Matching Items (13)

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The association between screen time, physical activity levels, and metabolic markers in elementary school-aged children

Description

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure.

Hispanic children have the highest prevalence of obesity versus other ethnic groups. This leaves this population susceptible to many adverse health risks, including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and high blood pressure. Unfortunately, little research has been done investigating the contributing cause to this issue, specifically common sedentary behaviors in children that limit physical activity and it’s purpose in expending energy. Amongst these behaviors, amount of time spent on electronic devices has proven to have increased drastically in recent years. The relationship between screen time and electronic device use, specifically with television, video games, and computer usage, and physical activity levels, and how those affect cardiometabolic disease risk factors, were explored in this study. Participants of this study were elementary school-aged children from Maricopa County, AZ. Electronic device usage, physical activity amounts, and presence of the specific devices in the child’s were collected from the participants’ parents through self-reported survey questions. Anthropometric and biochemical markers of cardiometabolic disease risk were directly measured. The average time spent engaged in physical activity per day by these participants was 20.02 ± 21.1 minutes and the average total screen time per day was 655 ± 605 minutes. Findings showed strong significance between total screen time and computer and video game use (r=0.482; p=0.01 and r=0.784; p=0.01, respectively). Video game time in the group of children with a video game in their room (350.66 ± 445.96 min/day) was significantly higher than the sample of kids without one in their room (107.19 ± 210.0 min/day ; p=0.000). Total screen time was also significantly greater with children who had a video game system in their room (927.56 ± 928.7 min/day) versus children who did not (543.14 ± 355.11 min/day; p=0.006). Additionally, significance was found showing children with a computer in the bedroom spent more time using the computer per day (450.95 ± 377.95 min/day), compared to those children who did not have a computer in their room (333.5 ± 395.6 min/day; p=0.048). No significant association was found between metabolic markers and screen time. However, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and insulin proved to be dependent on BMI percentile (r=-0.582; p=0.01, r=0.476; p=0.01, r=0.704; p=0.01 respectively). Our data suggest further research needs to be done investigating other potential sources that limit physical activity so that strategies can focus on reducing obesity incidence and the associated health risks. Future studies should use larger sample sizes to be more representative of this population, and develop more direct observations instead of self-reported values to limit bias.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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My Health Story: Teaching Children Healthful Habits

Description

The purpose of this paper is to examine the current health status of children and adults in the United States as it relates to the current obesity epidemic. There will

The purpose of this paper is to examine the current health status of children and adults in the United States as it relates to the current obesity epidemic. There will also be an examination of how nutrition education is commonly presented to children currently and how it was presented in a community-based health intervention, Athletes for Life, during a six-week pilot program of the intervention. Using the data compiled on the current health status of the population of the United States, the methods of intervention examined and the seemingly most effective means to relay nutrition information to school-age children, a coordinated nutrition curriculum will be proposed and implemented into the efficacy portion of Athletes for Life, a ten-week intervention.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Designing a Facebook Group to Promote Physical Activity Among Adults

Description

Background: Physical inactivity is a major cause of obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes and has become a major public health problem. Physical inactivity is detrimental to one's health, but

Background: Physical inactivity is a major cause of obesity, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes and has become a major public health problem. Physical inactivity is detrimental to one's health, but it has also created a significant healthcare burden. Within the past decade, many health-based interventions have been implemented to encourage physically inactive individuals to adopt a more active lifestyle. These health-based interventions have used social media websites, particularly Facebook, to establish social support between the participants of those interventions. There is currently limited research on this topic. This study aims to add to that literature by exploring strategies to encourage participants of health-based interventions to interact with a Facebook group. Purpose: An exercise and nutrition-based intervention called Athletes for Life (AFL) has been using a Facebook page over the past 2.5 years to establish social support between participants of the program, among other functions. The level of interaction that participants had with the Facebook page has declined over the past year. The objective of this study is to redesign and refine the AFL Facebook page so that it is more appealing and interactive to AFL participants. Methods: Redesigning and refining the AFL Facebook page were achieved through three strategies. The first strategy was to recruit approximately twenty participants to the new AFL Facebook group. The next strategy was to select a participant to become the group champion who would post encouraging content on the Facebook group wall. The final strategy was to maintain the consistency with which participants liked and viewed posts on the group wall. Results: The results of this study showed nine participants joined the group and these participants had a combined total of 62 likes and 110 views on the group wall over an eleven-week period. Participants interacted with the content posted by the Facebook group administrators on a consistent basis, but only one participant posted a recipe to the group wall. Measuring the level of interaction for each individual post was significant because it illustrated that the level of interaction participants had with posts depended on the identity of the posts' author. Conclusions: Future research should test the effectiveness of a Facebook group page for promoting physical activity and implementing the suggestions from study participants to increase Facebook usage.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Effects of a Community-Based Nutrition Program on the Intake of Fruits, Vegetables, and Sugar in Children

Description

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The

Childhood obesity is a worsening epidemic in the U.S. with substantial racial/ethnic and socioeconomic disparities. Community-based approaches are necessary to target populations that are disproportionately affected by childhood obesity. The current randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-based nutrition education and physical activity program that aims to improve cardiovascular fitness and promote healthy eating among families in the South Phoenix region, relative to a control condition. One of the goals of the intervention was to increase participating children's intake of fruits/vegetables and reduce their sugar intake, measured by a parent-reported food-frequency questionnaire. Data were collected on 110 child participants aged 6-11 years old. Relative to baseline values, participants in the intervention reportedly increased their fruit intake frequency by 0.12 + 2.0 times per day, whereas the control group decreased their intake by 0.32 + 1.28 times per day (p=0.026). Participants in the intervention group also increased their vegetable intake by 0.21 + 0.65 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake by 0.05 + 0.72 times per day (p=0.019). Participants in the intervention group decreased their intake of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake by 0.22 + 0.62 times per day, whereas control participants decreased their intake of SSBs by 0.04 + 0.40 times per day, however, the change observed in SSB intake was not significant between groups. Lastly, frequency of sugar-laden food intake decreased by 0.86 + 1.10 times per day among the intervention group, whereas control participants increased their intake by 0.02 + 1.10 times per day (p=0.033). The AFL study may serve as a framework for future community-based interventions to promote health in underserved areas.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Hispanic Men's Perspectives Related to Health, Physical Activity, and Nutrition: A Qualitative Study

Description

Hispanic men are a relatively under researched group, especially in regards to their health. The few studies performed on this population have found evidence that institutional barriers and access to

Hispanic men are a relatively under researched group, especially in regards to their health. The few studies performed on this population have found evidence that institutional barriers and access to information are some of the factors that may be affecting their health (Cherrington, Ayala, Scarinci & Corbie-Smith, 2011). However, little is known about other elements that may be affecting their health. The goal of this study was to attain a better understanding of Hispanic men's perspective related to health, nutrition, and physical activity outside of work. These topics were explored by performing focus group discussions. Each focus group discussion was audio recorded. These recordings were then transcribed and coded. The codes were categorized and examined using thematic analysis to identify key concepts. The purpose of this method was to identify recurring themes across focus groups. The results indicated that institutional barriers do indeed impact the health of this population. Long hours at work were found to have a negative impact on nutrition and a positive impact on physical activity levels for many of the participants. Factors such as spousal support, family involvement, and physical activity at work were some of the factors found to positively impact the health of this population. Due to variable work schedules, it was found that the best way to reach this particular sample with information on health is through their wives.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Association of Childhood Economic Hardship with Adult Height and Adult Adiposity among Hispanics/Latinos. The HCHS/SOL Socio-Cultural Ancillary Study

Description

The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based

The study examined the association of childhood and current economic hardship with anthropometric indices in Hispanic/Latino adults, using data from the HCHS/SOL Socio-cultural ancillary study (N = 5,084), a community-based study of Hispanic/Latinos living in four urban areas (Bronx, NY, Chicago, IL, Miami, FL, and San Diego, CA). Childhood economic hardship was defined as having experienced a period of time when one’s family had trouble paying for basic needs (e.g., food, housing), and when this economic hardship occurred: between 0–12, 13–18 years old, or throughout both of those times. Current economic hardship was defined as experiencing trouble paying for basic needs during the past 12 months. Anthropometry included height, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and percentage body fat (%BF). Complex survey linear regression models were used to test the associations of childhood economic hardship with adult anthropometric indices, adjusting for potential confounders (e.g., age, sex, Hispanic background). Childhood economic hardship varied by Hispanic background, place of birth, and adult socio-economic status. Childhood economic hardship during both periods, childhood and adolescence, was associated with shorter height. Childhood economic hardship was associated with greater adiposity among US born individuals only. Current economic hardship was significantly associated with all three measures of adiposity (BMI, WC, %BF). These findings suggest that previous periods of childhood economic hardship appear to influence adult height more than adiposity, whereas current economic hardship may be a better determinant of adult adiposity in Hispanics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-02-26

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Home food environment and dietary intake: a 12-week intervention randomized control trial in south Phoenix adults

Description

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between home food availability and dietary intake, few have assessed actual change in the home food environment as a result of an

Although many studies have looked into the relationship between home food availability and dietary intake, few have assessed actual change in the home food environment as a result of an intervention program. This secondary data analysis of the Athletes for Life 3 (AFL3) program investigated the efficacy of a randomized controlled 12-week community-based, family-focused exercise and dietary behavior intervention program in improving the home food environment of families with children between the ages of 6 and 11 years old. A total of twenty-six adults from Phoenix, Arizona allowed research staff into their homes to assess variety of food availability, using a modified version of the Home Food Inventory and were randomized to either the AFL3 program or wait-list control group. The main outcomes of interest were change in availability of vegetables, fruits, sugar-sweetened beverages and desserts and WIC-approved breakfast cereal. There was a significant increase in the number of vegetable items (3.88 ± 0.85; p=0.006) and WIC-approved cereal items (1.16 ± 0.31; p=0.003) in the homes of the intervention participants, relative to the wait-list control group. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in the number of sugar-sweetened beverage items (1.18 ± 0.31; p=0.014) available in wait-list control participant homes. There were no other significant findings related to home food availability. Furthermore, dietary intake among adult participants did not significantly change as a result of change in home availability. In conclusion, the AFL3 intervention program was successful in eliciting small but significant changes at a household level related to vegetable and WIC-approved breakfast cereal availability.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Parent outcomes for a family-based behavioral nutrition and physical activity program: the Athletes for Life study

Description

Background: Latinos have disproportionately high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Family-based interventions may reduce chronic disease risk among Latinos across generations.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Athletes

Background: Latinos have disproportionately high rates of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Family-based interventions may reduce chronic disease risk among Latinos across generations.

Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Athletes for Life (AFL), a 12-week community-and-family-based behavioral intervention, for improving diet, physical activity (PA), anthropometrics, fitness, and biochemical outcomes among mostly Latino parents.

Methods: Parents with at least one child 6-11 years of age were randomized to active AFL participation (n=14) or a wait-list control (n=14) group. AFL consisted of twice weekly 90 minute sessions (45 minutes of nutrition-focused lessons and 45 minutes of PA participation) designed to promote fruit and vegetable consumption, reduction of sugar intake, and increasing habitual PA. Data were collected prior to and immediately after the 12 week intervention.

Results: Participants (37.9±7.2y) were mostly Latino (93%), Spanish speaking (68%), and women (93%). Relative to participants in the control group, AFL participants had a significant reduction in body fat (-1.1±1.2% vs. 0.2±1.2%; p=0.014), resting (-7.6±10.2 bpm vs. +2.1±6.8 bpm; p<0.01), exercise (-8.4±8.7 bpm vs. +0.4±7.3 bpm; p<0.01), and recovery heart rate (-11.9±12.8 bpm vs. -0.3±11.4 bpm; p=0.01), and one mile run time (-1.5±1.0 min vs. -0.1±0.9 min; p<0.01), and a significant increase in estimated VO2 peak (+1.9±1.9 ml/kg/min vs. 0.0±1.8 ml/kg/min; p=0.01). AFL participants also reported an increase in the number of days/week accumulating 30 minutes of MVPA (+0.8±3.2 vs. -1.5±2.3; p=0.004) and daily servings of fruits (+1.3±1.4 vs. +0.3±1.4; p<0.05) and vegetables (+1.8±1.7 vs. +0.1±1.2; p<0.05), relative to control participants. There were no significant differences between groups in changes in diet assessed by 3-day food record, accelerometer-measured PA, weight, blood pressure, visceral fat, biomarkers for cardiovascular disease or nutritional biomarkers.

Conclusions: Despite the lack of effects on diet and PA behaviors, AFL shows promising preliminary efficacy for reducing body fat and improving fitness among adult participants. Future research aimed at improving fitness among Latino parents with family-based intervention is warranted.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Factors associated with the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status: the New Jersey Childhood Obesity Study

Description

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated

Objectives: Although childhood obesity has received growing attention, parents still fail to recognize overweight and obesity in their children. Accurate identification of overweight or obesity in their child is associated with the parent's responsiveness to interventions aimed at preventing weight-related health issues. Recent research shows that a child's age and gender are associated with parental misperception of their child's weight status, but little is known about the interaction of these factors across various age groups. This study examined the association between a wide range of parent, child, and household factors and the accuracy of parental perception of their child's body weight status compared to parent-measured body weight status. Methods: Data were collected from a random-digit-dial telephone survey of 1708 households located in five low-income New Jersey cities with large minority populations. A subset of 548 children whose parents completed the survey and returned a worksheet of parent-measured heights and weights were the focus of the analysis. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the factors significantly associated with parental perception of their child's body weight status. Results: Based on parent-measure heights and weights, 36% of the children were overweight or obese (OWOB). Only 21% of OWOB children were perceived by their parents as OWOB. Child gender, child body mass index (BMI) and parent BMI were significant independent predictors of parents' accuracy at perceiving their child's body weight status. Conclusion: Boys, OWOB children, and children of OWOB parents had significantly greater odds of parental underestimation of their body weight status. Parents had better recognition of OWOB in their daughters, especially older daughters, than in their sons, suggesting parental gender bias in identifying OWOB in children. Further research is needed regarding parental gender bias and its implications in OWOB identification in children.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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The impact of a workplace environmental change on work-related outcomes: productivity, presenteeism and cognition

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a workplace environmental intervention would improve work-related outcomes including productivity, presenteeism and cognition. The secondary aim was to investigate whether work-related

The purpose of this study was to examine whether a workplace environmental intervention would improve work-related outcomes including productivity, presenteeism and cognition. The secondary aim was to investigate whether work-related outcomes are correlated to observed changes in sitting time, physical activity, and sleep. The study was introduced as part of a naturalistic environmental change in which university staff and faculty were relocated into a new building (n=23). The comparison group consisted of university staff within the same college with no imminent plans to re-locate during the intervention period; there were no environmental changes to this workplace (n =10). Participants wore two behavioral monitoring devices, activPAL and GeneActiv, for 7 consecutive days at two time points (immediately prior and 16 weeks following the office relocation). Measures of productivity and presenteeism were obtained via four validated questionnaires and participants underwent cognitive performance testing. Baseline adjusted analysis of covariance statistical analyses were used to examine differences between groups in work-related outcomes. A residual analysis in regression was conducted to determine the differences between observed changes in sitting time, physical activity and sleep, and work-related outcomes. The results showed that a reduction in work hour sitting time was not detrimental to work related outcomes. Decreased sitting was observed to potentially improve presenteeism and absenteeism. Additionally, physical activity was shown to modestly improve productivity, presenteeism and absenteeism. Poor sleep patterns were associated with work impairment and increased absenteeism.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014