Matching Items (19)

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The Impact of Maternal Expectations on Relationship Quality and Maternal Stress

Description

Realistic or unrealistic expectations are formed prior to having the child and can affect the relationship quality of the mother and infant at 3 months and the reported maternal stress

Realistic or unrealistic expectations are formed prior to having the child and can affect the relationship quality of the mother and infant at 3 months and the reported maternal stress levels at 6 months. Violated expectations can either positively or negatively change the course of the relationship quality and stress levels. To test the nature of such relations, a series of regression analyses and one-way ANOVAs examined the associations between maternal expectations (and violations of maternal expectations) and maternal stress at 6 months. Further, mother-infant relationship quality was examined as a possible mediator of this association. Results indicated that prenatal maternal expectations and maternal expectations at 6 weeks were significantly correlated with maternal stress at 6 months. The higher the maternal expectations, the lower the maternal stress. There were no significant relations discovered between maternal expectations and relationship quality or relationship quality and maternal stress. Relationship quality does not mediate the relation of maternal expectations (or violated maternal expectations) and maternal stress. Violated maternal expectations that moved towards realistic did achieve better relationship quality scores, but maternal stress scores stayed consistent no matter the direction of the change.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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EMOTIONAL TRANSMISSION AND CROSSOVER RELATIONS WITHIN FAMILIES

Description

This study aims to examine how crossover relations from one parent relate to the other parent's view of familial relationships. The study examines mood state and psychological distress as variables

This study aims to examine how crossover relations from one parent relate to the other parent's view of familial relationships. The study examines mood state and psychological distress as variables that relate to each other and familial relationships. Home visits were scheduled with families of normally developing three-year olds. During these home visits, naturalistic observation and surveys were done. Researchers then conducted regression analyses to examine the relation between mood state, psychological distress, and familial relationships. The data showed that there were significant relations between one parents' psychological distress and how the other parent viewed the marital relationship, indicating a crossover relation between those two variables.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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A Qualitative Analysis on Maternal Interference and Infant Affect

Description

There is significant amount of research suggesting that high maternal interference can cause low infant emotion regulation, where the infant is unlikely to develop socially acceptable self-regulation mannerisms. Inculcating these

There is significant amount of research suggesting that high maternal interference can cause low infant emotion regulation, where the infant is unlikely to develop socially acceptable self-regulation mannerisms. Inculcating these vital emotion regulation behaviors early on is critically important for dealing with daily stressors in adulthood and many children who cannot do this may develop anxiety and severe mental health issues. Since mothers are the primary caregivers, it would greatly behoove them to encourage their children to use these emotion regulation behaviors when need be. In an effort to examine the dimensions of maternal interference and infant self-regulation, this study was created with the main purpose of understanding if there's a significant relationship between the type of maternal interference (passive vs. active) and the infant's self-comforting behavior. Instances of self-comforting behavior and active and passive maternal interference were counted for in 68 home visit videos from the larger Las Madres Nuevas longitudinal study. The statistical analyses, such as Pearson's correlation coefficients and multiple regression analysis, were conducted using Excel. While the Pearson's correlation coefficients (0.304 for passive and 0.815 for active) and R2 (0.09 for passive and 0.65 for active) suggested that active maternal interference can largely affect infant emotion regulation more so than passive maternal interference, the standard error of regression values (0.58 for passive and 1.97 for active) implied that the passive interference model more precisely fit the data than the active interference model. Thus, the hypothesis was partially supported in this study since not all statistics conveyed maternal interference does affect infant emotion regulation more than passive maternal interference.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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THE CORRELATION BETWEEN MATERNAL PERCEIVED STRESS, CORTISOL REACTIVITY, AND THEIR INFANT'S CORTISOL REACTIVITY

Description

Many stressors today are psychological rather than physical and are influenced by the brain's perception of the stressor. The peripartum period is a particularly volatile time that is susceptible to

Many stressors today are psychological rather than physical and are influenced by the brain's perception of the stressor. The peripartum period is a particularly volatile time that is susceptible to new and stronger stressors. This current study investigates the relationship between self-reported perceived stress levels and physiological cortisol reactivity levels in new mothers at the 12-week postpartum time point. In addition, it examines the relationship between the mother and infants' physiological cortisol reactivity levels at 12-weeks postpartum. This current study is part of a longitudinal study and assessed these two correlations for 181 mother-infant dyads from a low income Mexican American population. The self-reported stress levels were assessed using the 4-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and the cortisol reactivity data was gathered using four salivary cortisol samples taken from both mother and infant surrounding 5 interaction tasks and analyzed using Area Under the Curve with respect to ground (AUCg). Unexpectedly, the results found no correlation between perceived and physiological stress levels in the mothers, with a Pearson correlation of 0.114 and a p-value of 0.129. However, there was a positive correlation between mother and infant cortisol reactivity, with a correlation of 0.632 and a p-value less than 0.0001. This early postpartum period plays a significant role in developing HPA axis regulation for infants and developing productive mother-infant interactions. The physiological and psychological risks of chronically elevated stress for both mothers and children were addressed in this study as well, with implications for means to address and mitigate potential cortisol dysregulation.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Family-Centered Practice in Occupational Therapy from Birth to Three

Description

Occupational therapy is a service provided to children and adults experiencing changes in their ability to engage in everyday activities as a result of illness, injury, trauma or other disability.

Occupational therapy is a service provided to children and adults experiencing changes in their ability to engage in everyday activities as a result of illness, injury, trauma or other disability. Occupational therapy focuses on helping individuals develop the skills needed to carry out their activities of daily living. More specifically, to become self-sufficient in all aspects of their daily lives. As an infant grows older, new occupational roles and expectations are recognized. When typical development is interrupted or does not occur, early intervention may be necessary. When implemented at an early age, occupational therapy can set the groundwork for a child's progress and ability to function productively and purposefully throughout life. When working with a child with disabilities, an occupational therapist must develop a treatment plan utilizing a certain technique or model. Implementing a family-centered approach to treatment services, as opposed to a professional-centered model, teaches the parents to focus on their child's positive qualities, which in turn facilitates a stronger relationship between the parents and the child. A partnership is established early on between the professional and the family and the strengths and capabilities of the family are emphasized. Parents are seen as senior partners who are given the ability to work with the professional in developing and delivering their child's treatment plan. A family-centered approach gives parents the skills necessary to work with their children long after services have ended. Utilizing a family-centered approach to therapy services ensures the overall success and well being of the family, as a whole. This creative project focused on the development of an Individualized Family Service Plan and Treatment Plan, created using a family-centered approach to therapy services in occupational therapy, from birth to three years of age .

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Reciprocity Among Maternal Distress, Child Behavior, and Parenting: Transactional Processes and Early Childhood Risk

Description

Transactional theories support that parent-child processes are best studied in conjunction with one another, addressing their reciprocal influence and change across time. This study tested a longitudinal, autoregressive model exploring

Transactional theories support that parent-child processes are best studied in conjunction with one another, addressing their reciprocal influence and change across time. This study tested a longitudinal, autoregressive model exploring bidirectional relations among maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity during the preschool period (child ages 3 to 5 years), comparing relations among families of typically developing children and children with developmental risk. This study included 250 families, 110 of which had a child with early developmental delay. Analyses utilized data from maternal report, father report, and observational methods. The results indicated significant stability in maternal symptomatology, child internalizing/externalizing symptoms, and maternal sensitivity over time. Support for bidirectional effects between maternal symptomatology and child internalizing symptoms was found specifically for mothers of children with developmental risk. Maternal symptomatology was found to mediate the influence of child internalizing and externalizing symptoms on maternal sensitivity. The findings underscore critical transactional processes within families of children with early developmental risk that connect increased maternal symptomatology to emerging child internalizing symptoms during the preschool period.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-09-01

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Exploring goodness of fit, mother-child relationships, and child risk

Description

Despite the compelling nature of goodness of fit and widespread recognition of the concept, empirical support has lagged, potentially due to complexities inherent in measuring such a complicated, relational construct.

Despite the compelling nature of goodness of fit and widespread recognition of the concept, empirical support has lagged, potentially due to complexities inherent in measuring such a complicated, relational construct. The present study examined two approaches to measuring goodness of fit in mother-child dyads and prospectively explored associations to mother-child relationship quality, child behavior problems, and parenting stress across the preschool period. In addition, as goodness of fit might be particularly important for children with developmental delays, child developmental risk status was considered as a moderator of goodness of fit processes. Children with (n = 110) and without (n = 137) developmental delays and their mothers were coded while interacting during a number of lab tasks at child age 36 months and during naturalistic home observations at child age 48 months. Mothers and father completed questionnaires at child ages 36 and 60 months assessing child temperamental characteristics, child behavior problems, and parenting stress. Results highlight child-directed effects on mother-child goodness of fit processes across the early child developmental period. Although there was some evidence that mother-child goodness of fit was associated with parenting stress 2 years later, goodness of fit remains an elusive concept. More precise models and expanded developmental perspectives are needed in order to fully capture the transactional and dynamic nature of goodness of fit in the parent-child relationship.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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The Influence of maternal prenatal stress and emotion socialization on infant emotion expression: differentiating positive and negative trajectories

Description

The first half-year of infancy represents a salient time in which emotion expression assumes a more psychological character as opposed to a predominantly physiological one. Although previous research has demonstrated

The first half-year of infancy represents a salient time in which emotion expression assumes a more psychological character as opposed to a predominantly physiological one. Although previous research has demonstrated the relations between early parenting and later emotional competencies, there has been less of a focus on differentiating positive and negative emotion expression across the early infancy period. Thus, the current study investigates the growth of positive and negative emotion expression across early infancy in a low-income, Mexican-American sample, and examines the development of emotion expression as a function of early maternal emotion socialization and prenatal stress. Participants included 322 mothers and their infants. Data were collected in participants' homes prenatally and when the infants were 12-, 18-, and 24-weeks old. Mothers were asked to interact with their infants in a semi-structured teaching task, and video-taped interactions of mother and infant behaviors were then coded. Data for mothers was collected at the prenatal and 12-week visits and data for infants was collected at the 12-, 18-, and 24-week visits. Prenatal stress was measured via two questionnaires (Daily Hassles Questionnaire and Perceived Stress Scale). Maternal socialization at 12 weeks was represented as a composite of four observational codes from the Coding Interactive Behavior coding system. Infant emotion expression was also globally rated across the 5-minute teaching task. Findings suggest that the normative development of emotion expression across early infancy is complex. Positive emotion expression may increase across the early infancy period whereas negative emotion expression decreases. Further, at 12 weeks, greater maternal emotion socialization relates to more infant positivity and less negativity, in line with current conceptualization of parenting. However, across time, greater early socialization predicted decreased positivity and was unrelated to negative emotion expression. Findings also suggest that prenatal stress does not relate to socialization efforts or to infant emotion expression. A better understanding of the nuanced development of positive and negative emotion development as a function of early parenting may have implications for early intervention and prevention in this high-risk population.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Activative fathering, children's self-regulation, and social skills

Description

This study investigated father-child Activation Theory and the impact of activative fathering on children's dysregulation and social skills. The sample followed 145 families of typically developing children across ages 4

This study investigated father-child Activation Theory and the impact of activative fathering on children's dysregulation and social skills. The sample followed 145 families of typically developing children across ages 4 to 6. Fathering and mothering behaviors were coded via naturalistic observations at child age 4, children's dysregulation was coded during a laboratory puzzle task at age 5, and children's social skills were rated by parents and teachers at age 6. Results found support for a constellation of activative fathering behaviors unique to father-child interactions. Activative fathering, net of mothering behaviors, predicted decreased behavioral dysregulation one year later. Support was not found for moderation of the relation between activative fathering and children's dysregulation by paternal warmth, nor was support found for children's dysregulation as a mediator of the relation between activative fathering and children's social skills. These results suggest that parenting elements of father-child activation are unique to fathering and may be more broadly observable in naturalistic contexts not limited to play activities alone. Additionally, activative fathering appears to uniquely influence children's self-regulatory abilities above and beyond identical mothering behavior. In the present work, paternal warmth was not a necessary for activative fathering to positively contribute to children's regulatory abilities nor did children's dysregulation link activative fathering to social skills.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Parenting, Executive Function, and Children’s Emerging Emotional Intelligence

Description

The construct of adult emotional intelligence has gained increasing attention over the last 15 years given its significant socioemotional implications for the ability to label, understand, and regulate emotions. There

The construct of adult emotional intelligence has gained increasing attention over the last 15 years given its significant socioemotional implications for the ability to label, understand, and regulate emotions. There is a gap, however, in understanding how emotional intelligence develops in children. Parenting is one of the most salient predictors of children’s behavior and the current study investigated its prospective link to children’s emotional intelligence. More preceisely, this study took a differentiated approach to parenting by examining the distinct contributions of maternal sensitivity and emotion socialization to children’s emotional intelligence. In addition, executive function, considered a “conductor” of higher-order skills and a neurocognitive correlate of emotional intelligence, was examined as a possible mechanism by which parenting influences emotional intelligence. Data were collected from 269 Mexican-American mother-child dyads during 2-year (parenting), 4.5-year (executive function), and 6-year (emotional intelligence) laboratory visits. Both parenting variables were assessed by objective observer ratings. Exeutive function and emotional intelligence were examined as latent constructs comprised of relevant parent-reported and objective measures. Due to a lack of adequate fit, the emotional intelligence variable was separated into two distinct latent constructs, emotion knowledge/understanding and emotion dysregulation. Results indicated that neither dimension of parenting was predictive of dimensions of emotional intelligence. On the other hand, children’s executive function was positively related to emotion knowledge. Finally, executive function did not emerge as a mediator of the relation between parenting and dimensions of emotional intelligence. Taken together, these findings highlight the need for a nuanced developmental and bioecological framework in the study of childen’s executive function and emotional intelligence.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020