Matching Items (26)

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Skipping Turns on the Ordering Game

Description

In the ordering game on a graph G, Alice and Bob take turns placing the vertices of G into a linear ordering. The score of the game is the maximum number of neighbors that any vertex has before it in

In the ordering game on a graph G, Alice and Bob take turns placing the vertices of G into a linear ordering. The score of the game is the maximum number of neighbors that any vertex has before it in the ordering. Alice's goal in the ordering game is to minimize the score, while Bob's goal is to maximize it. The game coloring number is the least score that Alice can always guarantee in the ordering game, no matter how Bob plays. This paper examines what happens to the game coloring number if Alice or Bob skip turns on the ordering game. Preliminary definitions and examples are provided to give context to the ordering game. These include a polynomial time algorithm to compute the coloring number, a non-competitive version of the game coloring number. The notion of the preordered game is introduced as the primary tool of the paper, along with its naturally defined preordered game coloring number. To emphasize the complex relationship between the coloring number and the preordered game coloring number, a non-polynomial time strategy is given to Alice and Bob that yields the preordered game coloring number on any graph. Additionally, the preordered game coloring number is shown to be monotonic, one of the most useful properties for turn-skipping. Techniques developed throughout the paper are then used to determine that Alice cannot reduce the score and Bob cannot improve the score by skipping any number of their respective turns. This paper can hopefully be used as a stepping stone towards bounding the score on graphs when vertices are removed, as well as in deciphering further properties of the asymmetric marking game.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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A Study of Some Edge-Deletion Algorithms for Reducing Disease Spread on Networks

Description

This thesis discusses three recent optimization problems that seek to reduce disease spread on arbitrary graphs by deleting edges, and it discusses three approximation algorithms developed for these problems. Important definitions are presented including the Linear Threshold and Triggering Set

This thesis discusses three recent optimization problems that seek to reduce disease spread on arbitrary graphs by deleting edges, and it discusses three approximation algorithms developed for these problems. Important definitions are presented including the Linear Threshold and Triggering Set models and the set function properties of submodularity and monotonicity. Also, important results regarding the Linear Threshold model and computation of the influence function are presented along with proof sketches. The three main problems are formally presented, and NP-hardness results along with proof sketches are presented where applicable. The first problem seeks to reduce spread of infection over the Linear Threshold process by making use of an efficient tree data structure. The second problem seeks to reduce the spread of infection over the Linear Threshold process while preserving the PageRank distribution of the input graph. The third problem seeks to minimize the spectral radius of the input graph. The algorithms designed for these problems are described in writing and with pseudocode, and their approximation bounds are stated along with time complexities. Discussion of these algorithms considers how these algorithms could see real-world use. Challenges and the ways in which these algorithms do or do not overcome them are noted. Two related works, one which presents an edge-deletion disease spread reduction problem over a deterministic threshold process and the other which considers a graph modification problem aimed at minimizing worst-case disease spread, are compared with the three main works to provide interesting perspectives. Furthermore, a new problem is proposed that could avoid some issues faced by the three main problems described, and directions for future work are suggested.

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Date Created
2018-05

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An exploration of proofs of the Szemerédi regularity lemma

Description

This paper focuses on the Szemerédi regularity lemma, a result in the field of extremal graph theory. The lemma says that every graph can be partitioned into bounded equal parts such that most edges of the graph span these partitions,

This paper focuses on the Szemerédi regularity lemma, a result in the field of extremal graph theory. The lemma says that every graph can be partitioned into bounded equal parts such that most edges of the graph span these partitions, and these edges are distributed in a fairly uniform way. Definitions and notation will be established, leading to explorations of three proofs of the regularity lemma. These are a version of the original proof, a Pythagoras proof utilizing elemental geometry, and a proof utilizing concepts of spectral graph theory. This paper is intended to supplement the proofs with background information about the concepts utilized. Furthermore, it is the hope that this paper will serve as another resource for students and others to begin study of the regularity lemma.

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Date Created
2015-05

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Post-Optimization of Permutation Coverings

Description

Covering subsequences with sets of permutations arises in many applications, including event-sequence testing. Given a set of subsequences to cover, one is often interested in knowing the fewest number of permutations required to cover each subsequence, and in finding an

Covering subsequences with sets of permutations arises in many applications, including event-sequence testing. Given a set of subsequences to cover, one is often interested in knowing the fewest number of permutations required to cover each subsequence, and in finding an explicit construction of such a set of permutations that has size close to or equal to the minimum possible. The construction of such permutation coverings has proven to be computationally difficult. While many examples for permutations of small length have been found, and strong asymptotic behavior is known, there are few explicit constructions for permutations of intermediate lengths. Most of these are generated from scratch using greedy algorithms. We explore a different approach here. Starting with a set of permutations with the desired coverage properties, we compute local changes to individual permutations that retain the total coverage of the set. By choosing these local changes so as to make one permutation less "essential" in maintaining the coverage of the set, our method attempts to make a permutation completely non-essential, so it can be removed without sacrificing total coverage. We develop a post-optimization method to do this and present results on sequence covering arrays and other types of permutation covering problems demonstrating that it is surprisingly effective.

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Date Created
2014-12

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Adaptive decentralized routing and detection of overlapping communities

Description

This dissertation studies routing in small-world networks such as grids plus long-range edges and real networks. Kleinberg showed that geography-based greedy routing in a grid-based network takes an expected number of steps polylogarithmic in the network size, thus justifying empirical

This dissertation studies routing in small-world networks such as grids plus long-range edges and real networks. Kleinberg showed that geography-based greedy routing in a grid-based network takes an expected number of steps polylogarithmic in the network size, thus justifying empirical efficiency observed beginning with Milgram. A counterpart for the grid-based model is provided; it creates all edges deterministically and shows an asymptotically matching upper bound on the route length. The main goal is to improve greedy routing through a decentralized machine learning process. Two considered methods are based on weighted majority and an algorithm of de Farias and Megiddo, both learning from feedback using ensembles of experts. Tests are run on both artificial and real networks, with decentralized spectral graph embedding supplying geometric information for real networks where it is not intrinsically available. An important measure analyzed in this work is overpayment, the difference between the cost of the method and that of the shortest path. Adaptive routing overtakes greedy after about a hundred or fewer searches per node, consistently across different network sizes and types. Learning stabilizes, typically at overpayment of a third to a half of that by greedy. The problem is made more difficult by eliminating the knowledge of neighbors' locations or by introducing uncooperative nodes. Even under these conditions, the learned routes are usually better than the greedy routes. The second part of the dissertation is related to the community structure of unannotated networks. A modularity-based algorithm of Newman is extended to work with overlapping communities (including considerably overlapping communities), where each node locally makes decisions to which potential communities it belongs. To measure quality of a cover of overlapping communities, a notion of a node contribution to modularity is introduced, and subsequently the notion of modularity is extended from partitions to covers. The final part considers a problem of network anonymization, mostly by the means of edge deletion. The point of interest is utility preservation. It is shown that a concentration on the preservation of routing abilities might damage the preservation of community structure, and vice versa.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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On the Bounds of Van der Waerden Numbers

Description

Van der Waerden’s Theorem asserts that for any two positive integers k and r, one may find an integer w=w(k,r) known as the Van der Waerden Number such that for every r-coloring of the integers from 1 to w there

Van der Waerden’s Theorem asserts that for any two positive integers k and r, one may find an integer w=w(k,r) known as the Van der Waerden Number such that for every r-coloring of the integers from 1 to w there exists a monochromatic arithmetic progression of length k. This groundbreaking theorem in combinatorics has greatly impacted the field of discrete math for decades. However, it is quite difficult to find the exact values of w. As such, it would be worth more of our time to try and bound such a value, both from below and above, in order to restrict the possible values of the Van der Waerden Numbers. In this thesis we will endeavor to bound such a number; in addition to proving Van der Waerden’s Theorem, we will discuss the unique functions that bound the Van der Waerden Numbers.

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Created

Date Created
2019-12

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On tiling directed graphs with cycles and tournaments

Description

A tiling is a collection of vertex disjoint subgraphs called tiles. If the tiles are all isomorphic to a graph $H$ then the tiling is an $H$-tiling. If a graph $G$ has an $H$-tiling which covers all of the vertices

A tiling is a collection of vertex disjoint subgraphs called tiles. If the tiles are all isomorphic to a graph $H$ then the tiling is an $H$-tiling. If a graph $G$ has an $H$-tiling which covers all of the vertices of $G$ then the $H$-tiling is a perfect $H$-tiling or an $H$-factor. A goal of this study is to extend theorems on sufficient minimum degree conditions for perfect tilings in graphs to directed graphs. Corrádi and Hajnal proved that every graph $G$ on $3k$ vertices with minimum degree $delta(G)ge2k$ has a $K_3$-factor, where $K_s$ is the complete graph on $s$ vertices. The following theorem extends this result to directed graphs: If $D$ is a directed graph on $3k$ vertices with minimum total degree $delta(D)ge4k-1$ then $D$ can be partitioned into $k$ parts each of size $3$ so that all of parts contain a transitive triangle and $k-1$ of the parts also contain a cyclic triangle. The total degree of a vertex $v$ is the sum of $d^-(v)$ the in-degree and $d^+(v)$ the out-degree of $v$. Note that both orientations of $C_3$ are considered: the transitive triangle and the cyclic triangle. The theorem is best possible in that there are digraphs that meet the minimum degree requirement but have no cyclic triangle factor. The possibility of added a connectivity requirement to ensure a cycle triangle factor is also explored. Hajnal and Szemerédi proved that if $G$ is a graph on $sk$ vertices and $delta(G)ge(s-1)k$ then $G$ contains a $K_s$-factor. As a possible extension of this celebrated theorem to directed graphs it is proved that if $D$ is a directed graph on $sk$ vertices with $delta(D)ge2(s-1)k-1$ then $D$ contains $k$ disjoint transitive tournaments on $s$ vertices. We also discuss tiling directed graph with other tournaments. This study also explores minimum total degree conditions for perfect directed cycle tilings and sufficient semi-degree conditions for a directed graph to contain an anti-directed Hamilton cycle. The semi-degree of a vertex $v$ is $min{d^+(v), d^-(v)}$ and an anti-directed Hamilton cycle is a spanning cycle in which no pair of consecutive edges form a directed path.

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Date Created
2013

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Optimal degree conditions for spanning subgraphs

Description

In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example: how many connections are necessary to guarantee that the network

In a large network (graph) it would be desirable to guarantee the existence of some local property based only on global knowledge of the network. Consider the following classical example: how many connections are necessary to guarantee that the network contains three nodes which are pairwise adjacent? It turns out that more than n^2/4 connections are needed, and no smaller number will suffice in general. Problems of this type fall into the category of ``extremal graph theory.'' Generally speaking, extremal graph theory is the study of how global parameters of a graph are related to local properties. This dissertation deals with the relationship between minimum degree conditions of a host graph G and the property that G contains a specified spanning subgraph (or class of subgraphs). The goal is to find the optimal minimum degree which guarantees the existence of a desired spanning subgraph. This goal is achieved in four different settings, with the main tools being Szemeredi's Regularity Lemma; the Blow-up Lemma of Komlos, Sarkozy, and Szemeredi; and some basic probabilistic techniques.

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Created

Date Created
2011

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Erdős-Ko-Rado theorems: new generalizations, stability analysis and Chvátal's Conjecture

Description

The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko and Rado which finds the upper bound on the size

The primary focus of this dissertation lies in extremal combinatorics, in particular intersection theorems in finite set theory. A seminal result in the area is the theorem of Erdos, Ko and Rado which finds the upper bound on the size of an intersecting family of subsets of an n-element set and characterizes the structure of families which attain this upper bound. A major portion of this dissertation focuses on a recent generalization of the Erdos--Ko--Rado theorem which considers intersecting families of independent sets in graphs. An intersection theorem is proved for a large class of graphs, namely chordal graphs which satisfy an additional condition and similar problems are considered for trees, bipartite graphs and other special classes. A similar extension is also formulated for cross-intersecting families and results are proved for chordal graphs and cycles. A well-known generalization of the EKR theorem for k-wise intersecting families due to Frankl is also considered. A stability version of Frankl's theorem is proved, which provides additional structural information about k-wise intersecting families which have size close to the maximum upper bound. A graph-theoretic generalization of Frankl's theorem is also formulated and proved for perfect matching graphs. Finally, a long-standing conjecture of Chvatal regarding structure of maximum intersecting families in hereditary systems is considered. An intersection theorem is proved for hereditary families which have rank 3 using a powerful tool of Erdos and Rado which is called the Sunflower Lemma.

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Date Created
2011

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The first-fit algorithm uses many colors on some interval graphs

Description

Graph coloring is about allocating resources that can be shared except where there are certain pairwise conflicts between recipients. The simplest coloring algorithm that attempts to conserve resources is called first fit. Interval graphs are used in models for scheduling

Graph coloring is about allocating resources that can be shared except where there are certain pairwise conflicts between recipients. The simplest coloring algorithm that attempts to conserve resources is called first fit. Interval graphs are used in models for scheduling (in computer science and operations research) and in biochemistry for one-dimensional molecules such as genetic material. It is not known precisely how much waste in the worst case is due to the first-fit algorithm for coloring interval graphs. However, after decades of research the range is narrow. Kierstead proved that the performance ratio R is at most 40. Pemmaraju, Raman, and Varadarajan proved that R is at most 10. This can be improved to 8. Witsenhausen, and independently Chrobak and Slusarek, proved that R is at least 4. Slusarek improved this to 4.45. Kierstead and Trotter extended the method of Chrobak and Slusarek to one good for a lower bound of 4.99999 or so. The method relies on number sequences with a certain property of order. It is shown here that each sequence considered in the construction satisfies a linear recurrence; that R is at least 5; that the Fibonacci sequence is in some sense minimally useless for the construction; and that the Fibonacci sequence is a point of accumulation in some space for the useful sequences of the construction. Limitations of all earlier constructions are revealed.

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Created

Date Created
2010