage in immigration policy making. Such research is not designed, however, to evaluate how the basic structure of US government facilitates and shapes local protest. To probe that issue, we compare Chiapas, Mexico and Arizona, USA, both peripheral areas significantly affected by unauthorized immigration and national policies designed to control it. We find that the open texture of US federalism facilitates local activism, while Mexico's more centralized government does not. Activists within both states are similar, however, in deploying law creatively to critique national policy, a reminder of the growing worldwide significance of legal pluralism and legal consciousness in the politics of protest.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-01

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An examination of the relationship between gang membership and hopelessness

Description

The literature on hopelessness suggests youth living amid impoverished conditions, social disorganization, and limited resources are more likely to experience increased feelings of hopelessness. Similarly, many of the aforementioned aspects

The literature on hopelessness suggests youth living amid impoverished conditions, social disorganization, and limited resources are more likely to experience increased feelings of hopelessness. Similarly, many of the aforementioned aspects are considered, in some capacity, in the research on gangs. Though a considerable amount of gang literature alludes to the fact that loss of hope may be present, it neither directly addresses it nor references it. This study attempts to converge the present literature on hopelessness among minority youth to minority youth in street gangs. This is done using data obtained from an earlier evaluation of the Mesa Gang Intervention Project, using self-report data from 197 youth, asking questions about socio-demographic information, gang activity, education, employment, crime and delinquency, family and individual crisis, and self-reported detention. Findings implicate a connection exists between gang membership and increased levels of hopelessness. Moreover, results suggest education and self-esteem help to reduce loss of hopelessness.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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He’s Got Friends in Online Places: The Presence of Social Media in Radicalization

Description

Social media has become a significant aspect of American life and culture.

Criminal groups including extremists of various ideological milieus have found social

media useful in their recruitment efforts. Further,

Social media has become a significant aspect of American life and culture.

Criminal groups including extremists of various ideological milieus have found social

media useful in their recruitment efforts. Further, these online spaces allow extremists to

easily interact with one another, reinforcing each other’s radical perspectives. Little

research has examined social media’s role in radicalization and fewer studies have tested

the differences between the radicalization processes of individuals espousing disparate

ideologies. Using Profiles of Individual Radicalization in the United States, a data set of

804 extremist men, this study sets out to determine whether the role of social media in the

radicalization process varies between Islamist and far right extremists using social

learning as a theoretical framework. The results indicate no significant difference

regarding the role of social media in radicalization between Islamists and far rightists.

Additionally, the odds of having radical friends and family were much lower for Islamists

than far rightists, suggesting only partial support for social learning theory as an

explanation of radicalization.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Motivation to Kill: The Relationship between Motive and Weapon Choice in Homicide

Description

The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the choice of weapon in homicide. The study focuses on three research questions using data from Newark, New

The purpose of this study is to examine the factors that influence the choice of weapon in homicide. The study focuses on three research questions using data from Newark, New Jersey: what is the most commonly associated weapon with each motive? What factors influence the use of a particular type of weapon in a homicide? How does the method of weapon retrieval, or lack thereof, affect the choice of weapon? The cross-tabulation findings revealed that domestically-motivated homicides are most likely to be committed with knives and blunt objects; and drug-, gang-, dispute-, revenge, and robbery-motivated homicides were most likely to be committed using a firearm. The logistic regression demonstrated the method of weapon retrieval, the mode of how the homicide was carried out, the offender’s gender, and the victim and/or offender being a drug dealer or a gang member were all significant in terms of how they affected the offender’s use of a firearm to carry out the homicide. For knives and blunt objects, the method of weapon retrieval, the mode of how the homicide was carried out, the offender’s gender, and the victim and/or offender being a drug dealer or a gang member were all significant in terms of how they affected the offender’s use of a knife or blunt object to carry out the homicide. The results support the need for focused deterrence and conflict resolution interventions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Is Restorative Justice Effective in the U.S.? Evaluating Program Methods and Findings Using Meta-analysis

Description

The presence of restorative justice (RJ) in the United States has grown steadily within the last five decades. The dynamics of RJ programs are meant to more holistically address the

The presence of restorative justice (RJ) in the United States has grown steadily within the last five decades. The dynamics of RJ programs are meant to more holistically address the harms caused by crime in comparison to the traditional criminal justice system (CJS). Yet, evaluative research has provided inconsistent evidence of their effectiveness and the quality of empirical study has gone untested. The current study sought to fill the gaps within past research by examining how success has been measured, assessing the rigor of study methodology using the Maryland Scientific Methods Scale (SMS), and determining the impact of RJ programs on recidivism, victim satisfaction and restitution compliance using meta-analysis. A systematic search of past literature identified a sample of 121 studies whose dependent measures were coded, and methodological designs were rated using the SMS. Most studies failed to include community-based measures of success or measures which reflect the goals of RJ to undue harms and restore relationships. SMS scores were well distributed within the sample. Despite restricted sample sizes, meta-analyses used extracted data from 35 case-control, quasi-experimental and experimental studies to generate 43 unique treatment contrasts and 3 summary effects. Meta-analytic findings favored RJ treatment over CJS control groups across all dependent measures. Heterogeneity between subsequent arrest studies was scrutinized using subgroup analysis. The fewest subsequent arrests were associated with adult offenders, mandated participation, mediation and hybrid programs, and the most rigorous methodologies. Findings support continued efforts to improve the methodological rigor of evaluations, targeted focus on specific program types and delivery characteristics. Future meta-analyses would benefit from the inclusion of non-American RJ program evaluations to enlarge pooled sample populations and better detect moderating influences. Other suggestions for research design improvements include the use of more holistic and stakeholder-centric measures for success, use of continuous measures, and refined indicator variables for heterogeneity testing (e.g., crime type severity, characteristics of program fidelity). The author recommends continued use of these programs, specifically with adult offenders and incidents of serious crime toward a better understanding of the true impacts of RJ on stakeholders. More detailed results, study limitations and implications are discussed herein.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Growing the green goddess: commercial marijuana growers on the edge of legality

Description

This study is an in-depth examination of thirty-one commercial marijuana growers in four states in the United States. Presently, federal law prohibits marijuana production, but twenty-five states and the District

This study is an in-depth examination of thirty-one commercial marijuana growers in four states in the United States. Presently, federal law prohibits marijuana production, but twenty-five states and the District of Columbia allow some provision for marijuana production. Despite massive federal campaigns against marijuana growth, the growers themselves have received comparatively little attention. This study investigates three questions: 1) to what extent do commercial marijuana growers meet life-course criminology’s expectations of offenders; 2) how do growers learn the requisite norms, knowledge, and skills to be successful; and 3) to what extent do growers comply with state laws, and why? The results find little-support for life-course variables. While social learning theory is supported, the results also indicate that independent learning through trial and error and learning through various media are relevant to knowledge and skill acquisition. Respondents adopted a variety of strategies regarding state laws, with partial-compliance in order to minimize risk being the most common. Implications for both theory and policy are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Data Driven Inference in Populations of Agents

Description

In the artificial intelligence literature, three forms of reasoning are commonly employed to understand agent behavior: inductive, deductive, and abductive.  More recently, data-driven approaches leveraging ideas such as machine learning, data

In the artificial intelligence literature, three forms of reasoning are commonly employed to understand agent behavior: inductive, deductive, and abductive.  More recently, data-driven approaches leveraging ideas such as machine learning, data mining, and social network analysis have gained popularity. While data-driven variants of the aforementioned forms of reasoning have been applied separately, there is little work on how data-driven approaches across all three forms relate and lend themselves to practical applications. Given an agent behavior and the percept sequence, how one can identify a specific outcome such as the likeliest explanation? To address real-world problems, it is vital to understand the different types of reasonings which can lead to better data-driven inference.  

This dissertation has laid the groundwork for studying these relationships and applying them to three real-world problems. In criminal modeling, inductive and deductive reasonings are applied to early prediction of violent criminal gang members. To address this problem the features derived from the co-arrestee social network as well as geographical and temporal features are leveraged. Then, a data-driven variant of geospatial abductive inference is studied in missing person problem to locate the missing person. Finally, induction and abduction reasonings are studied for identifying pathogenic accounts of a cascade in social networks.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019