Matching Items (6)

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Impact of Divorce on a Child's Perception of Parental Attachment

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With divorce rates rising (Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014), it is important to consider the impact of parental marital status on children and adolescents. In this study, we looked at whether

With divorce rates rising (Kennedy & Ruggles, 2014), it is important to consider the impact of parental marital status on children and adolescents. In this study, we looked at whether children's relationships with their parents differ based on their parents being married or divorced/separated. We hypothesized that a child's perceived relationship with their parents would be significantly influenced by parental marital status, such that those whose parents are divorced will demonstrate a negative relationship with the perception of their parents. Using data collected from the longitudinal New England Study of Suburban Youth (NESSY), we ran correlational analyses as well as an analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether different aspects of attachment (Alienation, Communication, and Trust), measured with the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment \u2014 Revised for Children (IPPA-R) were significantly linked to parental marital status (Luthar & Barkin, 2012). Using our sample size of 489 students in the twelfth grade, we divided the groups into children with married parents (414) and children with divorced or separated parents (75). An ANOVA produced a significant difference between children's perceived relationship with their father and parental marital status; the adolescents' perception of the father's Alienation, Communication, and Trust were negatively associated with divorce. However, the child's perceived relationship with their mother was similar across both groups. These results suggest further research is needed to determine the effects of a child's perception of their relationship with their father during development, in particular in situations when parents have divorced before high school graduation.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Limited ""down time"" with parents: Associations with maladjustment among affluent youth

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Affluent children have been previously understudied and considerably neglected in developmental research due to the notion that they are "low risk." There is limited empirical research exploring the effects of

Affluent children have been previously understudied and considerably neglected in developmental research due to the notion that they are "low risk." There is limited empirical research exploring the effects of parent involvement in affluent youth: specifically, the importance of the adolescent's perception that their mother/father do not spend as much time with them as they would like. The goals of the study were to explore the role of this dimension of perceived parental involvement in anxious-depressed symptoms, somatic symptoms, rule breaking behaviors and substance use with upper-class suburban youth. The sample was taken from the New England Study of Suburban Youth Cohort (NESSY) (Luthar & Latendresse, 2005b) consisting of 252 high school students in the 12th grade located in an affluent community in the Northeast. Results showed that the participants who indicated their fathers could have dinner with them more often if they tried presented significant group differences in anxious-depressed symptoms, somatic symptoms, and rule breaking behaviors while substance use trended towards significant. Thus, these data demonstrate that parent-child relationships are not only important for infant and child development, but are also an integral part of development of adaptive behaviors during adolescence. In addition, the data suggest the benefits from having strong, supportive, and stable relationships with not only mothers but with fathers as well. Results from post hoc analyses revealed perceived absence of fathers at dinnertime affects the adolescent more than the perceived absence of mothers at dinnertime. Finally, teens who indicated a need to spend more dinnertimes with their father may be suffering from a lack of open communication and opportunities to discuss social and emotional issues that are conducive to adolescent development and adjustment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Bouncing back from recent adversity: the role of the community environment in promoting resilience in midlife

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Lifespan psychological perspectives have long suggested the context in which individuals live having the potential to shape the course of development across the adult lifespan. Thus, it is imperative to

Lifespan psychological perspectives have long suggested the context in which individuals live having the potential to shape the course of development across the adult lifespan. Thus, it is imperative to examine the role of both the objective and subjective neighborhood context in mitigating the consequences of lifetime adversity on mental and physical health. To address the research questions, data was used from a sample of 362 individuals in midlife who were assessed on lifetime adversity, multiple outcomes of mental and physical health and aspects of the objective and subjective neighborhood. Results showed that reporting more lifetime adversity was associated with poorer mental and physical health. Aspects of the objective and subjective neighborhood, such as green spaces moderated these relationships. The discussion focuses on potential mechanisms underlying why objective and subjective indicators of the neighborhood are protective against lifetime adversity.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Socioeconomic Factors and Perceived Parenting During the Transition to College

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There were two primary goals of this study, the first of which was to replicate previously established curvilinear associations between school affluence and substance use, while assessing potential relations between

There were two primary goals of this study, the first of which was to replicate previously established curvilinear associations between school affluence and substance use, while assessing potential relations between socioeconomic status (SES) and academic success during the transition to college. The second goal of this study was to establish patterns of perceived parenting factors in order to assess predictive value of such latent profiles with respect to student outcomes relevant to wellbeing and retention in college. Results indicated that substance use was, in fact, associated in a “U-shaped,” curvilinear fashion with high school affluence. Additionally, students grouped into three primary perceived parenting profiles, characterized broadly as “authoritative,” “warm and permissive,” and “uninvolved.” While “optimal” outcomes were associated with students in the authoritative group, these latent profiles lacked predictive value. Supplemental analyses revealed differential associations of various parent factors with males and females, as well as advantaged and disadvantaged youth. Taken together, these results emphasized the importance of parenting during high school in order to promote healthy, safe habits and sufficient self-agency during the transition to college.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Peer reputation among affluent middle school youth: ramifications for maladjustment versus competence by age 18

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Given the major investment young people make in earning and maintaining a peer reputation, our goal in this study was to explore the association between dimensions of negative and positive

Given the major investment young people make in earning and maintaining a peer reputation, our goal in this study was to explore the association between dimensions of negative and positive peer reputation in middle school and adjustment several years later, by the end of high school, among upper middle class youth. Prior research has shown negative reputations such as aggressive-disruptive and sensitive-isolated to be associated with maladjustment later in life, whereas reputations like popular and prosocial-leader have been related to positive future outcomes. However, there are contrary findings that reveal a more complex relationship between peer reputation and adjustment, showing certain “negative” reputations to be tied with better outcomes in some domains and the converse in others. Using a sample of middle school students, a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed to test a four-factor model of the Revised Class Play, a peer report measure on peer reputations. CFA findings supported the four-factor model with the following reputations: popular, prosocial, aggressive, and isolated. Structural equation models were used to predict 12th grade adjustment outcomes (academic achievement, psychopathology, substance use) from middle school peer reputation. Prosocial reputation in middle school was connected to higher academic achievement and fewer externalizing symptoms in 12th grade. Both prosocial and isolated peer reputation were negatively associated with alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, whereas a popular reputation was related to higher levels of alcohol use. Middle school reputation did not predict internalizing symptoms in 12th grade. Findings are discussed in terms of adaptive and maladaptive adjustment outcomes associated with each peer reputation and implications for future research.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The Effect of Disability on Subjective Well-Being across the Adult Lifespan: The Moderating Roles of Age at Disability Onset and Disability Type

Description

The present study aimed to advance the current understanding of the relation between disability and subjective well-being by examining the extent to which different facets of subjective well-being (life satisfaction,

The present study aimed to advance the current understanding of the relation between disability and subjective well-being by examining the extent to which different facets of subjective well-being (life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect) change before and after disability onset, and the extent to which age and type of disability moderate such changes. Multiphase growth-curve models to prospective longitudinal survey data from Waves 1-16 of the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey (N = 3,795; mean age = 50.22; age range: 16-99; 51% women). On average, life satisfaction remained relatively stable across the disability transition, whereas positive affect declined and negative affect increased the year surrounding disability onset; in the years thereafter, neither positive affect nor negative affect returned to pre-onset levels. Individuals who acquired disability in old age were more likely to report sustained declines in subjective well-being than were individuals who became disabled in midlife or young adulthood. Psychological disability was associated with the strongest declines across each indicator of subjective well-being at disability onset but also greater adaptation in the years thereafter. The findings provide further evidence against the set-point theory of hedonic adaptation and for a more moderate viewpoint that allows for processes of adaptation to vary based on the outcome examined, the type of stressor, and individual characteristics. The discussion focuses on possible mechanisms underlying the moderating roles of age and type of disability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019