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Analysis of Brain Activity in Elite Golfers

Description

It is unknown which regions of the brain are most or least active for golfers during a peak performance state (Flow State or "The Zone") on the putting green. To

It is unknown which regions of the brain are most or least active for golfers during a peak performance state (Flow State or "The Zone") on the putting green. To address this issue, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were taken on 10 elite golfers while they performed a putting drill consisting of hitting nine putts spaced uniformly around a hole each five feet away. Data was collected at three time periods, before, during and after the putt. Galvanic Skin Response (GSR) measurements were also recorded on each subject. Three of the subjects performed a visualization of the same putting drill and their brain waves and GSR were recorded and then compared with their actual performance of the drill. EEG data in the Theta (4 \u2014 7 Hz) bandwidth and Alpha (7 \u2014 13 Hz) bandwidth in 11 different locations across the head were analyzed. Relative power spectrum was used to quantify the data. From the results, it was found that there is a higher magnitude of power in both the theta and alpha bandwidths for a missed putt in comparison to a made putt (p<0.05). It was also found that there is a higher average power in the right hemisphere for made putts. There was not a higher power in the occipital region of the brain nor was there a lower power level in the frontal cortical region during made putts. The hypothesis that there would be a difference between the means of the power level in performance compared to visualization techniques was also supported.

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  • 2016-05

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How does rate influence brain activity during drumming in persons with Down Syndrome?

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Persons with Down Syndrome (DS) have been repeatedly shown to have timing deficits, to move slowly, and to not follow metronomes. This timing deficit in persons with DS requires further

Persons with Down Syndrome (DS) have been repeatedly shown to have timing deficits, to move slowly, and to not follow metronomes. This timing deficit in persons with DS requires further study because timing is fundamental to movement control. Furthermore, brain imaging studies have proposed a rate effect in which increased cortical activation in the primary motor cortex was observed during increased finger movement frequency. The aim of the current study was to determine if the rate effect was present in persons with DS by comparing brain activation in self-selected and as fast as possible rates. Eight participants with DS performed unimanual drumming at their self-selected and maximal rates. Movement rate was measured at EEG was collected in the alpha (8-12 Hz) and Beta (13-30 Hz) frequencies from C3 and C4. The results showed that overall, their self-selected rates were slower than their maximal rates, indicating that they are capable of modifying their movement rate with general instructions. Furthermore, there were significant differences in Beta in which there was more activation during as fast as possible than self-selected tapping in both sides of the primary motor cortex in persons with DS. This suggests that their brains are activated in a similar manner as the typical population with respect to movement rate. Overall, our results suggest that while interventions that involve timing to specific rates are difficult, people with DS can perform at self-selected and maximal rates. The results of our study show that they can alter movement rate when provided with general instruction or additional motivation.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Safety, Tolerability, and Efficacy of Electrical Nerve Stimulation on Physiological Activity and Golf Performance

Description

Electrical nerve stimulation is a promising drug-free technology that could treat a variety of ailments and disorders. Methods like Vagus Nerve Stimulation have been used for decades to treat disorders

Electrical nerve stimulation is a promising drug-free technology that could treat a variety of ailments and disorders. Methods like Vagus Nerve Stimulation have been used for decades to treat disorders like epilepsy, and research with non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation has shown similar effects as its invasive counterpart. Non-invasive nerve stimulation methods like vagus nerve stimulation could help millions of people treat and manage various disorders.

This study observed the effects of three different non-invasive nerve stimulation paradigms in human participants. The first study analyzed the safety and efficacy of transcutaneous auricular vagal nerve stimulation in healthy humans using a bilateral stimulation protocol with uniquely designed dry-hydrogel electrodes. Results demonstrate bilateral auricular vagal nerve stimulation has significant effects on specific parameters of autonomic activity and is safe and well tolerated. The second study analyzed the effects of non-invasive electrical stimulation of a region on the side of the neck that contains the Great Auricular Nerve and the Auricular Branch of the Vagus Nerve called the tympanomastoid fissure on golf hitting performance in healthy golfers. Results did not show significant effects on hitting performance or physiological activity, but the nerve stimulation had significant effects on reducing state-anxiety and improving the quality of feel of each shot. The third study analyzed the effects of non-invasive nerve stimulation of cervical nerves on the back of the neck on putting performance of yips-affected golfers. Results demonstrated that cervical nerve stimulation had significant effects on improving putting performance but did not have significant effects on physiological activity. Data from these studies show there are potential applications for non-invasive electrical nerve stimulation for healthy and athletic populations. Future research should also examine the effects of these stimulation methods in clinical populations.

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Date Created
  • 2020