Matching Items (12)

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A pilot study of the benefits of traditional and mindful community gardening for urban older adults' subjective well-being

Description

The population of older adults and the percentage of people living in urban areas are both increasing in the U.S. Finding ways to enhance city-dwelling, older adults' social integration, cognitive

The population of older adults and the percentage of people living in urban areas are both increasing in the U.S. Finding ways to enhance city-dwelling, older adults' social integration, cognitive vitality, and connectedness to nature were conceptualized as critical pathways to maximizing their subjective well-being (SWB) and overall health. Past research has found that gardening is associated with increased social contact and reduced risk of dementia, and that higher levels of social support, cognitive functioning, mindfulness, and connectedness to nature are positively related to various aspects of SWB. The present study was a pilot study to examine the feasibility of conducting a randomized, controlled trial of community gardening and to provide an initial assessment of a new intervention--"Mindful Community Gardening," or mindfulness training in the context of gardening. In addition, this study examined whether community gardening, with or without mindfulness training, enhanced SWB among older adults and increased social support, attention and mindfulness, and connectedness to nature. Fifty community-dwelling adults between the ages of 55 and 79 were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Traditional Community Gardening (TCG), Mindful Community Gardening (MCG), or Wait-List Control. The TCG and MCG arms each consisted of two groups of 7 to 10 participants meeting weekly for nine weeks. TCG involved typical gardening activities undertaken collaboratively. MCG involved the same, but with the addition of guided development of non-judgmental, present-focused awareness. There was a statistically significant increase in different aspects of mindfulness for the TCG and the MCG arms. The interventions did not measurably impact social support, attention, or connectedness to nature in this small, high functioning, pilot sample. Qualitative analysis of interview data from 12 participants in the TCG and MCG groups revealed that both groups helped some participants to better cope with adversity. It was concluded that it is feasible to conduct randomized, controlled trials of community gardening with urban older adults, and considerations for implementing such interventions are delineated.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The role of adult attachment anxiety in the relation between cognitions and daily pain in Fibromyalgia patients

Description

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients.

An abundance of data has established the links between both pain-related cognitions and relationship attachment qualities in the experience of pain, including long-term functional health in chronic pain patients. However, relatively few studies have explored the dynamic relation between pain and pain-related cognitions within a day, and no studies have tested the moderating role of relationship attachment on the within-day cognition—pain association in chronic pain patients. The objectives of this study were to: 1) assess whether late morning pain flares predicted changes in afternoon positive and negative pain-related cognitive appraisals, and whether these changes in turn predicted end-of-day pain, and 2) explore whether adult attachment anxiety moderated the pain-cognition relation in individuals with chronic pain due to fibromyalgia. One hundred and seventy four partnered individuals with fibromyalgia completed initial assessments of demographics and attachment anxiety, and subsequently completed electronic assessments of pain intensity and positive and negative cognitive pain-related appraisals three times a day for three weeks. Multilevel structural equation modeling established that a latent negative cognitive appraisal factor (encompassing shared variance from catastrophizing, pain irritation, and self-criticism related to pain) mediated the link between late morning and end-of-day pain intensity, in line with the hypothesis. Analyses also provided some support for a mediating role for a positive cognitive appraisal factor (a composite of pain control, pain self-efficacy, and feeling pain without reacting) in the daily course of pain; the mediated effect for positive appraisals was weaker than the mediated effect of negative appraisals, but was sustained in a model that included negative appraisals. Inconsistent with prediction, attachment anxiety did not moderate the within-day links between pain and cognitions. These findings establish the dynamic links within day between pain and pain-related cognitions, and highlight the potential impact of both negative and positive cognitions on daily pain regulation. They point to the value of broadening cognitive-behavioral treatment strategies for chronic pain patients to target not only negative but also positive cognitions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Relation between family strain and depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults: the moderating effect of self-compassion

Description

Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions

Interpersonal strain is linked with depressive symptoms in middle-aged adults. Self-compassion is an emerging resilience construct that may be advantageous in navigating relationship strain by helping individuals respond to emotions in a kind and nonjudgmental way. Although theory and empirical evidence suggests that self-compassion is protective against the impact of stress on mental health outcomes, many studies have not investigated how self-compassion operates in the context of relationship strain. In addition, few studies have examined psychological or physiological mechanisms by which self-compassion protects against mental health outcomes, depression in particular. Thus, this study examined 1) the extent to which trait self-compassion buffers the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms, and 2) whether these buffering effects are mediated by hope and inflammatory processes (IL-6) in a sample of 762 middle-aged, community-dwelling adults. Results from structural equation models indicated that family strain was unrelated to depressive symptoms and the relation was not moderated by self-compassion. Hope, but not IL-6, mediated the relation between family strain and depressive symptoms and the indirect effect was not conditional on levels of self-compassion. Taken together, the findings suggest that family strain may lead individuals to experience less hope and subsequent increases in depressive symptoms, and further, that a self-compassionate attitude does not affect this relation. Implications for future self-compassion interventions are discussed.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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It's complicated: an examination of emotional complexity and the influence of stress

Description

Objective: The present study sought to 1) examine the measurement of emotional complexity (EC) by examining the associations among different indicators of EC (i.e., covariation between positive affect and negative

Objective: The present study sought to 1) examine the measurement of emotional complexity (EC) by examining the associations among different indicators of EC (i.e., covariation between positive affect and negative affect; overall, negative, and positive granularity; overall, negative, and positive differentiation) derived from the same data set and identifying a latent factor structure; and 2) evaluate the predictive ability of EC on psychological distress, emotional well-being, and physical functioning while accounting for stressful contexts. The utility of assessing emotion diversity (ED) as another aspect of EC was also explored.

Methods: 191 middle-aged adults from a community-based study on resilience were asked to complete 30 daily diaries assessing positive and negative affect. At least 6 months later, participants completed a phone interview that assessed distress (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms), well-being (i.e., WHO-5 well-being, vitality, social functioning), physical functioning, and perceived stress.

Results: A three-factor solution with latent factors representing overall, negative, and positive EC was identified. Overall EC significantly predicted enhanced physical functioning, but was not associated with distress or well-being. Contrary to study hypotheses, positive and negative EC were not associated with future distress, well-being, or physical functioning, though a trend toward improved physical functioning was noted for positive EC. In contrast, positive and negative ED were both associated with less distress, and better well-being and physical functioning. Overall ED was unexpectedly related to worse outcomes (i.e., more distress, less well-being, decreased physical functioning). Stress did not moderate the relationship between emotional complexity and the outcome variables.

Conclusions: Different indicators of EC represent distinct aspects of emotional experience. Partial support of the hypotheses found. Physical functioning was the only outcome influenced by EC. The inclusion of stress did not change the results. The discrepancy between the findings and those in the literature may be related to reliability of EC indicators and absence of contextual factors. Further exploration of ED revealed a potentially important construct of emotional experience that is deserving of further inquiry.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Daily financial worry and physical health symptoms among individuals with chronic pain: the moderating effect of income

Description

Socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with poorer health outcomes across the range of SES. The Reserve Capacity Model (RCM) proposes that low SES fuels repeated and/or chronic exposure to elevated

Socioeconomic status (SES) is linked with poorer health outcomes across the range of SES. The Reserve Capacity Model (RCM) proposes that low SES fuels repeated and/or chronic exposure to elevated levels of stress, producing deleterious emotional, psychological, social, and physiological changes that result in development of disease over time. The RCM further asserts that a relative lack of social and psychological resources, including efficacy and social support, among low SES individuals accounts for their greater vulnerability to the effects of stress. Although the links between stress, reserve capacity, and health outcomes are framed in the RCM as an ongoing process that produces disease, the majority of investigations testing the model have not examined its utility in explaining 1) coping with daily stressors or 2) symptom flares among individuals managing a chronic illness. This study investigated the effects of SES, reflected in income level, on the: 1) levels of daily financial events and financial worry; 2) relations between daily financial worry and symptoms of pain and fatigue; and 3) extent to which daily coping efficacy and social support mediated the daily financial worry-symptom relation across 21 daily diary reports collected from 220 individuals with fibromyalgia (FM). Simple correlations showed that income was inversely related to frequency of financial events and level of financial worry across 21 days. Results from multilevel models indicated that daily increases in financial worry were unrelated to pain regardless of income level, but were related to increased fatigue among individuals with lower relative to higher income. Daily efficacy and support mediated the relations between financial worry and pain and fatigue, but the extent of mediation did not differ based on high versus low income level. Taken together, the findings suggest that individuals of low versus high income encounter more frequent financial stress and experience greater daily fatigue exacerbation related to that stress, in line with the RCM. Over time, the greater exposure and reactivity to financial strain may account for the inverse relation between income and disability among those with chronic pain.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Risk factors, resilient resources, coping & outcomes: a longitudinal model of adaptation to POI

Description

Female infertility can present a significant challenge to quality of life. To date, few, if any investigations have explored the process by which women adapt to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI),

Female infertility can present a significant challenge to quality of life. To date, few, if any investigations have explored the process by which women adapt to premature ovarian insufficiency (POI), a specific type of infertility, over time. The current investigation proposed a bi-dimensional, multi-factor, model of adjustment characterized by the identification of six latent factors representing personal attributes (resilience resources and vulnerability), coping (adaptive and maladaptive) and outcomes (distress and wellbeing). Measures were collected over the period of one year; personal attributes were assessed at Time 1, coping at Time 2 and outcomes at Time 3. It was hypothesized that coping factors would mediate associations between personal attributes and outcomes. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA), simple regressions and single mediator models were utilized to test study hypotheses. Overall, with the exception of coping, the factor structure was consistent with predictions. Two empirically derived coping factors, and a single standalone strategy, avoidance, emerged. The first factor, labeled "approach coping" was comprised of strategies directly addressing the experience of infertility. The second was comprised of strategies indicative of "letting go /moving on." Only avoidance significantly mediated the association between vulnerability and distress.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Affective responses to laboratory stressors in rheumatoid arthritis patients: a comparison of mindfulness-based emotion regulation and cognitive behavioral interventions

Description

This study examined whether cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness interventions affect positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) reports for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before, during, and after stress induction.

This study examined whether cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness interventions affect positive (PA) and negative affect (NA) reports for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) before, during, and after stress induction. The study also investigated the effects of a history of recurrent depression on intervention effects and testing effects due to the Solomon-6 study design utilized. The 144 RA patients were assessed for a history of major depressive episodes by diagnostic interview and half of the participants completed a laboratory study before the intervention began. The RA patients were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments: cognitive behavioral therapy for pain (P), mindfulness meditation and emotion regulation therapy (M), or education only attention control group (E). Upon completion of the intervention, 128 of the RA patients participated in a laboratory session designed to induce stress in which they were asked to report on their PA and NA throughout the laboratory study. Patients in the M group exhibited dampened negative and positive affective reactivity to stress, and sustained PA at recovery, compared to the P and E groups. PA increased in response to induced stress for all groups, suggesting an "emotional immune response." History of recurrent depression increased negative affective reactivity, but did not predict reports of PA. RA patients who underwent a pre-intervention laboratory study showed less reactivity to stressors for both NA and PA during the post-intervention laboratory study. The M intervention demonstrated dampened emotional reactions to stress and lessened loss of PA after stress induction, displaying active emotion regulation in comparison to the other groups. These findings provide additional information about the effects of mindfulness on the dynamics of affect and adaptation to stress in chronic pain patients.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Emotional and social reactivity among individuals with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder and chronic pain: a multi-method study of dysregulation

Description

Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain create a heavier symptom burden than does chronic pain alone. Individuals with both conditions may exhibit physiological and emotional reactivity that

Comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and chronic pain create a heavier symptom burden than does chronic pain alone. Individuals with both conditions may exhibit physiological and emotional reactivity that make them susceptible to distressing reactions to negative social-emotional stimuli as well as less able to capitalize on positive social-emotional experiences. The current study examined physiological and emotional reactivity to affective stimuli in a laboratory setting as well as social responses to changes in interpersonal events in daily life among individuals with fibromyalgia (FM) and a history of PTSD symptoms versus those with FM only. The impact of the type of traumatic event experienced was also examined. Participants’ startle reflex responses and emotional reactions to affective stimuli in a laboratory setting and social stress and enjoyment responses to interpersonal events in daily diaries were collected. Results indicated that higher levels of past PTSD symptoms were associated with higher levels of bodily pain, social stress, depression, negative affect, and less positive affect. Higher levels of past PTSD symptoms did not affect physiological or social-emotional reactivity to stimuli either in the laboratory setting or in the daily diaries. Individuals with a history of PTSD symptoms from sexual trauma exhibited lower startle magnitudes to positive emotional stimuli in the laboratory compared to individuals with no trauma or a history of PTSD symptoms from of other types of trauma. There were no differences among trauma types in responsivity to negative stimuli in the laboratory or social-emotional responses in daily life. Findings suggest lasting and stable effects of past PTSD symptoms on physical and emotional health in chronic pain, rather than reactivity to positive and negative changes in the environment. Findings indicate the need to assess for past trauma in pain patients and tailor treatments to account for specific traumas.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Do daily fluctuations in interpersonal experiences moderate the relation between catastrophizing and self-efficacy in individuals with chronic pain?

Description

Prevailing models describing coping with chronic pain posit that it is a complex day-to-day process that can involve psychosocial factors, including cognitive appraisals about pain, interpersonal challenges such as distressed

Prevailing models describing coping with chronic pain posit that it is a complex day-to-day process that can involve psychosocial factors, including cognitive appraisals about pain, interpersonal challenges such as distressed social relationships, and reduced engagement in enjoyable experiences. Few studies, however, have applied a process-oriented approach to elaborate the relations between key pain-related appraisals, social environmental factors, and self-efficacy, a key self-appraisal for successful adaptation to chronic pain. This study used within-day daily diary methodology to test the following hypotheses: (a) increases in morning pain catastrophizing predict decreases in end of day pain self-efficacy; (b) increases in perceived stressfulness of interpersonal relations occurring during the day exacerbate the negative effects of morning catastrophizing on end-of-day pain self-efficacy; and (c) increases in perceived enjoyment of interpersonal relations occurring during the day mitigate the negative effects of morning pain catastrophizing on end of day pain self-efficacy. Within-day measures, including morning pain catastrophizing, afternoon interpersonal stress and enjoyment ratings, and end-of-day pain self-efficacy, were collected for 21 days via an automated phone system from 223 participants with widespread chronic pain. The use of diary data allowed for examination of time-varying processes related to pain adaptation. Results of multilevel regression models indicated that, consistent with prediction, increases in morning pain catastrophizing and predicted decreases in end-of-day pain self-efficacy. Contrary to prediction, changes in midday interpersonal enjoyment and stress did not moderate the within-day catastrophizing-efficacy relation. Rather increases in midday enjoyment and stable individual differences in enjoyment predicted end-of-day efficacy. Overall, findings suggest a within-day relation between pain cognition and social context and subsequent self-efficacy, and highlight potential targets for intervention in chronic pain.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Resilience and Vulnerability Mechanisms in the Within-Day Pain Coping Process: Test of a Two-Factor Mediation Model

Description

Current models of pain coping typically focus on how pain contributes to poor physical and psychological functioning. Researchers have argued that this focus on the negative consequences is too narrow

Current models of pain coping typically focus on how pain contributes to poor physical and psychological functioning. Researchers have argued that this focus on the negative consequences is too narrow and does not account for times when individuals are able to maintain meaningful functioning despite their pain. Thus, the current study sought to investigate the day-to-day processes that both help and hinder recovery from pain and persistence towards daily goals. Specifically, the present study tested: a) a two-factor model of risk and resilience “factors” that capture key processes across affective, cognitive and social dimensions of functioning, and b) whether the relation between morning pain and end-of-day physical disability is mediated by increases in these afternoon risk and resilience factors. Within-day study measures were collected for 21 days via an automated phone system from 220 participants with Fibromyalgia. The results of multi-level confirmatory factor analysis indicated that, consistent with prediction, risk and resilience do constitute two factors. Findings from multilevel structural equation models also showed resilience factor mediated the link between late morning increases in pain and end-of-day disability, in line with hypotheses. Although the vulnerability factor as a whole did not mediate the within-day link between pain and disability, pain-catastrophizing individually did serve as a significant mediator of this relation. This study was the first to empirically test a within-day latent factor model of resilience and vulnerability and the first to capture the multidimensional nature of the pain experience by examining mechanisms across affective, cognitive and social domains of functioning. The findings of the current study suggest that in addition to studying the processes by which pain has a negative influence on the lives of pain sufferers, our understanding of the pain adaptation process can be further improved by concurrently examining mechanisms that motivate individuals to overcome the urge to avoid pain and to function meaningfully despite it.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018