The objectives of this research project were to develop a model of real power demand from a dc fast charging station both with and without an integrated battery energy storage system (BESS). An optimal deterministic control strategy was devel-oped to perform load-shaping under various scenarios with various load-shaping goals in mind to establish the value for BESS’s with various power and energy capacities.
To achieve these objectives, first a statistical model of electric vehicle drivers’ charging behaviors (home charging and dc fast charging) was constructed and simu-lated according to empirical charging data and several key findings about people’s charging habits in the literature.
Data of private vehicles’ driving records was extracted from the National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), derived 42 statistical distributions that mathe-matically modeled people’s driving behaviors. From this start, two algorithms were developed to simulate driver behavior: one using a database sampling method (DSM) and another using probability distribution sampling method (PDSM) to simulate the electric vehicles’ driving cycles. Both methods used data and statistical distributions derived from NHTS. Next, a model of the EV drivers’ charging behavior was incor-porated into the simulation of the electric vehicles’ driving cycles, and then the ve-hicles’ charging behaviors were simulated. From these simulations, one can forecast the real-power demand of a typical dc fast charging station with six dc 50 kW fast chargers serving a population of 700 EVs. (The ratio of six dc fast chargers to 700 EVs was selected based on the current value of this ratio in the US.) Next, a BESS was integrated into the dc fast charging station demand model and the size and charging behavior was optimized to account for different criteria which were based on the goals of the different potential owners: SRP or a third-party owner. It was established when a BESS would become economically feasible using a simplified economic model.
It was observed that the real-power demand shape is a function of the size of the BESS and the owner’s objective, i.e., flattening the demand curve or minimizing the cost of electricity.