Matching Items (16)

Desert New Urbanism: Testing for Comfort in Downtown Tempe, Arizona

Description

Outdoor human comfort is determined for the remodelled downtown of Tempe, Arizona, USA, an acclaimed example of New Urbanist infill. The authors desired to know whether changes were accompanied by

Outdoor human comfort is determined for the remodelled downtown of Tempe, Arizona, USA, an acclaimed example of New Urbanist infill. The authors desired to know whether changes were accompanied by more comfortable conditions, especially in hot, dry summer months. The physiological equivalent temperature provided an assessment of year-round outdoor human comfort. Building compactness and tree shade that became part of the changes in the downtown provided more overall daytime human comfort than open nearby streets; however some downtown sites were less comfortable at night, but below 40°C, a threshold for human comfort in this desert environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-06-01

152658-Thumbnail Image.png

Setting a resilient urban table: planning for community food systems

Description

Research indicates that projected increases in global urban populations are not adequately addressed by current food production and planning. In the U.S., insufficient access to food, or the inability to

Research indicates that projected increases in global urban populations are not adequately addressed by current food production and planning. In the U.S., insufficient access to food, or the inability to access enough food for an active, healthy life affects nearly 15% of the population. In the face of these challenges, how are urban planners and other food system professionals planning for more resilient food systems? The purpose of this qualitative case study is to understand the planning and policy resources and food system approaches that might have the ability to strengthen food systems, and ultimately, urban resiliency. It proposes that by understanding food system planning in this context, planning approaches can be developed to strengthen urban food systems. The study uses the conceptual framework of urban planning for food, new community food systems, urban resiliency, and the theory of Panarchy as a model for urban planning and creation of new community food systems. Panarchy theory proposes that entrenched, non-diverse systems can change and adapt, and this study proposes that some U.S. cities are doing just that by planning for new community food systems. It studied 16 U.S. cities considered to be leaders in sustainability practices, and conducted semi-structured interviews with professionals in three of those cities: Portland, OR; San Francisco, CA; and Seattle, WA. The study found that these cities are using innovative methods in food system work, with professionals from many different departments and disciplines bringing interdisciplinary approaches to food planning and policy. Supported by strong executive leadership, these cities are creating progressive urban agriculture zoning policies and other food system initiatives, and using innovative educational programs and events to engage citizens at all socio-economic levels. Food system departments are relatively new, plans and policies among the cities are not consistent, and they are faced with limited resources to adequately track food system-related data. However they are still moving forward with programming to increase food access and improve their food systems. Food-system resiliency is recognized as an important goal, but cities are in varying stages of development for resiliency planning.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

151830-Thumbnail Image.png

Advancing sustainable urbanism through civic space planning & design

Description

The lack of substantive, multi-dimensional perspectives on civic space planning and design has undermined the potential role of these valuable social and ecological amenities in advancing urban sustainability goals. Responding

The lack of substantive, multi-dimensional perspectives on civic space planning and design has undermined the potential role of these valuable social and ecological amenities in advancing urban sustainability goals. Responding to these deficiencies, this dissertation utilized mixed quantitative and qualitative methods and synthesized multiple social and natural science perspectives to inform the development of progressive civic space planning and design, theory, and public policy aimed at improving the social, economic, and environmental health of cities. Using Phoenix, Arizona as a case study, the analysis was tailored to arid cities, yet the products and findings are flexible enough to be geographically customized to the social, environmental, built, and public policy goals of other urbanized regions. Organized into three articles, the first paper applies geospatial and statistical methods to analyze and classify urban parks in Phoenix based on multiple social, ecological, and built criteria, including landuse-land cover, `greenness,' and site amenities, as well as the socio- economic and built characteristics of park neighborhoods. The second article uses spatial empirical analysis to rezone the City of Phoenix following transect form-based code. The current park system was then assessed within this framework and recommendations are presented to inform the planning and design of civic spaces sensitive to their social and built context. The final paper culminates in the development of a planning tool and site design guidelines for civic space planning and design across the urban-to-natural gradient augmented with multiple ecosystem service considerations and tailored to desert cities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

150817-Thumbnail Image.png

Indigenous architecture: envisioning, designing, and building the museum at warm springs

Description

Many Indigenous communities in North America develop tribal museums to preserve and control tribal knowledge and heritage and counteract negative effects of colonization. Tribal museums employ many Indigenous strategies related

Many Indigenous communities in North America develop tribal museums to preserve and control tribal knowledge and heritage and counteract negative effects of colonization. Tribal museums employ many Indigenous strategies related to Indigenous languages, knowledges, and material heritage. I argue that architecture can be an Indigenous strategy, too, by privileging Indigeneity through design processes, accommodating Indigenous activities, and representing Indigenous identities. Yet it is not clear how to design culturally appropriate Indigenous architectures meeting needs of contemporary Indigenous communities. Because few Indigenous people are architects, most tribal communities hire designers from outside of their communities. Fundamental differences challenge both Indigenous clients and their architects. How do Indigenous clients and their designers overcome these challenges? This dissertation is a history of the processes of creating a tribal museum, The Museum At Warm Springs, on the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon. The focus is to understand what critical activities Tribal members, designers, and others did to create a museum whose architecture represents and serves its community. The study also considers how people did things so as to honor Indigenous traditions. Design and construction processes are considered along with strategies that Tribal members and their advocates used to get to where they were prepared to design and build a museum. Interviews with Tribal members, designers, and others were central sources for the research. Other sources include meeting minutes, correspondence, Tribal resolutions, and the Tribal newspaper. Visual sources such as drawings, photographs, and the museum itself were significant sources also. This study revealed several key activities that the Confederated Tribes did to position themselves to build the museum. They built an outstanding collection of Tribal artifacts, created and supported a museum society, and hired an outstanding executive director. The Tribes selected and secured a viable site and persisted in finding an architect who met their needs. Collaboration--within the interdisciplinary design team and between designers and Tribal members and contractors--was key. Tribal members shared cultural knowledge with designers who adapted to Indigenous modes of communication. Designers were sensitive to the landscape and committed to representing the Tribes and their world.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

150989-Thumbnail Image.png

Curriculum improvement in education for sustainable development: measuring learning outcomes in an introductory urban planning course

Description

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is an academic goal for many courses in higher learning. ESD encompasses a specific range of learning outcomes, competencies, skills and literacies that include and

Education for sustainable development (ESD) is an academic goal for many courses in higher learning. ESD encompasses a specific range of learning outcomes, competencies, skills and literacies that include and exceed the acquisition of content knowledge. Methods and case studies for measuring learning outcomes in ESD is absent from the literature. This case study of an undergraduate course in urban sustainability examines the processes, curriculum, pedagogies, and methods to explore whether or not learning outcomes in education for sustainable development are being reached. Observations of the course, and the statistical analysis of student surveys from course evaluations, are explored to help identify the relationships between learning outcomes in ESD and the processes of learning and teaching in the case study. Recommendations are made for applying the lessons of the case study to other courses, and for continuing further research in this area.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

153482-Thumbnail Image.png

Problems of transportation planning during winter storms in Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington: a comparative study

Description

Winter storms decrease the safety of roadways as it brings ice and snow to the roads and increases accidents, delays, and travel time. Not only are personal vehicles affected, but

Winter storms decrease the safety of roadways as it brings ice and snow to the roads and increases accidents, delays, and travel time. Not only are personal vehicles affected, but public transportation, commercial transportation, and emergency vehicles are affected as well. Portland, Oregon, and Seattle, Washington, both suffer from mild, but sometimes extreme, storms that affect the entire city. Taking a closer look at the number of crashes reported by the City of Portland and the City of Seattle, it is seen that there is an increase in percent of crashes with reported road conditions of snow and ice. Both cities appear to have nearly the same reported crash percentages. Recommendations in combating the issue of increased accidents and the disruption of the city itself include looking into communication between the climate research institution and city planners that could help with planning for better mitigation during storms, a street or gas tax, although an impact study is important to keep in mind to make sure no part of the population is at risk; and engineering revolutions such as Solar Roadways that could benefit all cities.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

157935-Thumbnail Image.png

Bridging the divide: why landscape architects should start preaching to the choir

Description

While Lynn White’s 1967 article, The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis, ignited a firestorm of controversy regarding the relationship between religion, particularly Christianity, and the environment, the testing of

While Lynn White’s 1967 article, The Historical Roots of Our Ecologic Crisis, ignited a firestorm of controversy regarding the relationship between religion, particularly Christianity, and the environment, the testing of White’s hypothesis, that Christians are anthropocentric and anti-environment, has produced results that are significantly less clear. Additionally, little research has been conducted with experts in the field of Christianity, the clergy, adding to already significant gaps in the literature. The current research study helps fill that gap by providing the perspective of clergy on the relationship between Christianity and the environment. This qualitative study uses in-depth interviews to assess the topics of importance to members of the clergy within the Phoenix, Arizona metropolitan region as well as their professional perspective of the relationship between religion and the environment. The results indicate that community is of great importance to leaders of faith-based organizations, but stewardship is also a primary foundation of the church. While no support was found for White’s hypothesis, a willingness to learn and a need for expertise on environmental issues was identified. In this regard, environmental professionals, specifically landscape architects, have been identified as the ideal group to provide the bridge between faith-based organizations and the environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

151789-Thumbnail Image.png

Does context matter?: understanding the urban design requirements of successful neighborhood parks

Description

Literature on the design and management of urban parks has been informed by empirical research on the value of public space in terms of economic value, public health, social, and

Literature on the design and management of urban parks has been informed by empirical research on the value of public space in terms of economic value, public health, social, and environmental benefits. Although there is significant value in discussing these benefits, there has been a lack of understanding about the production of public space as a normative goal. Neighborhood parks have been recognized as one of the key urban public spaces that serve the social, economic, and environmental needs of adjacent neighborhoods. However, relevant studies mostly focus on the contribution of neighborhood parks as discrete space, instead of neighborhood parks as built spaces within the urban context. This research provides a better understanding of the relationship between the context of surrounding neighborhoods and the success of neighborhood parks. The research addresses two major research questions. First, what are the major characteristics of the morphological context around neighborhood parks? Second, how do the characteristics of morphological context associate with the success of neighborhood parks? For the first question, the `context' refers to the layout and configuration of urban form including blocks, parcels, and buildings; street network; pedestrian-oriented attributes; and property land uses. For the second question, the `success' of neighborhood parks is defined by property/ violent crime rate. The study is based on a quarter mile buffer area around 150 neighborhood parks in the City of Chicago, Illinois. The research employed factor and cluster analysis to develop a typology of neighborhood park contexts. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify the relationship between park morphological contexts and crime rate. Based on understanding the dimensional structure of urban form elements, neighborhood park surroundings were classified into six categories. This study provided an alternative way of constructing public space typology based on surrounding urban form. The findings of regression analysis revealed that variables associated with higher-density, permeability, and mixed-use development do not necessarily correlate with reduced property/ violent crime rates. However, some variables representing `traditional neighborhood' characteristics were correlated with lower property/ violent crime rates. The study provides guidelines for urban design and physical planning strategies for neighborhood park development.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

153115-Thumbnail Image.png

Survivability of a place brand: politics of place in downtown Scottsdale, in the 1950s and the 1960s

Description

Place branding by its very nature is a highly selective endeavor. Typically, place branding focuses on highlighting positive aspects of place while discounting others that are deemed less appealing. Whether

Place branding by its very nature is a highly selective endeavor. Typically, place branding focuses on highlighting positive aspects of place while discounting others that are deemed less appealing. Whether it pertains to attracting tourism, investment or people, or whether it concerns achieving a level of cultural significance, ultimately place branding impacts physical planning decisions and consequently the built environment. The selectivity entailed in projecting a sellable place image, together with the presence of different interests among the particular place stakeholders, may lead to a divergent dialectic of assertion and resistance over which brand ought to be projected and how it ultimately should be represented. This dynamic, I argue, will have impact on equity, on the issue of authenticity and on representation. Through a historical analysis approach and a case study, this dissertation examines how such a dynamic plays out in the built environment and how it evolves and shapes it over time. Downtown Scottsdale is chosen as a case because it offers an example of a small city downtown in the US West that experienced significant place branding activity in the 1950s and the 1960s. In the 1950s, the City of Scottsdale branded itself as a Western town and the built environment of the downtown area was themed to reflect this image; in the 1960s, the Western brand was challenged and calls for change emerged. Stakeholders and supporters of the Western image and those of the call for change are identified, and the dialectic that ensued is examined and discussed in relation to its impact on the built environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

152022-Thumbnail Image.png

Saudi women entrepreneurs over coming barriers in Alkhober

Description

This thesis explores the extent to which entrepreneurship is possible for women in Saudi Arabia, and it's potential to increase Saudi women's socio-cultural autonomy, financial independence, and overall well-being. The

This thesis explores the extent to which entrepreneurship is possible for women in Saudi Arabia, and it's potential to increase Saudi women's socio-cultural autonomy, financial independence, and overall well-being. The study uses interviews and an online surveys to gather information from recognized female entrepreneurs, those officially registered with the Women's Business Center in Alkhober, Saudi Arabia, about how they founded their businesses, the challenges they have experienced, and the effects of business ownership. These women are interesting because their experience seems to run counter to Saudi society, which generally restricts women's activities. The study's findings show that despite their successes, Arab traditions still hinder the success of Alkhober female entrepreneurs, for instance, by requiring male guardianship and prohibiting travel unaccompanied by a man. From an institutional perspective, administrative and legal requirement can prevent women from fully realizing their potential as businesswomen. The existing women's rights legislation lacks authority because political opportunities for Alkhober women are still limited. For Saudi women entrepreneurship remains an alternative to joblessness and dissatisfaction derived from other employment sources. The challenges women entrepreneurs experience while starting businesses are lack of support from the executive branch of government, lack of quality education, and lack of available financial resources, in addition to the cultural barriers caused by Arab traditions restricting the activities of women. However, a key finding from this study is that the women interviewed all showed a high level of resourcefulness and creativity that helped them to circumvent such obstacles. This study recommends that the government provide financial services, or training programs to aspiring female entrepreneurs and offer incentives for women to register their businesses. This will benefit not just Saudi women but for the Saudi economy overall.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013