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- Creators: Debussy, Claude, 1862-1918

This thesis addresses certain quantum aspects of the event horizon using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence is profound since it describes a quantum theory of gravity in d + 1 dimensions from the perspective of a dual quantum field theory living in d dimensions. We begin by considering Rindler space…

This thesis addresses certain quantum aspects of the event horizon using the AdS/CFT correspondence. This correspondence is profound since it describes a quantum theory of gravity in d + 1 dimensions from the perspective of a dual quantum field theory living in d dimensions. We begin by considering Rindler space which is the part of Minkowski space seen by an observer with a constant proper acceleration. Because it has an event horizon, Rindler space has been studied in great detail within the context of quantum field theory. However, a quantum gravitational treatment of Rindler space is handicapped by the fact that quantum gravity in flat space is poorly understood. By contrast, quantum gravity in anti-de Sitter space (AdS), is relatively well understood via the AdS/CFT correspondence. Taking this cue, we construct Rindler coordinates for AdS (Rindler-AdS space) in d + 1 spacetime dimensions. In three spacetime dimensions, we find novel one-parameter families of stationary vacua labeled by a rotation parameter β. The interesting thing about these rotating Rindler-AdS spaces is that they possess an observer-dependent ergoregion in addition to having an event horizon. Turning next to the application of AdS/CFT correspondence to Rindler-AdS space, we posit that the two Rindler wedges in AdSd+1 are dual to an entangled conformal field theory (CFT) that lives on two boundaries with geometry R × Hd-1. Specializing to three spacetime dimensions, we derive the thermodynamics of Rindler-AdS space using the boundary CFT. We then probe the causal structure of the spacetime by sending in a time-like source and observe that the CFT “knows” when the source has fallen past the Rindler horizon. We conclude by proposing an alternate foliation of Rindler-AdS which is dual to a CFT living in de Sitter space. Towards the end, we consider the concept of weak measurements in quantum mechanics, wherein the measuring instrument is weakly coupled to the system being measured. We consider such measurements in the context of two examples, viz. the decay of an excited atom, and the tunneling of a particle trapped in a well, and discuss the salient features of such measurements.

With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these…

With the discovery of the Higgs Boson in 2012, particle physics has decidedly moved beyond the Standard Model into a new epoch. Though the Standard Model particle content is now completely accounted for, there remain many theoretical issues about the structure of the theory in need of resolution. Among these is the hierarchy problem: since the renormalized Higgs mass receives quadratic corrections from a higher cutoff scale, what keeps the Higgs boson light? Many possible solutions to this problem have been advanced, such as supersymmetry, Randall-Sundrum models, or sub-millimeter corrections to gravity. One such solution has been advanced by the Lee-Wick Standard Model. In this theory, higher-derivative operators are added to the Lagrangian for each Standard Model field, which result in propagators that possess two physical poles and fall off more rapidly in the ultraviolet regime. It can be shown by an auxiliary field transformation that the higher-derivative theory is identical to positing a second, manifestly renormalizable theory in which new fields with opposite-sign kinetic and mass terms are found. These so-called Lee-Wick fields have opposite-sign propagators, and famously cancel off the quadratic divergences that plague the renormalized Higgs mass. The states in the Hilbert space corresponding to Lee-Wick particles have negative norm, and implications for causality and unitarity are examined.

This dissertation explores a variant of the theory called the N = 3 Lee-Wick

Standard Model. The Lagrangian of this theory features a yet-higher derivative operator, which produces a propagator with three physical poles and possesses even better high-energy behavior than the minimal Lee-Wick theory. An analogous auxiliary field transformation takes this higher-derivative theory into a renormalizable theory with states of alternating positive, negative, and positive norm. The phenomenology of this theory is examined in detail, with particular emphasis on the collider signatures of Lee-Wick particles, electroweak precision constraints on the masses that the new particles can take on, and scenarios in early-universe cosmology in which Lee-Wick particles can play a significant role.

Two ideas that extends on the theory of General Relativity are introduced and then the phenomenology they can offer is explored. The first idea shows how certain types of $f(R)$ gravity allows for traversable wormholes among its vacuum solutions. This is surprising to find in such simple setting as these…

Two ideas that extends on the theory of General Relativity are introduced and then the phenomenology they can offer is explored. The first idea shows how certain types of $f(R)$ gravity allows for traversable wormholes among its vacuum solutions. This is surprising to find in such simple setting as these type of solutions usually requires fairly complex constructions to satisfy the equations of motion of a gravitational theory. The second idea is the matter bounce description of the early universe where a fairly unique feature of the model is identified. Consequences of this feature could allow the paradigm to distinguish itself from other alternative descriptions, such as inflation, through late time observations. An explicit example of this claim is worked out by studying a model involving an interaction in the dark sector. Results of a more astrophysical nature, where a careful analysis of the morphology of blazar halos is performed, are also presented in the Appendix. The analysis determined that the $Q$-statistic is an appropriate tool to probe the properties of the intergalactic magnetic fields responsible for the halos formation.