Matching Items (15)

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Numerical performance of the holomorphic embedding method

Description

Recently, a novel non-iterative power flow (PF) method known as the Holomorphic Embedding Method (HEM) was applied to the power-flow problem. Its superiority over other traditional iterative methods such as

Recently, a novel non-iterative power flow (PF) method known as the Holomorphic Embedding Method (HEM) was applied to the power-flow problem. Its superiority over other traditional iterative methods such as Gauss-Seidel (GS), Newton-Raphson (NR), Fast Decoupled Load Flow (FDLF) and their variants is that it is theoretically guaranteed to find the operable solution, if one exists, and will unequivocally signal if no solution exists. However, while theoretical convergence is guaranteed by Stahl’s theorem, numerical convergence is not. Numerically, the HEM may require extended precision to converge, especially for heavily-loaded and ill-conditioned power system models.

In light of the advantages and disadvantages of the HEM, this report focuses on three topics:

1. Exploring the effect of double and extended precision on the performance of HEM,

2. Investigating the performance of different embedding formulations of HEM, and

3. Estimating the saddle-node bifurcation point (SNBP) from HEM-based Thévenin-like networks using pseudo-measurements.

The HEM algorithm consists of three distinct procedures that might accumulate roundoff error and cause precision loss during the calculations: the matrix equation solution calculation, the power series inversion calculation and the Padé approximant calculation. Numerical experiments have been performed to investigate which aspect of the HEM algorithm causes the most precision loss and needs extended precision. It is shown that extended precision must be used for the entire algorithm to improve numerical performance.

A comparison of two common embedding formulations, a scalable formulation and a non-scalable formulation, is conducted and it is shown that these two formulations could have extremely different numerical properties on some power systems.

The application of HEM to the SNBP estimation using local-measurements is explored. The maximum power transfer theorem (MPTT) obtained for nonlinear Thévenin-like networks is validated with high precision. Different numerical methods based on MPTT are investigated. Numerical results show that the MPTT method works reasonably well for weak buses in the system. The roots method, as an alternative, is also studied. It is shown to be less effective than the MPTT method but the roots of the Padé approximant can be used as a research tool for determining the effects of noisy measurements on the accuracy of SNBP prediction.

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  • 2018

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Comparative Study of HVAC and HVDC Transmission Systems With Proposed Machine Learning Algorithms for Fault Location Detection

Description

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Technology has several features that make it particularly attractive for specific transmission applications. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the number of the

High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Technology has several features that make it particularly attractive for specific transmission applications. Recent years have witnessed an unprecedented growth in the number of the HVDC projects, which demonstrates a heightened interest in the HVDC technology. In parallel, the use of renewable energy sources has dramatically increased. For instance, Kuwait has recently announced a renewable project to be completed in 2035; this project aims to produce 15% of the countrys energy consumption from renewable sources. However, facilities that use renewable sources, such as solar and wind, to provide clean energy, are mostly placed in remote areas, as their installation requires a massive space of free land. Consequently, considerable challenges arise in terms of transmitting power generated from renewable sources of energy in remote areas to urban areas for further consumption.

The present thesis investigates different transmission line systems for transmitting bulk energy from renewable sources. Specifically, two systems will be focused on: the high-voltage alternating current (HVAC) system and the high-voltage direct current (HVDC) system. In order to determine the most efficient way of transmitting bulk energy from renewable sources, different aspects of the aforementioned two types of systems are analyzed. Limitations inherent in both HVAC and HVDC systems have been discussed.

At present, artificial intelligence plays an important role in power system control and monitoring. Consequently, in this thesis, the fault issue has been analyzed in transmission systems, with a specific consideration of machine learning tools that can help monitor transmission systems by detecting fault locations. These tools, called models, are used to analyze the collected data. In the present thesis, a focus on such models as linear regression (LR), K-nearest neighbors (KNN), linear support vector machine (LSVM) , and adaptive boost (AdaBoost). Finally, the accuracy of each model is evaluated and discussed. The machine learning concept introduced in the present thesis lays down the foundation for future research in this area so that to enable further research on the efficient ways to improve the performance of transmission line components and power systems.

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  • 2019

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Modeling, Control and Design of Modular Multilevel Converters for High Power Applications

Description

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have become an attractive technology for high power applications. One of the main challenges associated with control and operation of the MMC-based systems is to smoothly

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have become an attractive technology for high power applications. One of the main challenges associated with control and operation of the MMC-based systems is to smoothly precharge submodule (SM) capacitors to the nominal voltage during the startup process. The existing closed-loop methods require additional effort to analyze the small-signal model of MMC and tune control parameters. The existing open-loop methods require auxiliary voltage sources to charge SM capacitors, which add to the system complexity and cost. A generalized precharging strategy is proposed in this thesis.

For large-scale MMC-embedded power systems, it is required to investigate dynamic performance, fault characteristics, and stability. Modeling of the MMC is one of the challenges associated with the study of large-scale MMC-based power systems. The existing models of MMC did not consider the various configurations of SMs and different operating conditions. An improved equivalent circuit model is proposed in this thesis.

The solid state transformer (SST) has been investigated for the distribution systems to reduce the volume and weight of power transformer. Recently, the MMC is employed into the SST due to its salient features. For design and control of the MMC-based SST, its operational principles are comprehensively analyzed. Based on the analysis, its mathematical model is developed for evaluating steady-state performances. For optimal design of the MMC-based SST, the mathematical model is modified by considering circuit parameters.

One of the challenges of the MMC-based SST is the balancing of capacitor voltages. The performances of various voltage balancing algorithms and different modulation methods have not been comprehensively evaluated. In this thesis, the performances of different voltage-balancing algorithms and modulation methods are analyzed and evaluated. Based on the analysis, two improved voltage-balancing algorithms are proposed in this thesis.

For design of the MMC-based SST, existing references only focus on optimal design of medium-frequency transformer (MFT). In this thesis, an optimal design procedure is developed for the MMC under medium-frequency operation based on the mathematical model of the MMC-based SST. The design performance of MMC is comprehensively evaluated based on free system parameters.

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  • 2020

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Hosting Capacity for Renewable Generations in Distribution Grids

Description

Nowadays, the widespread introduction of distributed generators (DGs) brings great challenges to the design, planning, and reliable operation of the power system. Therefore, assessing the capability of a distribution network

Nowadays, the widespread introduction of distributed generators (DGs) brings great challenges to the design, planning, and reliable operation of the power system. Therefore, assessing the capability of a distribution network to accommodate renewable power generations is urgent and necessary. In this respect, the concept of hosting capacity (HC) is generally accepted by engineers to evaluate the reliability and sustainability of the system with high penetration of DGs. For HC calculation, existing research provides simulation-based methods which are not able to find global optimal. Others use OPF (optimal power flow) based methods where

too many constraints prevent them from obtaining the solution exactly. They also can not get global optimal solution. Due to this situation, I proposed a new methodology to overcome the shortcomings. First, I start with an optimization problem formulation and provide a flexible objective function to satisfy different requirements. Power flow equations are the basic rule and I transfer them from the commonly used polar coordinate to the rectangular coordinate. Due to the operation criteria, several constraints are

incrementally added. I aim to preserve convexity as much as possible so that I can obtain optimal solution. Second, I provide the geometric view of the convex problem model. The process to find global optimal can be visualized clearly. Then, I implement segmental optimization tool to speed up the computation. A large network is able to be divided into segments and calculated in parallel computing where the results stay the same. Finally, the robustness of my methodology is demonstrated by doing extensive simulations regarding IEEE distribution networks (e.g. 8-bus, 16-bus, 32-bus, 64-bus, 128-bus). Thus, it shows that the proposed method is verified to calculate accurate hosting capacity and ensure to get global optimal solution.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Using Capsule Networks for Image and Speech Recognition Problems

Description

In recent years, conventional convolutional neural network (CNN) has achieved outstanding performance in image and speech processing applications. Unfortunately, the pooling operation in CNN ignores important spatial information which is

In recent years, conventional convolutional neural network (CNN) has achieved outstanding performance in image and speech processing applications. Unfortunately, the pooling operation in CNN ignores important spatial information which is an important attribute in many applications. The recently proposed capsule network retains spatial information and improves the capabilities of traditional CNN. It uses capsules to describe features in multiple dimensions and dynamic routing to increase the statistical stability of the network.

In this work, we first use capsule network for overlapping digit recognition problem. We evaluate the performance of the network with respect to recognition accuracy, convergence and training time per epoch. We show that capsule network achieves higher accuracy when training set size is small. When training set size is larger, capsule network and conventional CNN have comparable recognition accuracy. The training time per epoch for capsule network is longer than conventional CNN because of the dynamic routing algorithm. An analysis of the GPU timing shows that adjusting the capsule structure can help decrease the time complexity of the dynamic routing algorithm significantly.

Next, we design a capsule network for speech recognition, specifically, overlapping word recognition. We use both capsule network and conventional CNN to recognize 2 overlapping words in speech files created from 5 word classes. We show that capsule network achieves a considerably higher recognition accuracy (96.92%) compared to conventional CNN (85.19%). Our results show that capsule network recognizes overlapping word by recognizing each individual word in the speech. We also verify the scalability of capsule network by increasing the number of word classes from 5 to 10. Capsule network still shows a high recognition accuracy of 95.42% in case of 10 words while the accuracy of conventional CNN decreases sharply to 73.18%.

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  • 2018

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A two-stage supervised learning approach for electricity price forecasting by leveraging different data sources

Description

Over the years, the growing penetration of renewable energy into the electricity market has resulted in a significant change in the electricity market price. This change makes the existing forecasting

Over the years, the growing penetration of renewable energy into the electricity market has resulted in a significant change in the electricity market price. This change makes the existing forecasting method prone to error, decreasing the economic benefits. Hence, more precise forecasting methods need to be developed. This paper starts with a survey and benchmark of existing machine learning approaches for forecasting the real-time market (RTM) price. While these methods provide sufficient modeling capability via supervised learning, their accuracy is still limited due to the single data source, e.g., historical price information only. In this paper, a novel two-stage supervised learning approach is proposed by diversifying the data sources such as highly correlated power data. This idea is inspired by the recent load forecasting methods that have shown extremely well performances. Specifically, the proposed two-stage method, namely the rerouted method, learns two types of mapping rules. The first one is the mapping between the historical wind power and the historical price. The second is the forecasting rule for wind generation. Based on the two rules, we forecast the price via the forecasted generation and the first learned mapping between power and price. Additionally, we observed that it is not the more training data the better, leading to our validation steps to quantify the best training intervals for different datasets. We conduct comparisons of numerical results between existing methods and the proposed methods based on datasets from the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT). For each machine learning step, we examine different learning methods, such as polynomial regression, support vector regression, neural network, and deep neural network. The results show that the proposed method is significantly better than existing approaches when renewables are involved.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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DC-DC Converter Design Using Big Data Methodology

Description

With the rapid advancement in the technologies related to renewable energies such

as solar, wind, fuel cell, and many more, there is a definite need for new power con

verting methods involving

With the rapid advancement in the technologies related to renewable energies such

as solar, wind, fuel cell, and many more, there is a definite need for new power con

verting methods involving data-driven methodology. Having adequate information is

crucial for any innovative ideas to fructify; accordingly, moving away from traditional

methodologies is the most practical way of giving birth to new ideas. While working

on a DC-DC buck converter, the input voltages considered for running the simulations

are varied for research purposes. The critical aspect of the new data-driven method

ology is to propose a machine learning algorithm. In this design, solving for inductor

value and power switching losses, the parameters can be achieved while keeping the

input and output ratio close to the value as necessary. Thus, implementing machine

learning algorithms with the traditional design of a non-isolated buck converter deter

mines the optimal outcome for the inductor value and power loss, which is achieved

by assimilating a DC-DC converter and data-driven methodology.

The present thesis investigates the different outcomes from machine learning al

gorithms in comparison with the dynamic equations. Specifically, the DC-DC buck

converter will be focused on the thesis. In order to determine the most effective way

of keeping the system in a steady-state, different circuit buck converter with different

parameters have been performed.

At present, artificial intelligence plays a vital role in power system control and

theory. Consequently, in this thesis, the approximation error estimation has been

analyzed in a DC-DC buck converter model, with specific consideration of machine

learning algorithms tools that can help detect and calculate the difference in terms

of error. These tools, called models, are used to analyze the collected data. In the

present thesis, a focus on such models as K-nearest neighbors (K-NN), specifically

the Weighted-nearest neighbor (WKNN), is utilized for machine learning algorithm

purposes. The machine learning concept introduced in the present thesis lays down

the foundation for future research in this area so that to enable further research on

efficient ways to improve power electronic devices with reduced power switching losses

and optimal inductor values.

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  • 2020

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The Impact of Energy Routers on the Planning of Transmission and Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

Description

Transmission line capacity is an obstacle for the utilities because there is a load increment annually, and new power plants are being connected, which requires an update. Energy router (ER)

Transmission line capacity is an obstacle for the utilities because there is a load increment annually, and new power plants are being connected, which requires an update. Energy router (ER) is a device that provides an additional degree of freedom to the utilities by controlling the reactive power. The ER reactive power injection is demonstrated by changing the line's reactance value to increase its capacity and give the utility a deferral time for the project upgrade date. Changing the reactance manually and attaching Smart Wire's device to the branches have effectively solved the overload in three locations of a local utility in Arizona (LUA) system.

Furthermore, electric vehicle charging stations (EVCSs) have been increasing to meet EV needs, which calls for an optimal planning model to maximize the profits. The model must consider both the transportation and power systems to avoid damages and costly operation. Instead of coupling the transportation and power systems, EVCS records have been analyzed to fill the gap of EV demand. For example, by accessing charging station records, the moment knowledge of EV demand, especially in the lower order, can be found. Theoretically, the obtained low-order moment knowledge of EV demand is equivalent to a second-order cone constraint, which is proved. Based on such characteristics, a chance-constrained (CC) stochastic integer program for the planning problem is formulated. For planning EV charging stations with ER, this method develops a simple ER model to investigate the interaction between the mobile placement of power flow controller and the daily pattern of EV power demand.

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  • 2020

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PV System Information Enhancement and Better Control of Power Systems.

Description

Due to the rapid penetration of solar power systems in residential areas, there has

been a dramatic increase in bidirectional power flow. Such a phenomenon of bidirectional

power flow creates a need

Due to the rapid penetration of solar power systems in residential areas, there has

been a dramatic increase in bidirectional power flow. Such a phenomenon of bidirectional

power flow creates a need to know where Photovoltaic (PV) systems are

located, what their quantity is, and how much they generate. However, significant

challenges exist for accurate solar panel detection, capacity quantification,

and generation estimation by employing existing methods, because of the limited

labeled ground truth and relatively poor performance for direct supervised learning.

To mitigate these issue, this thesis revolutionizes key learning concepts to (1)

largely increase the volume of training data set and expand the labelled data set by

creating highly realistic solar panel images, (2) boost detection and quantification

learning through physical knowledge and (3) greatly enhance the generation estimation

capability by utilizing effective features and neighboring generation patterns.

These techniques not only reshape the machine learning methods in the GIS

domain but also provides a highly accurate solution to gain a better understanding

of distribution networks with high PV penetration. The numerical

validation and performance evaluation establishes the high accuracy and scalability

of the proposed methodologies on the existing solar power systems in the

Southwest region of the United States of America. The distribution and transmission

networks both have primitive control methodologies, but now is the high time

to work out intelligent control schemes based on reinforcement learning and show

that they can not only perform well but also have the ability to adapt to the changing

environments. This thesis proposes a sequence task-based learning method to

create an agent that can learn to come up with the best action set that can overcome

the issues of transient over-voltage.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Dynamic Modeling, Design and Control of Power Converters for Renewable Interface and Microgrids

Description

Distributed energy resources have experienced dramatic growth and are beginning to support a significant amount of customer loads. Power electronic converters are the primary interface between the grid and the

Distributed energy resources have experienced dramatic growth and are beginning to support a significant amount of customer loads. Power electronic converters are the primary interface between the grid and the distributed energy resources/storage and offer several advantages including fast control, flexibility and high efficiency. The efficiency and the power density by volume are important performance metrics of a power converter. Compact and high efficiency power converter is beneficial to the cost-effectiveness of the converter interfaced generations. In this thesis, a soft-switching technique is proposed to reduce the size of passive components in a grid-connected converter while maintaining a high power conversion efficiency. The dynamic impact of the grid-connected converters on the power system is causing concerns as the penetration level of the converter interfaced generation increases, necessitating a detailed dynamic analysis. The unbalanced nature of distribution systems makes the conventional transient stability simulation based on positive sequence components unsuitable for this purpose. Methods suitable for the dynamic simulation of grid-connected converters in large scale unbalanced and single-phase systems are presented in this thesis to provide an effective way to study the dynamic interactions between the grid and the converters. Dynamic-link library (DLL) of converter dynamic models are developed by which converter dynamic simulations can be easily conducted in OpenDSS. To extend the converter controls testing beyond pure simulation, real-time simulation can be utilized where partial realistic scenarios can be created by including realistic components in the simulation loop. In this work, a multi-platform, real-time simulation testbed including actual digital controller platforms, communication networks and inverters has been developed for validating the microgrid concepts and implementations. A hierarchical converted based microgrid control scheme is proposed which enables the islanded microgrid operation with 100% penetration level of converter interfaced generation. Impact of the load side dynamic modeling on the converter response is also discussed in this thesis.

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Date Created
  • 2018