Matching Items (12)

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Monatomic Gas Effects on Brayton Cycle Propulsion and Power Systems

Description

Monatomic gases are ideal working mediums for Brayton cycle systems due to their favorable thermodynamic properties. Closed Brayton cycle systems make use of these monatomic gases to increase system performance

Monatomic gases are ideal working mediums for Brayton cycle systems due to their favorable thermodynamic properties. Closed Brayton cycle systems make use of these monatomic gases to increase system performance and thermal efficiency. Open Brayton cycles, on the other hand, operate with primarily diatomic and polyatomic gases from air and combustion products, which have less favorable properties. The focus of this study is to determine if monatomic gases can be utilized in an open Brayton cycle system, in a way that increases the overall performance, but is still cost effective.
Two variations on open cycle Brayton systems were analyzed, consisting of an “airborne” thrust producing propulsion system, and a “ground-based” power generation system. Both of these systems have some mole fraction of He, Ne, or Ar injected into the flow path at the inlet, and some fraction of monatomic gas recuperated and at the nozzle exit to be re-circulated through the system. This creates a working medium of an air-monatomic gas mixture before the combustor, and a combustion products-monatomic gas mixture after combustor. The system’s specific compressor work, specific turbine work, specific net power output, and thermal efficiency were analyzed for each case. The most dominant metric for performance is the thermal efficiency (η_sys), which showed a significant increase as the mole fraction of monatomic gas increased for all three gas types. With a mole fraction of 0.15, there was a 2-2.5% increase in the airborne system, and a 1.75% increase of the ground-based system. This confirms that “spiking” any open Brayton system with monatomic gas will lead to an increase in performance. Additionally, both systems showed an increase in compressor and turbine work for a set temperature difference with He and Ne, which can additionally lead to longer component lifecycles with less frequent maintenance checks.
The cost analysis essentially compares the operating cost of a standard system with the operating cost of the monatomic gas “spiked” system, while keeping the internal mass flow rate and total power output the same. This savings is denoted as a percent of the standard system with %NCS. This metric lumps the cost ratio of the monatomic gas and fuel (MGC/FC) with the fraction of recuperated monatomic gas (RF) into an effective cost ratio that represents the cost per second of monatomic gas injected into the system. Without recuperation, the results showed there is no mole fraction of any monatomic gas type that yields a positive %NCS for a reasonable range of current MGC/FC values. Integrating recuperation machinery in an airborne system is hugely impractical, effectively meaning that the use of monatomic gas in this case is not feasible. For a ground-based system on the other hand, recuperation is much more practical. The ground-based system showed that a RF value of at least 50% for He, 89% for Ne, and 94% for Ar is needed for positive savings. This shows that monatomic gas could theoretically be used cost effectively in a ground-based, power-generating open Brayton system. With an injected monatomic gas mole fraction of 0.15, and full 100% recuperation, there is a net cost savings of about 3.75% in this ground-based system.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Identification of the Origins of Blade-Vortex Interaction (BVI) Noise in Helicopters

Description

One of the leading concerns regarding the commercial and military applications of rotary wing powered vehicles is the issue of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise occurring during forward descent. This impulsive

One of the leading concerns regarding the commercial and military applications of rotary wing powered vehicles is the issue of blade-vortex interaction (BVI) noise occurring during forward descent. This impulsive noise-generating phenomenon occurs due to the close proximity and interference between the main rotor blades and the wake vortices generated by the rotor blades from previous revolutions. Throughout the descent phase of a helicopter in forward flight, the rotating blades pass through these induced vortices, thus generating an impulsive "slap" noise that is characteristic of the common sound associated with helicopter flight among the general population. Therefore, parameterization of the variables of interest that affect BVI noise generation will allow for thorough analysis of the origins of the noise and open pathways for innovation that may offer significant improvements in acoustic performance. Gaining an understanding of the factors that govern the intensity of the BVI acoustic signature provides a strong analytical and experimental basis for enhanced rotor blade design.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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A Survey of Modern Gridded Ion Propulsion Systems and Their Development and Applications in Future Space Missions

Description

This paper studies the history and development of ion propulsion systems and survey past, present, and developing technology with their applications to space missions. This analysis addresses the physical design

This paper studies the history and development of ion propulsion systems and survey past, present, and developing technology with their applications to space missions. This analysis addresses the physical design parameters and process that is a part of designing and optimizing a gridded ion thruster. It also identifies operational limits that may be associated with solar-powered ion propulsion systems and posits plausible solutions or alternatives to remedy such limitations. These topics are presented with the intent of reviewing how ion propulsion technology evolved in its journey to develop to today's systems, and to facilitate thought and discussion on where further development of ion propulsion systems can be directed.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

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A Modeling System to Understand the Design and Performance of a Two Spool Gas Turbine Engine

Description

The purpose of my Honors Thesis was to generate a tool that could be implemented by Aerospace students at Arizona State University. This tool was created using MatLab which is

The purpose of my Honors Thesis was to generate a tool that could be implemented by Aerospace students at Arizona State University. This tool was created using MatLab which is the current program students are using. The modeling system that was generated goes step-by-step through the flow of a two spool gas turbine engine. The code was then compared to an ideal case engine with predictable values. It was found to have less than a 3 percent error for these parameters, which included optimal net work produced, optimal overall pressure ratio, and maximum pressure ratio. The modeling system was then run through a parametric analysis. In the first case, the bypass ratio was set to 0 and the freestream Mach number was set to 0. The second case was with a bypass ratio of 0 and fresstream Mach number of 0.85. The third case was with a bypass ratio of 5 and freestream Mach number of 0. The fourth case was with a bypass ratio of 5 and fresstream Mach number of 0.85. Each of these cases was run at various overall pressure ratios and maximum Temperatures of 1500 K, 1600 K and 1700 K. The results modeled the behavior that was expected. As the freestream Mach number was increased, the thrust decreased and the thrust specific fuel consumption increased, corresponding to an increase in total pressure at the combustor inlet. It was also found that the thrust was increased and the thrust specific fuel consumption decreased as the bypass ratio was increased. These results also make sense as there is less airflow passing through the engine core. Finally the engine was compared to two real engines. Both of which are General Electric G6 series engines. For the 80C2A3 engine, the percent difference between thrust and thrust specific fuel consumption was less than five percent. For the 50B, the thrust was below a two percent difference, but the thrust specific fuel consumption clearly provided inaccurate results. This could be caused by the lack of inputs provided by General Electric. The amount of fuel injected is largely dependent on the maximum temperature which is not available to the public. Overall, the code produces comparable results to real engines and can display how isolating and modifying a certain parameter effects engine performance.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

The Supersonic Performance of High Bypass Ratio Turbofan Engines with Fixed Conical Spike Inlets

Description

The objective of this study is to understand how to integrate conical spike external compression inlets with high bypass turbofan engines for application on future supersonic airliners. Many performance problems

The objective of this study is to understand how to integrate conical spike external compression inlets with high bypass turbofan engines for application on future supersonic airliners. Many performance problems arise when inlets are matched with engines as inlets come with a plethora of limitations and losses that greatly affect an engine’s ability to operate. These limitations and losses include drag due to inlet spillage, bleed ducts, and bypass doors, as well as the maximum and minimum values of mass flow ratio at each Mach number that define when an engine can no longer function. A collection of tools was developed that allow one to calculate the raw propulsion data of an engine, match the propulsion data with an inlet, calculate the aerodynamic data of an aircraft, and combine the propulsion and aerodynamic data to calculate the installed performance of the entire propulsion system. Several trade studies were performed that tested how changing specific design parameters of the engine affected propulsion performance. These engine trade studies proved that high bypass turbofan engines could be developed with external compression inlets and retain effective supersonic performance. Several engines of efficient fuel consumption and differing bypass ratios were developed through the engine trade studies and used with the aerodynamic data of the Concorde to test the aircraft performance of a supersonic airliner using these engines. It was found that none of the engines that were tested came close to matching the supersonic performance that the Concorde could achieve with its own turbojet engines. It is possible to speculate from the results several different reasons why these turbofan engines were unable to function effectively with the Concorde. These speculations show that more tests and trade studies need to be performed in order to determine if high bypass turbofan engines can be developed for effective usage with supersonic airliners in any possible way.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Doppler Lidar Vector Retrievals and Atmospheric Data Visualization in Mixed/Augmented Reality

Description

Environmental remote sensing has seen rapid growth in the recent years and Doppler wind lidars have gained popularity primarily due to their non-intrusive, high spatial and temporal measurement capabilities.

Environmental remote sensing has seen rapid growth in the recent years and Doppler wind lidars have gained popularity primarily due to their non-intrusive, high spatial and temporal measurement capabilities. While lidar applications early on, relied on the radial velocity measurements alone, most of the practical applications in wind farm control and short term wind prediction require knowledge of the vector wind field. Over the past couple of years, multiple works on lidars have explored three primary methods of retrieving wind vectors viz., using homogeneous windfield assumption, computationally extensive variational methods and the use of multiple Doppler lidars.

Building on prior research, the current three-part study, first demonstrates the capabilities of single and dual Doppler lidar retrievals in capturing downslope windstorm-type flows occurring at Arizona’s Barringer Meteor Crater as a part of the METCRAX II field experiment. Next, to address the need for a reliable and computationally efficient vector retrieval for adaptive wind farm control applications, a novel 2D vector retrieval based on a variational formulation was developed and applied on lidar scans from an offshore wind farm and validated with data from a cup and vane anemometer installed on a nearby research platform. Finally, a novel data visualization technique using Mixed Reality (MR)/ Augmented Reality (AR) technology is presented to visualize data from atmospheric sensors. MR is an environment in which the user's visual perception of the real world is enhanced with live, interactive, computer generated sensory input (in this case, data from atmospheric sensors like Doppler lidars). A methodology using modern game development platforms is presented and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields. In the current study, the possibility of using this technology to visualize data from atmospheric sensors in mixed reality is explored and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields as well as a few earth science datasets for education and outreach activities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Numerical Simulation of Entrainment and Recirculating flow at the Base of a Truncated Aerospike Nozzle with Supplementary Base Flow

Description

The aerospike nozzle belongs to the class of altitude compensating nozzles making it a strong candidate for Space Shuttle Main Engines. Owing to their higher efficiency compared to conventional bell

The aerospike nozzle belongs to the class of altitude compensating nozzles making it a strong candidate for Space Shuttle Main Engines. Owing to their higher efficiency compared to conventional bell nozzles, the aerospike nozzles are being studied extensively and are being used for many Single State to Orbit (SSTO) designs. A rocket engine nozzle with altitude compensation, such as the aerospike, consumes less fuel than a rocket engine with a bell nozzle. Aerospike nozzles are huge and are often difficult to construct and have to be truncated in order to make them feasible for application in a rocket propulsion system. Consequently, truncation of the aerospike leads to pressure loss under the base, which in-turn decreases the overall thrust produced by the rocket nozzle. To overcome this loss, a technique called base bleed is implemented in which a secondary jet is made to flow through the base of the truncated portion. This thesis uses dynamic pressure contour plots to find out the ideal base bleed mass flow rate to avoid base recirculation in 10 %, 20 % and 30 % truncated aerospike nozzles.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Comparison of traditional two-spool and three-spool with vaneless counter-rotating: low-pressure turbine for aircraft propulsion power extraction

Description

In previous work, the effects of power extraction for onboard electrical equipment and flight control systems were studied to determine which turbine shaft (i.e. high power shaft vs low power

In previous work, the effects of power extraction for onboard electrical equipment and flight control systems were studied to determine which turbine shaft (i.e. high power shaft vs low power shaft) is best suited for power extraction. This thesis will look into an alternative option, a three-spool design with a high-pressure turbine, low-pressure turbine, and a turbine dedicated to driving the fan. One of the three-spool turbines is designed to be a vaneless counter-rotating turbine. The off-design performance of this new design will be compared to the traditional two-spool design to determine if the additional spool is a practical alternative to current designs for high shaft horsepower extraction requirements. Upon analysis, this thesis has shown that a three-spool engine with a vaneless counter-rotating stage has worse performance characteristics than traditional two-spool designs for UAV systems.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Low temperature soot regime of propane/air in a micro flow reactor with controlled temperature profile

Description

Micro/meso combustion has several advantages over regular combustion in terms of scale, efficiency, enhanced heat and mass transfer, quick startup and shutdown, fuel utilization and carbon footprint. This study aims

Micro/meso combustion has several advantages over regular combustion in terms of scale, efficiency, enhanced heat and mass transfer, quick startup and shutdown, fuel utilization and carbon footprint. This study aims to analyze the effect of temperature on critical sooting equivalence ratio and precursor formation in a micro-flow reactor. The effect of temperature on the critical sooting equivalence ratio of propane/air mixture at atmospheric pressure with temperatures ranging from 750-1250°C was investigated using a micro-flow reactor with a controlled temperature profile of diameter 2.3mm, equivalence ratios of 1-13 and inlet flow rates of 10 and 100sccm. The effect of inert gas dilution was studied by adding 90sccm of nitrogen to 10sccm of propane/air to make a total flow rate of 100sccm. The gas species were collected at the end of the reactor using a gas chromatograph for further analysis. Soot was indicated by visually examining the reactor before and after combustion for traces of soot particles on the inside of the reactor. At 1000-1250°C carbon deposition/soot formation was observed inside the reactor at critical sooting equivalence ratios. At 750-950°C, no soot formation was observed despite operating at much higher equivalence ratio, i.e., up to 100. Adding nitrogen resulted in an increase in the critical sooting equivalence ratio.

The wall temperature profiles were obtained with the help of a K-type thermocouple, to get an idea of the difference between the wall temperature provided with the resistive heater and the wall temperature with combustion inside the reactor. The temperature profiles were very similar in the case of 10sccm but markedly different in the other two cases for all the temperatures.

These results indicate a trend that is not well-known or understood for sooting flames, i.e., decreasing temperature decreases soot formation. The reactor capability to examine the effect of temperature on the critical sooting equivalence ratio at different flow rates was successfully demonstrated.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Propellant Mass Scaling and Decoupling and Improved Plasma Coupling in a Pulsed Inductive Thruster

Description

Two methods of improving the life and efficiency of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster

(PIT) have been investigated. The first is a trade study of available switches to

determine the best device to

Two methods of improving the life and efficiency of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster

(PIT) have been investigated. The first is a trade study of available switches to

determine the best device to implement in the PIT design. The second is the design

of a coil to improve coupling between the accelerator coil and the plasma. Experiments

were done with both permanent and electromagnets to investigate the feasibility of

implementing a modified Halbach array within the PIT to promote better plasma

coupling and decrease the unused space within the thruster. This array proved to

promote more complete coupling on the edges of the coil where it had been weak in

previous studies. Numerical analysis was done to predict the performance of a PIT

that utilized each suggested switch type. This model utilized the Alfven velocity to

determine the critical mass and energy of these theoretical thrusters.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2018