Matching Items (73)

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Heart Rate Variability as a Moderator of the Relations Between Marital Support and Social and Emotional Functioning Among Female Fibromyalgia Patients

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Being able to self-regulate has been found to be an important part of a person’s physiological and psychological health. It allows someone to regulate their emotions well in trying to

Being able to self-regulate has been found to be an important part of a person’s physiological and psychological health. It allows someone to regulate their emotions well in trying to obtain a goal, or in realizing a goal is unobtainable and re-evaluating the situation to form an obtainable goal (Rasmussen, Wrosch, Scheier & Carver, 2006). Self-regulation can be measured in many ways, but a physiological measure of self-regulation is heart rate variability (HRV). HRV monitors the body’s response to emotional stressors through measuring how variable a person’s heartbeat is (Appelhans & Luecken, 2006). A second potential factor contributing to self-regulation is social closeness. Research has also shown that the more social closeness a person experiences, the better able they are to regulate their emotions (Kok & Fredrickson, 2010; Kok et al., 2013). Social closeness is assessed via self-reports. There is a difference between partners’ and self-reports, such that the partners tend to be more positive when asked about the participants through questionnaires (Vuorisalmi, Sarkeala, Hervonen & Jylhä, 2012). When examining the relationship between reports of spouses, research has shown that the husbands are worse at reliably reporting their wives’ behaviors, but are more reliable when reporting on personal situations between the couple than is the wife (Khawaja & Tewtel-Salem, 2004). To date we know that a higher HRV is associated with better self-regulation and that social closeness leads to better emotional regulation; however, we do not know if HRV and social closeness combine to predict better functionality or if it matters if the husbands or wives are filling out the self-reports on social closeness. This study investigated four hypotheses regarding the relations between HRV and social relations between partners and how the social or emotional functioning of female fibromyalgia (FM) patients. The first hypothesis is that when the FM patient feels disregard from her partner, she is more likely to exhibit a decline in her social functioning, and that this decline is less pronounced in high HRV. The second hypothesis is that if a FM patient feels disregarded by her partner, her emotional functioning will become inhibited; furthermore, that this relationship is moderated by her HRV. The third hypothesis is that when her partner feels he disregards her, her social functioning is impaired, and that this relationship is moderated by her HRV. The last hypothesis is that when her partner feels he disregards her, her emotional functioning declines, and that this relationship is moderated by HRV. The FM patient’s HRV was measured in a laboratory setting, and the partner disregard was measured by a partner survey that was administered to both the FM patient and her partner. Through the analysis of all of the results, none of the four hypotheses had significant results showing that none of them were supported by this experiment.

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  • 2014-05

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The Relations Between Childhood Trauma, Cortisol Levels, and Pain Perceptions in Response to Induced Thermal Pain in Fibromyalgia Patients

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Childhood trauma has been linked to an increased risk of chronic pain in adulthood. One potential mechanism is via childhood trauma's impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress,

Childhood trauma has been linked to an increased risk of chronic pain in adulthood. One potential mechanism is via childhood trauma's impact on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) response to stress, reflected in changes in salivary cortisol levels (Nicolson et al., 2010). This study sought to determine the relations between childhood trauma, increases in cortisol levels following induced pain, and pain perceptions in adults with fibromyalgia, a chronic pain condition. It drew on data collected from participants enrolled in an investigation comparing the effectiveness of behavioral treatments for chronic pain. Before receiving treatment, participants attended a laboratory session during which they first rested, and then were exposed to heat stimuli to assess pain threshold and tolerance. Saliva samples were collected from each participant immediately following the rest, and twice during pain induction. Fibromyalgia participants with a history of childhood trauma were expected: 1) to report lower pain threshold and tolerance levels (i.e., have higher pain sensitivity), 2) to exhibit a higher resting cortisol level, and 3) to have greater increases in cortisol in response to acute pain induction than fibromyalgia participants without a history of childhood trauma. Findings showed that childhood trauma scores were: 1) related to lower pain tolerance (but not pain threshold), 2) unrelated to resting cortisol levels, and 3) unrelated to changes in cortisol in response to pain induction and pain tolerance, contrary to prediction. However, a subtype of childhood trauma, i.e., emotional maltreatment: 1) predicted lower pain tolerance, and 2) moderated the cortisol changes over time in response to pain induction during the laboratory session in the expected direction. That is, individuals who reported higher levels of childhood emotional maltreatment showed greater cortisol responses to the pain induction than individuals who reported lower levels of exposure to emotional maltreatment. Cortisol responses did not relate to pain perception. Thus, childhood emotional trauma predicted greater pain sensitivity and cortisol reactivity, but cortisol did not relate to pain perception. The findings suggest that early childhood trauma predicts cortisol reactivity and pain sensitivity, but that cortisol reactivity is not a mediator in the trauma-pain relation.

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  • 2013-12

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Mindfulness Meditation Training: Gold or Oversold?

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The effects of meditation on attention control have been widely studied in recent years. However, the methodological flaws of many of these studies raise serious concerns on the validity of

The effects of meditation on attention control have been widely studied in recent years. However, the methodological flaws of many of these studies raise serious concerns on the validity of meditation training as a cognitive enhancer. This study investigated the near and far transfer effects of mindfulness meditation training on attention control when a stringent experimental design was implemented. Participants in the experimental group practiced meditation for three twenty-minute sessions, and participants in the active control group listened to an audio book about meditation for similar times. No significant effect of meditation on change in performance on cognitive tasks was found. This study suggests that short-term mindfulness meditation training does not result in increased attention control.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

Parental Overprotection and Temperamental Negative Affectivity as Predictors of Blood Pressure and Heart Rate in Young Adulthood

Description

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and classic risk factors only predict half of the variance of cases. In this study, parental overprotection and

Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and classic risk factors only predict half of the variance of cases. In this study, parental overprotection and temperamental negative affectivity both significantly correlated with blood pressure and heart rate, which suggests the importance of examining early life factors when determining one's risk for CVD.

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  • 2013-05

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Eating Disorders And Sexual Orientation

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In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across

In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across sexual orientations were examined. The sociocultural model of eating disorders was also examined for these women across sexual orientations. The participants were organized into three different sexual orientation groups for analysis: heterosexual (group 1), bisexual, pansexual, and polysexual (group 2), and lesbian, gay, queer, transsexual, asexual, and other (group 3). Using cross-sectional data, it was revealed that there were significant group differences when comparing the three sexual orientation groups on loss of control over eating, but no significant group differences on body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, and weight-related eating pathology, and total eating disorder symptoms scores. The sociocultural model was not predictive of eating disorder symptoms among non-heterosexual groups. Longitudinal analyses revealed that the sociocultural model of eating disorders prospectively predicts eating disorder symptoms among heterosexual women, but not non-heterosexual women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that non-heterosexual women may be protected from societal pressure to subscribe to the thin ideal and its subsequent internalization. However, the comparison group of heterosexual women in our study may not have been completely representative of undergraduate women in terms of total eating disorder symptoms or eating pathology. Additionally, regardless of sexual orientation, our sample reported more total eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than previous studies. These findings have both clinical and research implications. Future research is needed to determine what risk factors and treatment target variables are relevant for non-heterosexual women.

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  • 2016-05

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DACA Health Gap: Challenges Mexican Students Face in Arizona

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Literature on the undocumented population in the United States is rich, and is growing in the area of the 1.5 generation (which refers to undocumented individuals, typically under age 30,

Literature on the undocumented population in the United States is rich, and is growing in the area of the 1.5 generation (which refers to undocumented individuals, typically under age 30, who have grown up in the U.S.), but is scant regarding the health of this population, how they alleviate illnesses and what resources they have to do so. While Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) provides temporary benefits to undocumented youth, a DACA health gap persists. Even for those who are awarded DACA, when compared to their citizen counterparts, resources are still unequal. The 1.5 generation faces unique health challenges and even with policy progress, circumstances tied to their documentation status leave them reverting back to limited resources. In this study, ten members of this generation were interviewed. Findings show that they suffer from minor physical health challenges, but significant mental and emotional health challenges without the means to access adequate healthcare comparable to their citizen counterparts.

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  • 2016-12

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Development and Validation of Make-up and Sexualized Clothing Questionnaires

Description

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that

Today's society increasingly sexualizes women (Kilbourne, 2003). Women are constantly confronted with an image of beauty through various forms of media. Body acceptance programs on college campuses have found that women often report feeling pressure to dress in a sexualized manner, cover up their so-called flaws with make-up, and continually strive to be thin. Currently, no measure exists to assess the daily behaviors of women to wear make-up or dress in certain ways due to body image concerns. Thus, the goal of the current studies was to develop a brief self-report questionnaire on make-up and sexualized clothing for college women. In Study 1, items were developed from qualitative data collected by the Body Project Prevention Program to assess pressure to wear make-up, discomfort when not wearing make-up, pressure to wear sexualized clothing, and body image concerns with regards to sexualized clothing. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a Confidence and a Comfort subscale for the Make-up Questionnaire (MUQ) and a Body Dissatisfaction and Pressure subscale for the Sexualized Clothing Questionnaire (SCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses in Study 2 confirmed the factor structure for the MUQ and SCQ. Study 3 compared scores on the MUQ and SCQ among intervention and control groups across time points. A gain score analysis revealed that women in the intervention did not become significantly healthier over time in comparison to the control group on the MUQ and SCQ subscales. However, the treatment condition did become significantly healthier over time in regard to other measures of eating pathology. These studies provide insight into the pressures women feel to wear make-up and sexualized clothing.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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The Relation Between Social and Physical Pain in Individuals with Fibromyalgia

Description

Accruing evidence suggests that the neural underpinnings of the social and physical pain systems overlap. The preponderance of the data are based on experimental manipulations of healthy individuals. Those data

Accruing evidence suggests that the neural underpinnings of the social and physical pain systems overlap. The preponderance of the data are based on experimental manipulations of healthy individuals. Those data suggest that the experience of social pain, in the form of rejection, influences the experience of physical pain. The current study sought to extend this literature in four ways: first it examined whether the relation between social pain and physical pain holds in individuals with chronic pain. Second, it evaluated the rejection-pain relation in everyday life though use of daily diary repots. Third, it evaluated whether aversive social events other than rejection (i.e., conflict) are also related to daily pain, to determine, if the relation to pain is specific to rejection. Finally, it tested whether the relational context (i.e., chronic level of rejection or conflict) predicted pain levels. The sample for the current study is comprised of 123 partnered individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) who completed 21 daily diaries that assessed their experience of spousal rejection, spousal conflict, and daily physical pain. Multilevel modeling was used to examine 1) the within person relations between daily increases in negative spousal events, and reports of chronic physical pain; and 2) The moderating effect of chronic spousal discord on the daily negative event pain relations. Results showed a marginally significant relation between daily rejection events and increased levels of pain, and a significant relation between daily conflict events and increased levels of pain. Keywords: chronic pain, social pain, rejection, conflict, Fibromyalgia

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  • 2016-12

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Determining the Effects of Serving as a Peer Educator in an Eating Disorders Prevention Program

Description

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate women who voluntarily chose to become peer-educators in the eating prevention program called the Body Project. Self-report questionnaires evaluating both the preoccupation with personal body image and general leadership skills were distributed and collected electronically. The results were analyzed to determine that being a peer leader in the Body project did not increase eating disorder symptoms but actually decreased the symptoms. It was also determined that being a peer educator had no effect on leadership skills. Therefore, being a peer leader is beneficial for reducing eating disorder symptoms, but not for advancing leadership skills.

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  • 2015-05

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Retinal Vessel Diameter and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Young Adults

Description

Previous studies suggest an association between depression and anxiety in childhood and adolescence and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of the present study was to

Previous studies suggest an association between depression and anxiety in childhood and adolescence and increased risk for cardiovascular disease later in life. The aim of the present study was to test whether depression and anxiety symptoms in young adulthood were associated with retinal vessel diameter, a subclinical marker of cardiovascular disease. We further tested whether associations for depression were similar to associations for anxiety. Participants completed questionnaires about their depression and anxiety symptoms and underwent retinal imaging. Retinal vessel diameter was assessed using computer software. Results showed no association between depression or anxiety symptoms and retinal vessel diameter, suggesting that retinal vessel diameter may not signal subclinical cardiovascular risk in young adults with symptoms of depression and anxiety.

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  • 2016-05