Matching Items (48)

Dynamic Characteristics of Parent-Child Interactions: Mediating Role in Relation Between Parental Catastrophizing and Child Chronic Pain

Description

Child chronic pain is both common and consequential and identification of malleable risk factors is a critical step towards developing effective interventions. Existing evidence points to the possibility that parent

Child chronic pain is both common and consequential and identification of malleable risk factors is a critical step towards developing effective interventions. Existing evidence points to the possibility that parent behavior may play a significant role in the development of children’s chronic pain through modeling of pain-related behaviors. An important parental trait that predicts parent behavior in pain contexts is parental pain catastrophizing, which has been linked to child pain outcomes as well as to increased facial pain behavior in both parents and their children during pain induction. Existing research has examined facial pain behavior in aggregate, summarizing facial expressions over the course of an entire dyadic interaction, which does not allow for evaluation of the dynamic interplay between a parent and child. The current study aimed to test the hypothesis that higher parental catastrophizing would predict decreased flexibility in emotional dynamics between parent and child (reflected in facial affect during a parent-child interaction that occurs within the context of child pain-induction), which would in turn predict fewer child chronic pain symptoms. The approach used dynamic systems analysis of facial behaviors during the parent-child interaction during the child’s performance of a pain inducing cold pressor task to assess dyadic emotional flexibility. Nine-year old children from a larger sample of twins (N = 30) were video recorded during a cold-water pain task while their parents observed them. Videos of the children and their parent from these interactions were analyzed using facial action unit software (AffDex), into positive, neutral, and negative facial emotional expressions. Synchronized parent and child coded facial data were then analyzed for flexibility using GridWare (version 1.1). Parents completed the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) to assess parental trait pain catastrophizing and the Body Pain Location/Frequency scale to assess child chronic pain symptoms during the prior three months. Contrary to prediction, parental catastrophizing was related to higher levels of flexibility, and flexibility was unrelated to child chronic pain. Exploratory analyses indicated that children with higher levels of effortful control had more emotionally flexible interactions with their parent during the cold pressor, and emotionally flexible interactions predicting lower levels of children’s negative emotional responses to the acute pain task. suggesting some promising avenues for future research.

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  • 2019-05

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Exploring the Relation between Confidence and Accuracy in Recognition Memory

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Recognition memory is examined by exposing a person to a stimulus and later prompting them with the same stimulus to examine their ability to accurately acknowledge that the stimulus was

Recognition memory is examined by exposing a person to a stimulus and later prompting them with the same stimulus to examine their ability to accurately acknowledge that the stimulus was previously encountered (Kahana, 2012). In recognition memory, confidence ratings are taken during the testing phase to assess how confident the participant is that the old-new judgment that they just made is accurate (Busey et al., 2000). Confidence is a metacognitive assessment about the accuracy of perception of decision making based on the amount, speed, and clarity of thoughts that come to mind (Dunlosky and Metcalfe, 2008). The goal of the current study is to better understand how assessing recognition memory using a variety of test procedures influences memory accuracy using the signal detection theory and adding multiple confidence scales that vary in granularity. Based on the previous literature, it is hypothesized that; 1) tasks ordered sequentially will produce greater recognition accuracy (d') than the simultaneous (dual task) condition; 2) confidence scale of 3 points will produce a larger d' than the 7 point scale, and the 7 point scale will produce a larger d' than the 100 point scale; and 3) task mode (ordered vs. sequenced) will interact with confidence scale granularity to predict memory accuracy, such that sequential judgments lessen demands on working memory that come from maintaining an increasing number of decision criteria in comparison to the dual task. Results indicated all hypotheses were not upheld. The findings suggest that taxing working memory may not affect decisional accuracy on a recognition task incorporating confidence judgments.

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  • 2017-12

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Impact of Maternal PTSD on Infant Problem Behaviors: Mediation Through Parenting Stress

Description

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects nearly 10% of adult women in general population samples. In populations of impoverished ethnic minority women, those lifetime prevalence rates may possibly exceed national averages

Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) affects nearly 10% of adult women in general population samples. In populations of impoverished ethnic minority women, those lifetime prevalence rates may possibly exceed national averages due to lack of mental health resources. Mothers with PTSD are more likely to exhibit negative parenting styles and experience higher levels of perceived parenting stress, both of which are associated with poor child outcomes. However, there is a lack of evidence on how maternal PTSD may affect parenting for ethnic minority mothers. This study evaluated the prevalence of lifetime PTSD and its effects on parenting stress and infant problem behaviors in a sample of 322 low-income Mexican-American mothers (mean age = 27.8; 86% born in Mexico). Lifetime PTSD diagnoses were assessed at a prenatal home visit (24-36 weeks gestation) using the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Mothers reported parenting hassles at 24-weeks postpartum (PDLH; Crnic & Greenberg, 1990), and child problem behaviors at infant age one-year (BITSEA; Briggs-Gowan et al., 2004). I hypothesized that 1) women with PTSD would report more parenting stress than women without PTSD, 2) women with PTSD would report more infant problem behavior symptoms than women without PTSD, and 3) parenting stress mediates the relationship between PTSD and infant problem behavior. Results found that 16.5% of women met criteria for past or present PTSD. Compared to women without PTSD, women with PTSD reported more parenting stress but a similar level of infant problem behaviors. Parenting stress significantly mediated the relationship between maternal PTSD and infant problem behaviors. Study findings suggest a need for mental health screenings during prenatal care in order to promote the healthy development of high-risk children.

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  • 2017-12

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Differences among High-Achieving Adolescents in Day Schools and Boarding Schools

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In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and

In previous research, Luthar and Barkin (2012) found that across three different samples collected from three high-achieving schools, adolescents reported elevated rates of maladjustment behaviors, which include substance use, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Additionally, past research has also indicated that these maladjustment behaviors are related to parent relationships. A group of high-achieving adolescents that research has not yet focused on are those attending boarding schools, who may have higher-quality relationships with parents due to less daily strife. This study aimed to examine high-achieving adolescents across five samples from five high schools, two of which were boarding schools. This study hypothesized that the high-achieving adolescents attending both boarding schools would report lower rates of substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and lower rates of perceived parent criticism and expectations in comparison to those attending the day schools. Substance use, internalizing and externalizing symptoms, and parent relationships were measured using self-report measures that were completed by students attending these schools. Results showed that both boarding schools reported elevated rates of substance use in comparison to the three day schools and these rates measured above national norms. At the same time, both boarding schools reported lower rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms when compared to rates reported by the day school students. This study also found that there were differences among parent relationship measures, such as criticism and expectations, among all school samples. Results of this study also showed that aspects of parent relationship, such as parent knowledge, were associated with rates of substance use among all school samples. In summary, boarding school students showed elevated substance use, similar parental relationship quality, and lower mental health symptoms compared to day school students. For all students, some aspects of the parental relationship were related to levels of substance use.

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  • 2017-12

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Impact of Family Support on Early Childhood Dysregulation in the Context of Maternal Depression

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The ability to regulate emotions, attention, and behavior develops early in life and impacts future academic success, social competency, behavioral problems, and psychopathology. An impairment in regulation is known as

The ability to regulate emotions, attention, and behavior develops early in life and impacts future academic success, social competency, behavioral problems, and psychopathology. An impairment in regulation is known as dysregulation. Past research shows that children of mothers with postpartum depression are more likely to show impairment in regulatory abilities. There is an established link in the literature between family support and maternal depression, which in turn can impact child behavior. However, further research is needed to explore the impact of family support on early childhood dysregulation in the context of maternal depression. Using a sample of 322 Mexican-American, mother-child dyads, two models were examined. Model one hypothesized family support would buffer the effects of maternal depression on child dysregulation at 24 months. Model 2 hypothesized that family support is related to child dysregulation through its effect on maternal depression. Results showed that increased family support was related to more child dysregulation when there were high levels of maternal depression. There was no evidence to support the hypothesis that maternal depression mediated the relationship between family support and child dysregulation.

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  • 2017-12

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Analysis of Economic Demand for Nicotine Using an Abbreviated Behavioral Economic Protocol in Rats

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Nicotine addiction remains a prevalent public health issue, and the FDA has released a statement outlining the systematic reduction of nicotine to non-zero levels in the coming years. Current research

Nicotine addiction remains a prevalent public health issue, and the FDA has released a statement outlining the systematic reduction of nicotine to non-zero levels in the coming years. Current research has not yet established the effects of abrupt nicotine dose reduction on vulnerability to relapse, nor has abrupt nicotine dose reduction been evaluated in terms of behavioral economic characteristics of demand and elasticity been evaluated for reduced doses of nicotine. Using a rat model, we first evaluated the comparability of between- and within-session protocols for establishing characteristics of demand and elasticity for nicotine to shorten experimental timelines for this study and future studies. We then tested environmental enrichment and sex as factors of elasticity of demand for nicotine. Using a rat model of relapse to cues, we also examined the effects of nicotine dose-reduction on vulnerability to relapse. We found differences in maximum consumption and demand between the between- and within-session protocols, as well as sex differences in elasticity of demand on the within-session protocol where male demand was more elastic than female demand. Additionally, we found that enrichment significantly increased elasticity of demand for nicotine for both males and females. Finally, preliminary analyses revealed that nicotine dose reduction yields more inelastic demand and higher maximum consumption, and these outcomes predict increased time to extinction of the association between nicotine and contingent cues, and increased rates of relapse. These studies highlight the usefulness and validity of within-session protocols, and also illustrate the necessity for rigorous testing of forced dose reduction on nicotine vulnerability.

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  • 2017-12

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The Impact of Blocked vs. Distributed Category Learning on Subsequent Generalization

Description

It is a well-established finding in memory research that spacing or distributing information, as opposed to blocking all the information together, results in an enhanced memory of the learned material.

It is a well-established finding in memory research that spacing or distributing information, as opposed to blocking all the information together, results in an enhanced memory of the learned material. Recently, researchers have decided to investigate if this spacing effect is also beneficial in category learning. In a set of experiments, Carvalho & Goldstone (2013), demonstrated that a blocked presentation showed an advantage during learning, but that ultimately, the distributed presentation yielded better performance during a post-learning transfer test. However, we have identified a major methodological issue in this study that we believe contaminates the results in a way that leads to an inflation and misrepresentation of learning levels. The present study aimed to correct this issue and re-examine whether a blocked or distributed presentation enhances the learning and subsequent generalization of categories. We also introduced two shaping variables, category size and distortion level at transfer, in addition to the mode of presentation (blocked versus distributed). Results showed no significant differences of mode of presentation at either the learning or transfer phases, thus supporting our concern about the previous study. Additional findings showed benefits in learning categories with a greater category size, as well as higher classification accuracy of novel stimuli at lower-distortion levels.

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  • 2017-12

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Culturally Motivated Clinician Drift in the Treatment of Eating Disorders: How Clinicians Adopt, Adapt, or Abandon CBT for Latino Clients

Description

Prior research has identified that clinicians in the treatment of eating disorders often do not adhere closely to empirically-supported treatments (EST), and are particularly likely to modify Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT).

Prior research has identified that clinicians in the treatment of eating disorders often do not adhere closely to empirically-supported treatments (EST), and are particularly likely to modify Cognitive-Behavioral therapy (CBT). Several reasons for this phenomenon, dubbed "clinician drift", have been identified, including level of clinician training, education, and type of patient care. In addition to the phenomenon of clinician drift, there has been a growing controversy within the field of clinical psychology about the compatibility of ESTs and multiculturalism. Some argue that the standardization inherent to EST resists the concept of cultural adaptability; while others have countered that cultural adaptability is essential in order for empirically supported treatments to remain relevant, ethical, and effective. In order to shed more light on this issue, this study examined how clinicians tend to drift from CBT in the treatment of Latinos suffering from eating disorders, in order to accommodate Latino culture and elements of eating behavior specific to Latino populations. We both attempted to replicate prior findings regarding predictors of clinician drift, as well as build upon the little existing research into the "culturally-motivated clinician drift." It was discovered that no therapist characteristics or client characteristics were predictive of drift. However, the majority of the sample still adapted or abandoned at least part of the CBT treatment. Their responses regarding the weaknesses of CBT for their Spanish-speaking clients can provide insight into how the treatment can be modified for more diverse clients.

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  • 2017-12

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Early Adolescent Socialization: The Effects of Internet and Technology Use in Grades 7-8

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Early adolescence is a pivotal stage of social and emotional development. Socialization traditionally occurs in person, but social interactions via technology (e.g., social media, video games) have grown in popularity.

Early adolescence is a pivotal stage of social and emotional development. Socialization traditionally occurs in person, but social interactions via technology (e.g., social media, video games) have grown in popularity. However, little research has been conducted on how early adolescents interact with technology and how these interactions relate to their socialization as well as other factors such as reading habits or academic achievement. Seventh and eighth grade students (n = 719) completed a survey that captured information about their technology use, their academic habits and performance, and extracurricular involvement. It was hypothesized that those involved in more extracurricular activities would use the internet more socially and that internet use would be negatively correlated to both academic performance and recreational reading. Responses indicated that a majority of students have access to technology (e.g. internet, computers, television, gaming consoles, and tablets) in their homes. Social media use differed drastically between platforms. Analyses indicated a relation between amount of extracurricular activities on social television watching and social internet use, but not on social gaming. A significant negative correlation was found between recreational reading and time spent socializing online, but there was no significant effect of these factors on academic performance. Thus, hypotheses were partially supported by the relation between amount of extracurriculars and social internet use and the negative correlation between time spent socializing online and recreational reading.

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  • 2017-12

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An Evaluation of the Cognitive Effects of a Short-Term and a Long-Term Ovarian Hormone Deprivation in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Addressing the Critical Window

Description

With no known cure, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common dementia, affecting more than 5.5 million Americans. Research has shown that women who undergo surgical menopause (i.e. removal of

With no known cure, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common dementia, affecting more than 5.5 million Americans. Research has shown that women who undergo surgical menopause (i.e. removal of the ovaries) before the onset of natural menopause are at a greater risk for AD. It is hypothesized that this greater relative risk of developing AD is linked to ovarian hormone deprivation associated with surgical menopause. The purpose of these studies was to evaluate the behavioral changes that occur after a short-term (ST) and a long-term (LT) ovarian hormone deprivation in a mouse model of AD. Wildtype (Wt) or APP/PS1 (Tg) mutation mice underwent either a sham surgery or an ovariectomy (Ovx) surgery at three months of age. Study 1 consisted of a short-term cohort that was behaviorally tested one month following surgery on a battery of spatial memory tasks including, the Morris water maze, delayed matched-to-sample water maze, and visible platform task. Study 2 consisted of a long-term cohort that was behaviorally tested on the same cognitive battery three months following surgery. Results of Study 1 revealed that genotype interacted with surgical menopause status, such that after a short-term ovarian hormone deprivation, Ovx induced a genotype effect while Sham surgery did not. Results of Study 2 showed a similar pattern of effects, with a comparable interaction between genotypes and surgical menopause status. These findings indicate that the cognitive impact of ovarian hormone deprivation depends on AD-related genotype. Neuropathology evaluations in these mice will be done in the near future and will allow us to test relations between surgical menopause status, cognition, and AD-like neuropathology.

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  • 2017-12