Matching Items (29)

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EFFECTS OF STIMULATION THERAPY THROUGH THE USE OF A CRAFT BOOK

Description

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a craft book used for stimulation therapy on the phonetic sounds /ŋ/, /r/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /θ/. The

The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of a craft book used for stimulation therapy on the phonetic sounds /ŋ/, /r/, /s/, /ʃ/, /tʃ/, and /θ/. The book is specifically geared toward children who do not qualify for speech remediation services but who may be at risk of a speech sound disorder. Four children participated in the study with ages ranging from 4;3-7;6. The study lasted for four weeks in which data was collected on a weekly basis via Likert Scale surveys in accordance with two conversational speech samples. The speech samples were phonetically transcribed with minimal differences pre and post use of the craft book. Data from the surveys give insight to the children’s favorite crafts, the level of difficulty of each craft, and the likelihood of the craft book to be used as part of a remediation program. The study had limitations in sample size, duration, and number of craft activities. Future revisions should include increasing the number of crafts available per chapter and incorporating into the introduction an educational component for parents.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Ultrasound Imaging of Swallowing Subsequent to Feeding and Myofunctional Intervention

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine swallowing patterns using ultrasound technology subsequent to the implementation of two therapeutic interventions. Baseline swallow patterns were compared to swallows after implementation

The purpose of this study was to examine swallowing patterns using ultrasound technology subsequent to the implementation of two therapeutic interventions. Baseline swallow patterns were compared to swallows after implementation of therapeutic interventions common in both feeding therapy (FT) and orofacial myofunctional therapy (OMT). The interventions consist of stimulation of the tongue by z-vibe and tongue pops. Changes in swallowing patterns are described, and similarities of interventions across the two professions are discussed. Ultrasound research in the realm of swallowing is sparse despite having potential clinical application in both professions. In using ultrasound, this study outlines a protocol for utilization of a hand-held probe and reinforces a particular protocol described in the literature. Real-time ultrasound recordings of swallows for 19 adult female subjects were made. Participants with orofacial myofunctional disorder are compared to a group with typical swallowing and differences in swallowing patterns are described. Three stages of the oral phase of the swallow were assigned based on ultrasonic observation of the tongue shape. Analysis involves total duration of the swallow, duration of the three stages in relation to the total duration of the swallow, and the number of swallows required for the bolus to be cleared from the oral cavity. No significant effects of either intervention were found. Swallowing patterns showed a general trend to become faster in total duration subsequent to each intervention. An unexpected finding showed significant changes in the relationship between the bolus preparation stage and the bolus transportation stage when comparing the group classified as having a single swallow and the group classified as having multiple swallows.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Coarticulation: Testing the Universality of Glide Epenthesis, Stop Epenthesis, and Intervocalic Voicing of Stops

Description

The objective of this study was to examine the universality of three coarticulatory processes: glide epenthesis, stop epenthesis, and intervocalic voicing of stops. Five contrastive languages were selected to test

The objective of this study was to examine the universality of three coarticulatory processes: glide epenthesis, stop epenthesis, and intervocalic voicing of stops. Five contrastive languages were selected to test these processes. These languages included English, Spanish, Mandarin, Arabic, and Navajo. All languages varied in phonemic inventory, stress patterns, phonological processes, and syllabic constructs. 16 participants were selected with relatively limited English exposure based on questionnaire responses regarding their language history. The participants went through a series of trainings and tasks to elicit these coarticulatory processes in several phonemic contexts. Part 1 of the study attempted to elicit the processes solely through imitation, while Part 2 attempted to do so through a spontaneous elicitation task. Although the results indicated that a universal use of these processes was not supported, the data suggested that glide epenthesis played a frequent role within English, Spanish, and Arabic. This was expected since glides are often used in the presence of diphthongs in these languages. Additionally, intervocalic voicing of stops was observed in English and Spanish, suggesting a language specific tendency. However, it was only noted when the voiceless stop occurred in the coda of the syllable and not in the onset of the syllable. Lastly, the use of stop epenthesis was not observed in any of the languages tested.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Accurate Articulation of /r/: Relationships between Signal Processing Analysis of Speech and Ultrasound Images of the Tongue

Description

Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used

Research on /r/ production previously used formant analysis as the primary acoustic analysis, with particular focus on the low third formant in the speech signal. Prior imaging of speech used X-Ray, MRI, and electromagnetic midsagittal articulometer systems. More recently, the signal processing technique of Mel-log spectral plots has been used to study /r/ production in children and female adults. Ultrasound imaging of the tongue also has been used to image the tongue during speech production in both clinical and research settings. The current study attempts to describe /r/ production in three different allophonic contexts; vocalic, prevocalic, and postvocalic positions. Ultrasound analysis, formant analysis, Mel-log spectral plots, and /r/ duration were measured for /r/ production in 29 adult speakers (10 male, 19 female). A possible relationship between these variables was also explored. Results showed that the amount of superior constriction in the postvocalic /r/ allophone was significantly lower than the other /r/ allophones. Formant two was significantly lower and the distance between formant two and three was significantly higher for the prevocalic /r/ allophone. Vocalic /r/ had the longest average duration, while prevocalic /r/ had the shortest duration. Signal processing results revealed candidate Mel-bin values for accurate /r/ production for each allophone of /r/. The results indicate that allophones of /r/ can be distinguished based the different analyses. However, relationships between these analyses are still unclear. Future research is needed in order to gather more data on /r/ acoustics and articulation in order to find possible relationships between the analyses for /r/ production.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Does Auditory Feedback Perturbation Influence Categorical Perception of Vowels?

Description

Speech perception and production are bidirectionally related, and they influence each other. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between speech perception and speech production. It

Speech perception and production are bidirectionally related, and they influence each other. The purpose of this study was to better understand the relationship between speech perception and speech production. It is known that applying auditory perturbations during speech production causes subjects to alter their productions (e.g., change their formant frequencies). In other words, previous studies have examined the effects of altered speech perception on speech production. However, in this study, we examined potential effects of speech production on speech perception. Subjects completed a block of a categorical perception task followed by a block of a speaking or a listening task followed by another block of the categorical perception task. Subjects completed three blocks of the speaking task and three blocks of the listening task. In the three blocks of a given task (speaking or listening) auditory feedback was 1) normal, 2) altered to be less variable, or 3) altered to be more variable. Unlike previous studies, we used subject’s own speech samples to generate speech stimuli for the perception task. For each categorical perception block, we calculated subject’s psychometric function and determined subject’s categorical boundary. The results showed that subjects’ perceptual boundary remained stable in all conditions and all blocks. Overall, our results did not provide evidence for the effects of speech production on speech perception.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Compensatory Responses During Unexpected Vowel Perturbations

Description

During speech, the brain is constantly processing and monitoring speech output through the auditory feedback loop to ensure correct and accurate speech. If the speech signal is experimentally altered/perturbed while

During speech, the brain is constantly processing and monitoring speech output through the auditory feedback loop to ensure correct and accurate speech. If the speech signal is experimentally altered/perturbed while speaking, the brain compensates for the perturbations by changing speech output in the opposite direction of the perturbations. In this study, we designed an experiment that examined the compensatory responses in response to unexpected vowel perturbations during speech. We applied two types of perturbations. In one condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was perturbed toward the vowel /æ/ by simultaneously shifting both the first formant (F1) and the second formant (F2) at 3 different levels (.5=small, 1=medium, and 1.5=large shifts). In another condition, the vowel /ɛ/ was perturbed by shifting F1 at 3 different levels (small, medium, and large shifts). Our results showed that there was a significant perturbation-type effect, with participants compensating more in response to perturbation that shifted /ɛ/ toward /æ/. In addition, we found that there was a significant level effect, with the compensatory responses to level .5 being significantly smaller than the compensatory responses to levels 1 and 1.5, regardless of the perturbation pathway. We also found that responses to shift level 1 and shift level 1.5 did not differ. Overall, our results highlighted the importance of the auditory feedback loop during speech production and how the brain is more sensitive to auditory errors that change a vowel category (e.g., /ɛ/ to /æ/).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Somatosensory Modulation during Speech Planning

Description

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the

Previous studies have found that the detection of near-threshold stimuli is decreased immediately before movement and throughout movement production. This has been suggested to occur through the use of the internal forward model processing an efferent copy of the motor command and creating a prediction that is used to cancel out the resulting sensory feedback. Currently, there are no published accounts of the perception of tactile signals for motor tasks and contexts related to the lips during both speech planning and production. In this study, we measured the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech planning using light electrical stimulation below the lower lip by comparing perception during mixed speaking and silent reading conditions. Participants were asked to judge whether a constant near-threshold electrical stimulation (subject-specific intensity, 85% detected at rest) was present during different time points relative to an initial visual cue. In the speaking condition, participants overtly produced target words shown on a computer monitor. In the reading condition, participants read the same target words silently to themselves without any movement or sound. We found that detection of the stimulus was attenuated during speaking conditions while remaining at a constant level close to the perceptual threshold throughout the silent reading condition. Perceptual modulation was most intense during speech production and showed some attenuation just prior to speech production during the planning period of speech. This demonstrates that there is a significant decrease in the responsiveness of the somatosensory system during speech production as well as milliseconds before speech is even produced which has implications for speech disorders such as stuttering and schizophrenia with pronounced deficits in the somatosensory system.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Language-based Interventions Incorporated into Third Grade General Education

Description

Research in the last decade has indicated that collaboration between speech-language pathologists (SLP) and general education teachers is a necessary component for effective instruction. Students that have language difficulties should

Research in the last decade has indicated that collaboration between speech-language pathologists (SLP) and general education teachers is a necessary component for effective instruction. Students that have language difficulties should have the necessary support to help them succeed in the general education classroom. Despite the overwhelming evidence that supports that collaboration is the best practice, it does not take place due to lack of training, time, and funding. My creative project includes a template and website that allows SLPs and teachers to collaborate to enrich instruction targeted towards third grade students diagnosed with a language disorder. This template is designed for the SLP to contribute specific language-based strategies that they implement during their therapy sessions. In turn, the general educator can access the template and easily integrate those strategies into her lessons to support the language skills of her students so that the student has more opportunities to generalize their skills. The template is formatted around the IEP goals of the students and aligned to the Common Core standards. The purpose of the template is to provide SLPs and general education teachers a means to collaborate without having to take additional time from each other's limited schedules and eliminates the need for in-person training to implement these strategies to effectively support students with language disabilities struggling in the general education classroom.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

The Babble Boot Camp turns 2: Phonetic and phonemic inventory complexity and expressive vocabulary growth in infants with Classic Galactosemia undergoing an experimental prevention therapy

Description

Classic Galactosemia (CG) is a rare recessive metabolic disease resulting in the inability to digest galactose. Despite early detection via newborn screening and strict diet management, infants with CG are

Classic Galactosemia (CG) is a rare recessive metabolic disease resulting in the inability to digest galactose. Despite early detection via newborn screening and strict diet management, infants with CG are at high risk for severe speech (60%) and language (90%) disorders (Waggoner, D., Buist, N., & Donnell, 1990). Although this risk is known since birth, no preventive treatment approaches in the area of speech and language have been developed. The Babble Boot Camp (BBC) is the first experimental proactive intervention for infants with CG ages 2 to 24 months. It is designed to stimulate early vocalization, coo, babble, first words, vocabulary growth, and syntactic complexity, with the goal of preventing or at least ameliorating the expected speech and language difficulties. All children undergo close monitoring. Day-long audio recordings, collected once per month using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system, are the source material for pre-speech and speech measures including Mean Babbling Level (MBL), Syllable Structure Level (SSL), and phonetic and phonemic inventory complexity.
Parent questionnaires are analyzed for expressive vocabulary size. Here, findings are described for the first 9 children who underwent the BBC and an untreated control child, all with CG. The initial results are consistent with higher MBL and SSL scores in the treatment cohort, compared to the untreated control infant. In addition, most children in the treatment cohort achieved larger vocabulary sizes than the control child. Of the four oldest children in the treatment cohort, three had expressive vocabularies within normal limits at 21 months. Phonetic
inventory complexity at 11 months predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months. Given the high risk for speech and language disorders in children with CG, these results are encouraging, but an appropriately powered clinical trial is necessary to validate these findings. The BBC is on its way to a full clinical trial with 75 families, fully funded by the National Institutes of Health.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Test Instrument, Bolus size, Multiple Swallows and Ultrasound in the Evaluation of Oral-Stage Swallow

Description

A previous study identified a subset of participants who required multiple swallows to clear a single bolus (Weinhold & McKay, 2017). Presence of multiple swallows was positively correlated with orofacial

A previous study identified a subset of participants who required multiple swallows to clear a single bolus (Weinhold & McKay, 2017). Presence of multiple swallows was positively correlated with orofacial myofunctional disorder (OMD), suggesting that multiple swallows might be a potential screening marker for OMD. Since bolus size was not controlled in the study, reviewers questioned whether multiple swallows might have been a consequence of larger bolus size. In 2018, Pennington and Weinhold replicated this study by using a consistent 5ml bolus and revealed a similar correlation between OMD and multiple swallows. However, the test instrument used in that study to identify OMD yielded an OMD incidence of 60%. Accordingly, a new test instrument was developed to increase specificity of scoring for future studies. The new instrument identified 30% of participants as having OMD, which is more in line with the literature. The current study replicated Weinhold & McKay (2017) by utilizing the new test instrument as well as a predetermined average sip size for each participant. Utilizing both a controlled bolus of 5ml, and a participant-specific bolus size failed to eliminate multiple swallows. Linear regression revealed no significant relationship between size of bolus and number of swallows for either study; therefore, the hypothesis that the size of the unmeasured boluses in Weinhold & McKay caused differences in number of swallows was rejected. The suggestion that multiple swallows are indicative of OMD was strengthened, prompting further investigation into the relationship between number of swallows per bolus and OMD. Ultrasound images of three stages of the oral swallow were compared for the OMD and non-OMD groups. No statistical differences were noted in tongue constriction, which did not support our hypothesis that the OMD participants would display less constriction. However, baseline tongue position of /𝑎/ for participants with OMD was significantly lower than the baseline of participants without OMD. Pertinence of these findings relative to the oral stages of the swallow are addressed, as well as implications of oral stage dysfunction in general.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05