Matching Items (67)

136927-Thumbnail Image.png

Nanomaterials for Thermally Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries

Description

The two central goals of this project were 1) to develop a testing method utilizing coatings on ultra-thin stainless steel to measure the thermal conductivity (k) of battery electrode materials

The two central goals of this project were 1) to develop a testing method utilizing coatings on ultra-thin stainless steel to measure the thermal conductivity (k) of battery electrode materials and composites, and 2) to measure and compare the thermal conductivities of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, "LFP") in industry-standard graphite/LFP mixtures as well as graphene/LFP mixtures and a synthesized graphene/LFP nanocomposite. Graphene synthesis was attempted before purchasing graphene materials, and further exploration of graphene synthesis is recommended due to limitations in purchased product quality. While it was determined after extensive experimentation that the graphene/LFP nanocomposite could not be successfully synthesized according to current literature information, a mixed composite of graphene/LFP was successfully tested and found to have k = 0.23 W/m*K. This result provides a starting point for further thermal testing method development and k optimization in Li-ion battery electrode nanocomposites.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137585-Thumbnail Image.png

The Wedding Dress

Description

"The Wedding Dress" is a creative project investigating the history of wedding dress design that led to the design and construction of a wedding dress with historical inspiration. The project

"The Wedding Dress" is a creative project investigating the history of wedding dress design that led to the design and construction of a wedding dress with historical inspiration. The project details the process of creating the wedding dress, in addition to the historical study of wedding dresses, and the designer/author's inspiration.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137708-Thumbnail Image.png

MOLECULAR DYNAMICS (MD) SIMULATIONS OF PARTICLE ASSEMBLY AND OIL EXTRACTION AT IONIC LIQUID-BASED INTERFACES

Description

Recently, a number of publications have suggested that ionic liquids (ILs) can absorb solid particles. This development may have implications in fields like oil sand processing, oil spill beach cleanup,

Recently, a number of publications have suggested that ionic liquids (ILs) can absorb solid particles. This development may have implications in fields like oil sand processing, oil spill beach cleanup, and water treatment. In this Honors Thesis, computational investigation of this phenomenon is provided via molecular dynamics simulations. Two particle surface chemistries were investigated: (1) hydrocarbon-saturated and (2) silanol-saturated, representing hydrophobic and hydrophilic particles, respectively. Employing 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([BMIM]-[PF6]) as a model IL, these nanoparticles were allowed to equilibrate at the IL/water and IL/hexane interfaces to observe the interfacial self-assembled structures. At the IL/water interface, the hydrocarbon-based nanoparticles were nearly completely absorbed by the IL, while the silica nanoparticles maintained equal volume in both phases. At the IL/hexane interface, the hydrocarbon nanoparticles maintained minimal interactions with the IL, whereas the silica nanoparticles were nearly completely absorbed by it. Studies of these two types of nanoparticles immersed in the bulk IL indicate that the surface chemistry has a great effect on the corresponding IL liquid structure. These effects include layering of the ions, hydrogen bonding, and irreversible absorption of some ions to the silica nanoparticle surface. These effects are quantified with respect to each nanoparticle. The results suggest that ILs likely exhibit this absorption capability because they can form solvation layers with reduced dynamics around the nanoparticles.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

137284-Thumbnail Image.png

Synthesis and Properties of Asymmetric Polystyrene/PNIPAM-Gold Composite Particles

Description

Asymmetric polystyrene-gold composite particles are successfully synthesized alongside core-shell composite particles via a one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization method. Unlike core-shell particles which form in the droplet phase of a stabilized

Asymmetric polystyrene-gold composite particles are successfully synthesized alongside core-shell composite particles via a one-step Pickering emulsion polymerization method. Unlike core-shell particles which form in the droplet phase of a stabilized Pickering emulsion, asymmetric particles form via a seeded growth mechanism. These composite particles act as catalysts with higher recyclability than pure gold nanoparticles due to reduced agglomeration. With the addition of N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAAM) monomers, temperature-responsive asymmetric and core-shell polystyrene/poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-gold composite particles are also synthesized via Pickering emulsion polymerization. The asymmetric particles have a greater thermo-responsiveness than the core-shell particles due to the increased presence of NIPAAM monomers in the seeded-growth formation. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)-containing asymmetric particles have tunable rheological and optical properties due to their significant size decrease above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST).

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

137633-Thumbnail Image.png

Characterizing the Effects of Various Acids on Zeolites

Description

This project is part of a larger project involving making membranes for the separation of potable water from urine solutions for applications in space travel. This project deals specifically with

This project is part of a larger project involving making membranes for the separation of potable water from urine solutions for applications in space travel. This project deals specifically with testing LTA nanozeolites that will be used in the membrane under a variety of acidic conditions, specifically in solutions of sulfuric acid, chromium trioxide, and potassium phosphate of pHs ranging from .5 to 5, in order to investigate the effects of pH, acid type, and time. They were analyzed using SEM, FTIR, and XRD, in order to analyze how much the zeolite was degraded under the conditions of each solution. It was determined that, for high pH values (4-5), potassium phosphate had the strongest effect, as it degraded the zeolite to the point of destroying the crystal structure completely. Because of the solubility limit of potassium phosphate in water, it could not be analyzed at low pH, so only sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide were analyzed at low pH (.5-3). They both had severe effects, sulfuric acid being slightly more severe, with both of them completely dissolving the zeolite at pH values of 1 and lower. Decreasing pH increased degradation for all of the acids, with pH values above 2 for sulfuric acid and chromium trioxide showing only minor degradation, and pH 5 potassium phosphate showing only minor degradation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

135805-Thumbnail Image.png

Dimeric anthracene-based mechanophore particles for damage precursor detection in reinforced epoxy matrix composites

Description

The problem of catastrophic damage purveys in any material application, and minimizing its occurrence is paramount for general health and safety. We have successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied dimeric 9-anthracene

The problem of catastrophic damage purveys in any material application, and minimizing its occurrence is paramount for general health and safety. We have successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied dimeric 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (Di-AC)-based mechanophores particles to form stress sensing epoxy matrix composites. As Di-AC had never been previously applied as a mechanophore and thermosets are rarely studied in mechanochemistry, this created an alternative avenue for study in the field. Under an applied stress, the cyclooctane-rings in the Di-AC particles reverted back to their fluorescent anthracene form, which linearly enhanced the overall fluorescence of the composite in response to the applied strain. The fluorescent signal further allowed for stress sensing in the elastic region of the stress\u2014strain curve, which is considered to be a form of damage precursor detection. Overall, the incorporation of Di-AC to the epoxy matrix added much desired stress sensing and damage precursor detection capabilities with good retention of the material properties.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

135909-Thumbnail Image.png

Pyrrole-based poly(ionic liquids) as efficient stabilizers for formation of hollow MWCNT particles

Description

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) with an intrinsically conducting pyrrole polymer (ICP) backbone were synthesized and utilized as novel dispersants of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various polar and nonpolar solvents. This is

Poly(ionic liquid)s (PILs) with an intrinsically conducting pyrrole polymer (ICP) backbone were synthesized and utilized as novel dispersants of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in various polar and nonpolar solvents. This is due to their highly tunable nature, in which the anions can be easily exchanged to form PILs of varying polarity but with the same polycation. These CNT dispersions were exceedingly stable over many months, and with the addition of hexane, Pickering emulsions with the PIL-stabilized CNTs at the droplet interfaces were formed. Depending on the hydrophobicity of the PIL, hexane-in-water and hexane-in-acetonitrile emulsions were formed, the latter marking the first non-aqueous stabilized-CNT emulsions and corresponding CNT-in-acetonitrile dispersion, further advancing the processability of CNTs. The PIL-stabilized CNT Pickering emulsion droplets generated hollow conductive particles by subsequent drying of the emulsions. With the emulsion templating, the hollow shells can be used as a payload carrier, depending on the solubility of the payload in the droplet phase of the emulsion. This was demonstrated with silicon nanoparticles, which have limited solubility in aqueous environments, but great scientific interest due to their potential electrochemical applications. Overall, this work explored a new class of efficient PIL-ICP hybrid stabilizers with tunable hydrophobicity, offering extended stability of carbon nanotube dispersions with novel applications in hollow particle formation via Pickering emulsion templating and in placing payloads into the shells.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

135915-Thumbnail Image.png

Rescaled Coarse-Grained Potentials for Maximum Timestep in Simulation of Polyethylene

Description

In order to better understand the physical properties of polyethylene, an extremely common plastic used mostly in packaging, many scientists and engineers use olecular dynamics. To reduce the computational expense

In order to better understand the physical properties of polyethylene, an extremely common plastic used mostly in packaging, many scientists and engineers use olecular dynamics. To reduce the computational expense associated with traditional atomistic molecular dynamics, coarse-grained molecular dynamics is often used. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics groups multiple atoms into single beads, reducing the number of degrees of freedom in a system and eliminating smaller atoms with faster kinematics. However, even coarse-grained methods have their limitations, one of which is timestep duration, which is limited by the maximum vibrational frequency in the coarse-grained system. To study this limitation, a coarse-grained model of polyethylene was created such that every C 2 H 4 unit was replaced with a bead. Coarse-grained potentials for bond-stretching, bond-bending, and non-bonded interaction were generated using the iterative Boltzmann inversion method, which matches coarse-grained distribution functions to atomistic distribution functions. After the creation of the model, the coarse-grained potentials were rescaled by a constant so that they were less stiff, decreasing the maximum vibrational frequency of the system. It is found that by diminishing the bond-stretching potential to 6.25% of its original value, the maximum stable timestep can be increased 85% over that of the unmodified potential functions. The results of this work suggest that it may be possible to simulate lengthy processes, such as the crystallization of polyethylene, in less time with adjusted coarse-grained potentials. Additionally, the large discrepancies in the speed of bond-stretching, bond-bending, and non- bonded interaction dynamics suggest that a multi-timestep method may be worth investigating in future work.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-12

135456-Thumbnail Image.png

Universal Stress-Sensing Dimeric Anthracene-based Mechanophore Particle Fillers Incorporated into Polyurethane Thermoset Matrices

Description

The ability to sense applied damage and correlate it with a measurable signal is extremely desirable in any material application to prevent catastrophic failure and the possible loss of use

The ability to sense applied damage and correlate it with a measurable signal is extremely desirable in any material application to prevent catastrophic failure and the possible loss of use of the material or human injury. Mechanochemistry, in which mechanical forces induce chemical changes, can allow for targeted damage detection by way of embedded mechanophore units, with certain mechanophore chemistries emitting a fluorescent signal in response an applied force. In this work, we successfully employed microparticles of the mechanophore dimeric 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (Di-AC) in a thermoset polyurethane matrix to study their application as universal stress-sensing fillers in network polymer matrix composites. Under a compressive force, there is bond breakage in the mechanically weak cyclooctane photodimers of Di-AC, such that there is reversion to the fluorescent anthracene-type monomers. This fluorescent emission was then correlated to the applied strain, and the precursors to damage were detected with a noticeable fluorescent signal change at an applied strain of only 2%. This early damage detection was additionally possible at very low particle loadings of 2.5 and 5 wt%, with the 5 wt% loading showing enhanced material properties compared to the 2.5 wt%, due to particle reinforcement in the composite. Overall, the synthesis of Di-AC as a stress-sensitive particle filler allows for facile addition of advanced functionality to these ubiquitous thermoset composites.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

134918-Thumbnail Image.png

The Benefits and Application of Statistical Process Control in a Manufacturing Environment

Description

Statistical process control (SPC) is an important quality application that is used throughout industry and is composed of control charts. Most often, it is applied in the final stages of

Statistical process control (SPC) is an important quality application that is used throughout industry and is composed of control charts. Most often, it is applied in the final stages of product manufacturing. However it would be beneficial to apply SPC throughout all stages of the manufacturing process such as the beginning stages. This report explores the fundamentals of SPC, applicable programs, important aspects of implementation, and specific examples of where SPC was beneficial. Important programs for SPC are general statistical software such as JMP and Minitab, and some programs are made specifically for SPC such as SPACE: statistical process and control environment. Advanced programs like SPACE are beneficial because they can easily assist with creating control charts and setting up rules, alarms and notifications, and reaction mechanisms. After the charts are set up it is important to apply rules to the charts to see when a system is running off target which indicates the need to troubleshoot and investigate. This makes the notification part an integral aspect as well because attention and awareness must be brought to out of control situations. The next important aspect is ensuring there is a reaction mechanism or plan on what to do in the event of an out of control situation and what to do to get the system running back on target. Setting up an SPC system takes time and practice and requires a lot of collaboration with experts who know more about the system or the quality side. Some of the more difficult parts of implementation is getting everyone on board and creating trainings and getting the appropriate personnel trained.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12