Matching Items (71)

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Healing Mechanophore-Incorporated Epoxy Through UV Dimerization

Description

This study aims to determine the feasibility of producing mechanophore-incorporated epoxy that can be healed. This was accomplished by grafting a synthesized mechanophore into tris(2-aminoethyl)amine to create a new epoxy hardener. Then this branched hardener was combined with a second

This study aims to determine the feasibility of producing mechanophore-incorporated epoxy that can be healed. This was accomplished by grafting a synthesized mechanophore into tris(2-aminoethyl)amine to create a new epoxy hardener. Then this branched hardener was combined with a second hardener, diethylenetriamine (DETA). A proper ratio of the branched hardener to the DETA will ensure that the created epoxy will retain the force responsive characteristics without a noticeable decline in both the physical and thermal properties. Furthermore, it was desired that the natural structure of the epoxy would be left in place, and there would only be enough branched hardener present to elicit a force response and provide the possibility for healing. The two hardeners would then be added to Diglycidyl Ether of Bisphenol F (DGEBPF), which is the epoxy resin. The mechanophore-incorporated epoxy was compared to a standard epoxy—just DETA and DGEBPF—and it was determined that the incorporation of the mechanophore led to an 8.2 degrees Celsius increase in glass transition temperature, and a 33.0% increase in cross link density. This justified the mechanophore-incorporated epoxy as a feasible alternative to the standard, as its primary thermal and physical properties were not only equal, but superior. Then samples of the mechanophore-incorporated epoxy were damaged with a 3% tensile strain. This would cause a cycloreversion in the central cyclobutane inside of the mechanophore. Then they were healed with UV light, which would redimerize the severed hardener moieties. The healed samples saw a 4.69% increase in cross-link density, demonstrating that healing was occurring.

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2018-12

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Optimizing of Responsiveness and Strength of ""Smart"" Polymers for Use in Dynamic Tactile Displays for the Visually Impaired

Description

This thesis investigates an interpenetrating network of polyacrylamide and poly acrylic acid for use in a dynamic tactile display, which presents traditionally two-dimensional electronic screens as three-dimensional topographical models that can be experienced through touch. This kind of display would

This thesis investigates an interpenetrating network of polyacrylamide and poly acrylic acid for use in a dynamic tactile display, which presents traditionally two-dimensional electronic screens as three-dimensional topographical models that can be experienced through touch. This kind of display would allow for greater access to traditionally visual information for the visually impaired. This hydrogel demonstrates Upper Critical Solution Temperature (UCST) near room temperature which facilitates a swelling transition, characterized by a sharp increase in swelling as this temperature is surpassed. Through the utilization of light responsive additives, light can trigger this shift, as the additives harness visible light, convert it into heat to raise the gel’s temperature, and increase the volume of the gel. Light-responsive additives explored include chlorophyllin, gold nanoparticles, and carbon black. Each of these additives required unique synthesis planning and strategies in order to optimize the performance of the gels. Synthesized gels were characterized using thermal swelling tests, light response tests and compression tests to determine the material strength. The best performing additive was chlorophyllin and allowed for a 20.8%±4.5% percent weight increase upon exposure to light for 10 minutes. In addition to investigating light-responsive additives, modifications were pursued to alter the overall UCST behavior, such as the addition of sodium chloride. By adding sodium chloride into the hydrogel, the gel was found to have a wider transition. Overall, light-responsive behavior was developed, and further work can be done in improving the response time and degree of swelling in order to make this material more viable for use in a dynamic tactile display.

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2018-12

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Six Sigma in the Manufacturing Industry

Description

Evidence of Six Sigma principles dates back as far as the 1800s when normal distributions were first being introduced by Friedrich Gauss. Since then, Six Sigma has evolved and been documented into the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC)

Evidence of Six Sigma principles dates back as far as the 1800s when normal distributions were first being introduced by Friedrich Gauss. Since then, Six Sigma has evolved and been documented into the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control (DMAIC) methodology that is used today. Each stage in the DMAIC methodology serves a unique purpose, and various tools have been developed to accomplish each stage’s goal. The manufacturing industry has developed its own more specified set of methods and tools that have been coined as Lean Six Sigma. The more notable Lean Six Sigma principles are TIMWOOD, SMED, and 5S.

As a case study, DMAIC methodology was used at a company that encourages Six Sigma in all its departments—Niagara Bottling. Ultimately, the company was able to cut its financial losses in fines from customers by over 15% in just a 12-week span by utilizing Six Sigma. In this, the importance of instilling an entire culture of Six Sigma is exemplified. When only a handful of team members are on board with the problem-solving mindset, it is significantly more difficult to see substantial improvements.

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2020-05

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Development of Visible Light Responsive Double Polyacrylamide-poly(acrylic acid) Network Hydrogels for Tactile Display

Description

The purpose of this project is to investigate the swelling ratio exhibited due to photothermal effects of double network polyacrylamide poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels synthesized with carbon black as a light-sensitive chromophore. Optimal carbon black dispersion was achieved in solutions through

The purpose of this project is to investigate the swelling ratio exhibited due to photothermal effects of double network polyacrylamide poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels synthesized with carbon black as a light-sensitive chromophore. Optimal carbon black dispersion was achieved in solutions through sonication, using V9A32 carbon black, where dynamic light scattering recorded particle diameters in the range of 195.0-375.8 nanometers for water/carbon black mixtures, 242.4-262.6 nanometers for monomer/carbon black mixtures without initiator, and 1109.3-1783.9 nanometers for monomer/carbon black mixtures including initiator. The double network polyacrylamide poly(acrylic acid) hydrogels with carbon black yielded weight increases of 0.126% and 6.043%, respectively, after 2 minutes and 10 minutes of being exposed to a light stimulus; compared to previous work which showed a double network polyacrylamide poly(acrylic acid) hydrogel with chlorophyllin yielded weight increases of 18.3% and 20.8%, respectively, after 2 minutes and 10 minutes of being exposed to a light stimulus, the carbon black resulted in a less robust response. Future work for application of the light-responsive hydrogels includes the development of a screen covering that will be made of the hydrogels. This covering is intended for use on LED screen displays, where a light change will result in a protrusion from the screen. The purpose behind this application is that technology users who are visually impaired can still determine what their LED device is trying to communicate with them.

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Date Created
2017-05

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Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

Description

Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence

Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

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Date Created
2014-09-01

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A novel statistical spring-bead based network model for self-sensing smart polymer materials

Description

This paper presents a multiscale modeling approach to simulating the self-sensing behavior of a load sensitive smart polymer material. A statistical spring-bead based network model is developed to bridge the molecular dynamics simulations at the nanoscale and the finite element

This paper presents a multiscale modeling approach to simulating the self-sensing behavior of a load sensitive smart polymer material. A statistical spring-bead based network model is developed to bridge the molecular dynamics simulations at the nanoscale and the finite element model at the macroscale. Parametric studies are conducted on the developed network model to investigate the effects of the thermoset crosslinking degree on the mechanical response of the self-sensing material. A comparison between experimental and simulation results shows that the multiscale framework is able to capture the global mechanical response with adequate accuracy and the network model is also capable of simulating the self-sensing phenomenon of the smart polymer. Finally, the molecular dynamics simulation and network model based simulation are implemented to evaluate damage initiation in the self-sensing material under monotonic loading.

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Date Created
2015-08-01

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Development of an Ionic Liquid Electrolyte for Seismometer Applications

Description

Iodide-based ionic liquids have been widely employed as sources of iodide in electrolytes for applications utilizing the triiodide/iodide redox couple. While adding a low-viscosity solvent such as water to ionic liquids can greatly enhance their usefulness, mixtures of highly viscous

Iodide-based ionic liquids have been widely employed as sources of iodide in electrolytes for applications utilizing the triiodide/iodide redox couple. While adding a low-viscosity solvent such as water to ionic liquids can greatly enhance their usefulness, mixtures of highly viscous iodide-containing ILs with water have never been studied. Thus, this paper investigates, for the first time, mixtures of water and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium iodide ([BMIM][I]) through a combined experimental and molecular dynamics study. The density, melting point, viscosity and conductivity of these mixtures were measured experimentally. The composition region below 50% water by mole was found to be dramatically different from the region above 50% water, with trends in density and melting point differing before and after that point. Water was found to have a profound effect on viscosity and conductivity of the IL, and the effect of hydrogen bonding was discussed. Molecular dynamics simulations representing the same mixture compositions were performed. Molecular ordering was observed, as were changes in this ordering corresponding to water content. Molecular ordering was related to the experimentally measured mixture properties, providing a possible explanation for the two distinct composition regions identified by experiment.

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2015-05

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Universal Stress-Sensing Dimeric Anthracene-based Mechanophore Particle Fillers Incorporated into Polyurethane Thermoset Matrices

Description

The ability to sense applied damage and correlate it with a measurable signal is extremely desirable in any material application to prevent catastrophic failure and the possible loss of use of the material or human injury. Mechanochemistry, in which mechanical

The ability to sense applied damage and correlate it with a measurable signal is extremely desirable in any material application to prevent catastrophic failure and the possible loss of use of the material or human injury. Mechanochemistry, in which mechanical forces induce chemical changes, can allow for targeted damage detection by way of embedded mechanophore units, with certain mechanophore chemistries emitting a fluorescent signal in response an applied force. In this work, we successfully employed microparticles of the mechanophore dimeric 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (Di-AC) in a thermoset polyurethane matrix to study their application as universal stress-sensing fillers in network polymer matrix composites. Under a compressive force, there is bond breakage in the mechanically weak cyclooctane photodimers of Di-AC, such that there is reversion to the fluorescent anthracene-type monomers. This fluorescent emission was then correlated to the applied strain, and the precursors to damage were detected with a noticeable fluorescent signal change at an applied strain of only 2%. This early damage detection was additionally possible at very low particle loadings of 2.5 and 5 wt%, with the 5 wt% loading showing enhanced material properties compared to the 2.5 wt%, due to particle reinforcement in the composite. Overall, the synthesis of Di-AC as a stress-sensitive particle filler allows for facile addition of advanced functionality to these ubiquitous thermoset composites.

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2016-05

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The Benefits and Application of Statistical Process Control in a Manufacturing Environment

Description

Statistical process control (SPC) is an important quality application that is used throughout industry and is composed of control charts. Most often, it is applied in the final stages of product manufacturing. However it would be beneficial to apply SPC

Statistical process control (SPC) is an important quality application that is used throughout industry and is composed of control charts. Most often, it is applied in the final stages of product manufacturing. However it would be beneficial to apply SPC throughout all stages of the manufacturing process such as the beginning stages. This report explores the fundamentals of SPC, applicable programs, important aspects of implementation, and specific examples of where SPC was beneficial. Important programs for SPC are general statistical software such as JMP and Minitab, and some programs are made specifically for SPC such as SPACE: statistical process and control environment. Advanced programs like SPACE are beneficial because they can easily assist with creating control charts and setting up rules, alarms and notifications, and reaction mechanisms. After the charts are set up it is important to apply rules to the charts to see when a system is running off target which indicates the need to troubleshoot and investigate. This makes the notification part an integral aspect as well because attention and awareness must be brought to out of control situations. The next important aspect is ensuring there is a reaction mechanism or plan on what to do in the event of an out of control situation and what to do to get the system running back on target. Setting up an SPC system takes time and practice and requires a lot of collaboration with experts who know more about the system or the quality side. Some of the more difficult parts of implementation is getting everyone on board and creating trainings and getting the appropriate personnel trained.

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2016-12

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Nanomaterials for Thermally Safe Lithium-Ion Batteries

Description

The two central goals of this project were 1) to develop a testing method utilizing coatings on ultra-thin stainless steel to measure the thermal conductivity (k) of battery electrode materials and composites, and 2) to measure and compare the thermal

The two central goals of this project were 1) to develop a testing method utilizing coatings on ultra-thin stainless steel to measure the thermal conductivity (k) of battery electrode materials and composites, and 2) to measure and compare the thermal conductivities of lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4, "LFP") in industry-standard graphite/LFP mixtures as well as graphene/LFP mixtures and a synthesized graphene/LFP nanocomposite. Graphene synthesis was attempted before purchasing graphene materials, and further exploration of graphene synthesis is recommended due to limitations in purchased product quality. While it was determined after extensive experimentation that the graphene/LFP nanocomposite could not be successfully synthesized according to current literature information, a mixed composite of graphene/LFP was successfully tested and found to have k = 0.23 W/m*K. This result provides a starting point for further thermal testing method development and k optimization in Li-ion battery electrode nanocomposites.

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2014-05