Matching Items (3)

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Loss of the tumor suppressor SMARCA4 in small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT)

Description

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), is a rare and understudied cancer with a dismal prognosis. SCCOHT's infrequency has hindered empirical study of its biology and clinical

Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT), is a rare and understudied cancer with a dismal prognosis. SCCOHT's infrequency has hindered empirical study of its biology and clinical management. However, we and others have recently identified inactivating mutations in the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling gene SMARCA4 with concomitant loss of SMARCA4 protein in the majority of SCCOHT tumors. Here we summarize these findings and report SMARCA4 status by targeted sequencing and/or immunohistochemistry (IHC) in an additional 12 SCCOHT tumors, 3 matched germlines, and the cell line SCCOHT-1. We also report the identification of a homozygous inactivating mutation in the gene SMARCB1 in one SCCOHT tumor with wild-type SMARCA4, suggesting that SMARCB1 inactivation may also play a role in the pathogenesis of SCCOHT. To date, SMARCA4 mutations and protein loss have been reported in the majority of 69 SCCOHT cases (including 2 cell lines). These data firmly establish SMARCA4 as a tumor suppressor whose loss promotes the development of SCCOHT, setting the stage for rapid advancement in the biological understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare tumor type.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-11-03

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Genomic amplification of 9p24.1 targeting JAK2, PD-L1, and PD-L2 is enriched in high-risk triple negative breast cancer

Description

We used DNA content flow cytometry followed by oligonucleotide array based comparative genomic hybridization to survey the genomes of 326 tumors, including 41 untreated surgically resected triple negative breast cancers

We used DNA content flow cytometry followed by oligonucleotide array based comparative genomic hybridization to survey the genomes of 326 tumors, including 41 untreated surgically resected triple negative breast cancers (TNBC). A high level (log2ratio ≥1) 9p24 amplicon was found in TNBC (12/41), glioblastomas (2/44), and colon carcinomas (2/68). The shortest region of overlap for the amplicon targets 9p24.1 and includes the loci for PD-L1, PD-L2, and JAK2 (PDJ amplicon). In contrast this amplicon was absent in ER+ (0/8) and HER2+ (0/15) breast tumors, and in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (0/150). The PDJ amplicon in TNBCs was correlated with clinical outcomes in group comparisons by two-sample t-tests for continuous variables and chi-squared tests for categorical variables. TNBC patients with the PDJ amplicon had a worse outcome with worse disease-free and overall survival. Quantitative RT-PCR confirmed that the PDJ amplicon in TNBC is associated with elevated expression of JAK2 and of the PD-1 ligands. These initial findings demonstrate that the PDJ amplicon is enriched in TNBC, targets signaling pathways that activate the PD-1 mediated immune checkpoint, and identifies patients with a poor prognosis.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-07-03

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Expression of quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 is associated with a highly invasive phenotype and correlates with a poor prognosis in Luminal B breast cancer

Description

Introduction
Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to form disulfide bonds in proteins. Tumor specific expression of QSOX1 has been reported for numerous tumor types. In this study,

Introduction
Quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 1 (QSOX1) oxidizes sulfhydryl groups to form disulfide bonds in proteins. Tumor specific expression of QSOX1 has been reported for numerous tumor types. In this study, we investigate QSOX1 as a marker of breast tumor progression and evaluate the role of QSOX1 as it relates to breast tumor growth and metastasis.
Methods
Correlation of QSOX1 expression with breast tumor grade, subtype and estrogen receptor (ER) status was gathered through informatic analysis using the "Gene expression based Outcome for Breast cancer Online" (GOBO) web-based tool. Expression of QSOX1 protein in breast tumors tissue microarray (TMA) and in a panel of breast cancer cell lines was used to confirm our informatics analysis. To investigate malignant cell mechanisms for which QSOX1 might play a key role, we suppressed QSOX1 protein expression using short hairpin (sh) RNA in ER+ Luminal A-like MCF7, ER+ Luminal B-like BT474 and ER- Basal-like BT549 breast cancer cell lines.
Results
GOBO analysis revealed high levels of QSOX1 RNA expression in ER+ subtypes of breast cancer. In addition, Kaplan Meyer analyses revealed QSOX1 RNA as a highly significant predictive marker for both relapse and poor overall survival in Luminal B tumors. We confirmed this finding by evaluation of QSOX1 protein expression in breast tumors and in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Expression of QSOX1 in breast tumors correlates with increasing tumor grade and high Ki-67 expression. Suppression of QSOX1 protein slowed cell proliferation as well as dramatic inhibition of MCF7, BT474 and BT549 breast tumor cells from invading through Matrigel™ in a modified Boyden chamber assay. Inhibition of invasion could be rescued by the exogenous addition of recombinant QSOX1. Gelatin zymography indicated that QSOX1 plays an important role in the function of MMP-9, a key mediator of breast cancer invasive behavior.
Conclusions
Taken together, our results suggest that QSOX1 is a novel biomarker for risk of relapse and poor survival in Luminal B breast cancer, and has a pro-proliferative and pro-invasive role in malignant progression partly mediated through a decrease in MMP-9 functional activity.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-03-28