Matching Items (16)

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Implicit Racial Bias in Engineering Education

Description

With the ongoing development of simulation technology, classic barriers to social interactions are beginning to be dismantled. One such exchange is encapsulated within education—instructors can use simulations to make difficult

With the ongoing development of simulation technology, classic barriers to social interactions are beginning to be dismantled. One such exchange is encapsulated within education—instructors can use simulations to make difficult topics more manageable and accessible to students. Within simulations that include virtual humans, however, there are important factors to consider. Participants playing in virtual environments will act in a way that is consistent with their real-world behaviors—including their implicit biases. The current study seeks to determine the impact of virtual humans’ skin tone on participants’ behaviors when applying engineering concepts to simulated projects. Within a comparable study focused on a medical training simulation, significantly more errors and delays were made when working for the benefit of dark-skinned patients in a virtual context. In the current study, participants were given a choose-your-own-adventure style game in which they constructed simulated bridges for either a light- ordark-skinned community, and the number of errors and time taken for each decision was tracked. Results are expected to be consistent with previous study, indicating a higher number of errors and less time taken for each decision, although these results may be attenuated by a
lack of time pressure and urgency to the given situations. If these expected results hold, there may be implications for both undergraduate engineering curriculum and real-world engineering endeavors.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Fastpass to Immersion: Design Principles for Immersive Theme Park Attractions

Description

Immersion has become a key buzzword in the theme park industry, with many themed lands and attractions being designed with this objective in mind. This paper defines immersion through the

Immersion has become a key buzzword in the theme park industry, with many themed lands and attractions being designed with this objective in mind. This paper defines immersion through the concept of the ironic imagination and examines its role in theme park attractions. A literature review was first conducted to identify general design principles for the creation of immersive theme park attractions. Authentic settings that utilize all of the senses were considered first, along with a system of positive and negative cues for evaluating immersive experiences. The importance of simple and emotional stories was also addressed, before investigating the role that employees and guests play in an immersive attraction. Eight design principles were identified, and using these principles a blue sky design for an immersive theme park attraction was developed. An overview of the attraction is included and accompanied by an analysis of how the design principles were applied.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Isolated text as design method for signaling learners in a multimedia learning task

Description

Web-based learning resources have been criticized as being developed with minimal consideration as to the effectiveness of the design principles or guidelines used to create them. Extraneous material is oftentimes

Web-based learning resources have been criticized as being developed with minimal consideration as to the effectiveness of the design principles or guidelines used to create them. Extraneous material is oftentimes present and necessary for learners to engage in effective learning with multimedia learning material. Signaling learners towards important information between images and corresponding text has been shown to be an effective method for providing learners a way to quickly find information between the two parts of the learning material. However, not all signaling methods are equally effective in all applications. This study investigates a novel signaling method, using spatial isolation of text, as a way to signal learners in a web-based format compared to a traditional highlighting method and a non-signaled control group. Improved learning performance was observed for knowledge retention using text isolation as the signaling method, but no other significant effects were observed between the other conditions. Additionally, transfer of knowledge across all conditions showed no significant differences either. While minimal support for the effectiveness of isolated text signaling was demonstrated, the statistical means trend across all post-test knowledge assessments suggest that further evaluation of the novel signaling method is justified.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Improving proctoring by using non-verbal cues during remotely administrated exams

Description

This study investigated the ability to relate a test taker’s non-verbal cues during online assessments to probable cheating incidents. Specifically, this study focused on the role of time delay, head

This study investigated the ability to relate a test taker’s non-verbal cues during online assessments to probable cheating incidents. Specifically, this study focused on the role of time delay, head pose and affective state for detection of cheating incidences in a lab-based online testing session. The analysis of a test taker’s non-verbal cues indicated that time delay, the variation of a student’s head pose relative to the computer screen and confusion had significantly statistical relation to cheating behaviors. Additionally, time delay, head pose relative to the computer screen, confusion, and the interaction term of confusion and time delay were predictors in a support vector machine of cheating prediction with an average accuracy of 70.7%. The current algorithm could automatically flag suspicious student behavior for proctors in large scale online courses during remotely administered exams.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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The effect of story narrative in multimedia learning

Description

ELearning, distance learning, has been a fast-developing topic in educational area. In 1999, Mayer put forward “Cognitive Theory of Multimedia learning” (Moreno, & Mayer, 1999). The theory consisted of several

ELearning, distance learning, has been a fast-developing topic in educational area. In 1999, Mayer put forward “Cognitive Theory of Multimedia learning” (Moreno, & Mayer, 1999). The theory consisted of several principles. One of the principles, Modality Principle describes that when learners are presented with spoken words, their performance are better than that with on-screen texts (Mayer, R., Dow, & Mayer, S. 2003; Moreno, & Mayer, 1999).It gave an implication that learners performance can be affected by modality of learning materials. A very common tool in education in literature and language is narrative. This way of storytelling has received success in practical use. The advantages of using narrative includes (a) inherent format advantage such as simple structure and familiar language and ideas, (b) motivating learners, (c) facilitate listening, (d) oral ability and (e)provide schema for comparison in comprehension.

Although this storytelling method has been widely used in literature, language and even moral education, few studies focused it on science and technology area.

The study aims to test the effect of narrative effect in multimedia setting with science topic. A script-based story was applied. The multimedia settings include a virtual human with synthetic speech, and animation on a solar cell lesson. The experiment design is a randomized alternative- treatments design, in which participants are requested to watch a video with pedagogical agent in story format or not. Participants were collected from Amazon Mechanical Turk.

Result of transfer score and retention score showed that no significant difference between narrative and non-narrative condition. Discussion was put forward for future study.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Increasing the Effectiveness of Error Messages in a Computer Programming and Simulation Tool

Description

Each programming language has a compiler associated with it which helps to identify logical or syntactical errors in the program. These compiler error messages play important part in the form

Each programming language has a compiler associated with it which helps to identify logical or syntactical errors in the program. These compiler error messages play important part in the form of formative feedback for the programmer. Thus, the error messages should be constructed carefully, considering the affective and cognitive needs of programmers. This is especially true for systems that are used in educational settings, as the messages are typically seen by students who are novice programmers. If the error messages are hard to understand then they might discourage students from understanding or learning the programming language. The primary goal of this research is to identify methods to make the error messages more effective so that students can understand them better and simultaneously learn from their mistakes. This study is focused on understanding how the error message affects the understanding of the error and the approach students take to solve the error. In this study, three types of error messages were provided to the students. The first type is Default type error message which is an assembler centric error message. The second type is Link type error message which is a descriptive error message along with a link to the appropriate section of the PLP manual. The third type is Example type error message which is again a descriptive error message with an example of the similar type of error along with correction step. All these error types were developed for the PLP assembly language. A think-aloud experiment was designed and conducted on the students. The experiment was later transcribed and coded to understand different approach students take to solve different type of error message. After analyzing the result of the think-aloud experiment it was found that student read the Link type error message completely and they understood and learned from the error message to solve the error. The results also indicated that Link type was more helpful compare to other types of error message. The Link type made error solving process more effective compared to other error types.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Multidimensional approach to implicit bias and the underlying cognitive mechanism

Description

Social categories such as race and gender are associated by people with certain characteristics (e.g. males are angry), which unconsciously affects how people evaluate and react to a person of

Social categories such as race and gender are associated by people with certain characteristics (e.g. males are angry), which unconsciously affects how people evaluate and react to a person of specific social categories. This phenomenon, referred to as implicit bias, has been the interest of many social psychologists. However, the implicit bias research has been focusing on only one social category at a time, despite humans being entities of multiple social categories. The research also neglects the behavioral contexts in which implicit biases are triggered and rely on a broad definition for the locus of the bias regulation mechanism. These limitations raise questions on whether the current bias reduction strategies are effective. The current dissertation sought to address these limitations by introducing an ecologically valid and multidimensional method. In Chapters 1 and 2, the mouse-tracking task was integrated into the implicit association task to examine how implicit biases were moderated in different behavioral contexts. The results demonstrated that the manifestation of implicit biases depended on the behavioral context as well as the distinctive identity created by the combinations of different social categories. Chapter 3 laid groundwork for testing working memory as the processing capacity for the bias regulation mechanism. The result suggested that the hand-motion tracking indices of working memory load could be used to infer the capacity of an individual to suppress the influence of implicit bias. In Chapter 4, the mouse-tracking paradigm was integrated into the Stroop task with implicit associations serving as the Stroop targets. The implicit associations produced various effects including the conflict adaptation effect, like the Stroop targets, which suggested that implicit associations and Stroop stimuli are handled by overlapping cognitive mechanisms. Throughout these efforts, the current dissertation, first, demonstrated that a more ecologically valid and multidimensional approach is required to understand biased behaviors in detail. Furthermore, the current dissertation suggested the cognitive control mechanism as a finer definition for the locus of the bias regulation mechanism, which could be leveraged to offer solutions that are more adaptive and effective in the environment where collaboration and harmony are more important than ever.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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The role of teamwork in predicting movie earnings

Description

Intelligence analysts’ work has become progressively complex due to increasing security threats and data availability. In order to study “big” data exploration within the intelligence domain the intelligence analyst

Intelligence analysts’ work has become progressively complex due to increasing security threats and data availability. In order to study “big” data exploration within the intelligence domain the intelligence analyst task was abstracted and replicated in a laboratory (controlled environment). Participants used a computer interface and movie database to determine the opening weekend gross movie earnings of three pre-selected movies. Data consisted of Twitter tweets and predictive models. These data were displayed in various formats such as graphs, charts, and text. Participants used these data to make their predictions. It was expected that teams (a team is a group with members who have different specialties and who work interdependently) would outperform individuals and groups. That is, teams would be significantly better at predicting “Opening Weekend Gross” than individuals or groups. Results indicated that teams outperformed individuals and groups in the first prediction, under performed in the second prediction, and performed better than individuals in the third prediction (but not better than groups). Insights and future directions are discussed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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The effect of embedded questions in programming education videos

Description

One of the primary objective in a computer science related course is for students to be able to write programs implementing the concepts covered in that course. In educational psychology,

One of the primary objective in a computer science related course is for students to be able to write programs implementing the concepts covered in that course. In educational psychology, however, learning gains are more commonly measured using recall or problem solving questions. While these types of questions are relevant to computer science exams, they do not necessarily reflect a student’s ability to apply concepts by writing an original program to solve a novel problem.

This thesis investigates the effectiveness of including questions within instructional multimedia content to improve student performance on a related programming assignment. Similar techniques have proven effective in educational psychology research using other measures. The objective of this thesis is to apply educational techniques used in other domains to an experiment with real world measures of students in a computer science course. The findings of this paper demonstrate that the techniques used were promising in improving student performance on a programming assignment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Teaching nutrition to preschool students using the temporal contiguity principle

Description

Multimedia learning has become increasingly popular as it proceeds to understand how different senses such as the visual and auditory systems work together to present information. The aim of the

Multimedia learning has become increasingly popular as it proceeds to understand how different senses such as the visual and auditory systems work together to present information. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of temporal contiguity, a principle of multimedia learning, while displaying images and narration of fruits and vegetables to increase memorization of content. 21 preschool students between the ages of 4 and 5 from Arizona State University’s Child Study Lab were recruited for the purpose of the study. Students received one of two versions of a short video while inside the classroom. The two videos displayed information either at the same time or successively. Children’s knowledge was assessed with a drag and drop categorization game. The findings show there were no significant differences between the two conditions. Future studies should consider a longer training period when developing multimedia learning technology to ensure content is retained.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019