Matching Items (14)

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Cooling the Heat Island in Compact Urban Environments: The Effectiveness of Chicago's Green Alley Program

Description

To build 21st century sustainable cities, officials are installing alternative infrastructure technologies to reduce atmospheric environmental problems such as the urban heat island (UHI). The purpose of this study is

To build 21st century sustainable cities, officials are installing alternative infrastructure technologies to reduce atmospheric environmental problems such as the urban heat island (UHI). The purpose of this study is to further our understanding of how ground-level UHI mitigation strategies in compact urban areas impact air temperatures. The term ‘cool pavement’ refers to both reflective and porous pavements. While cool pavements are identified as UHI mitigation strategies, we evaluated their in-situ effectiveness on air and surface temperatures. Using a case-control research design, we measured the impact of these pavements on air temperature relative to conventional asphalt in alleys. In locations where high vertical walls constrained the release of solar radiation, reflective pavements increased air temperatures. In two neighborhoods, reflective concrete increased daytime 3-meter air temperatures by 0.9° C and 0.5° C respectively and had no influence on nighttime temperatures. Unlike reflective pavement, porous pavements permit percolation and may contribute to cooling through evaporation. However, our research illustrated that porous asphalt and porous concrete increased maximum daytime air temperatures by 0.8° C and 0.5° C and did not lower nighttime air temperatures. While porous concrete pavers had significantly warmer midday air temperatures, it was the only cool pavement strategy to yield lower early evening air temperatures relative to conventional asphalt. Even immediately after rain events, the air temperatures above the porous pavements were not significantly cooler. This research demonstrates our need to evaluate real world installations of cool pavement to determine their actual impact on decreasing summertime temperatures.

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Date Created
  • 2015-09-14

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Walking Through Phoenix: How Compact Cities Can Inform Walkable Design in the Desert

Description

The City of Phoenix has historically been developed in an unsustainable way based on the way that autocentric cities have come to mature. By learning from a few European cities,

The City of Phoenix has historically been developed in an unsustainable way based on the way that autocentric cities have come to mature. By learning from a few European cities, Phoenix can focus on improving in a few key areas that will make the valley more walkable, enjoyable, and beautiful. This process of learning from other European cities can help developers, designers, and others in the development community to improve all of the valley’s different communities with a consistent plan of increasing urban density and ending outward sprawl while redefining the connective tissue that makes up Phoenix. This paper is meant to provide a set of example cities in order to pull specific recommendations and create a system of guidelines for all autocentric cities.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

Sustainable Track Stadiums of the 21st Century: Ecoregional Design

Description

This thesis will discuss how design strategies reduce the impact track venues
have on the environment and how to enhance the sense of place by investigating
ecoregional design for now

This thesis will discuss how design strategies reduce the impact track venues
have on the environment and how to enhance the sense of place by investigating
ecoregional design for now and for the future. The specific site where examples of
sustainable design will be implemented is at the proposed new Arizona State University
Track and field that will be relocated as part of the Novus Innovation Corridor Athletic
Village. First, we will discuss the impact sports have on our health and culture and why
athletics matters to society. Understanding the history of track and field and the
evolution of track stadiums and looking at current designs of stadiums will provide
insight for future track designs. Next, we will look at some existing track stadiums
around the United States and how each design is adjusted to the climate and weather of
the region to help the stadium last longer and be more sustainable. After that, we will
look at what is working for the existing Sun Angel Stadium and what should be improved
and implemented in the new design. Lastly, we will explore a proposed design for the
new Sun Angel Track Stadium and how it will benefit the student athletes, spectators,
and the environment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

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Theorizing the 21st Century City: Urban Design through the SETS Framework

Description

As the move towards sustainable urbanism grows, understanding how the city has previously been envisioned and designed will be useful to moving forward. This work examines the legacy of urban

As the move towards sustainable urbanism grows, understanding how the city has previously been envisioned and designed will be useful to moving forward. This work examines the legacy of urban design theories, what these theories have implied about what the city should be, and their sustainability consequences. Noticing three prominent urban design visions of the city, the technological city (as proposed in 1922 by Le Corbusier's Ville contemporaine and later in 1933 by his Ville Radieuse (The Radiant City), and in 1935 by Frank Lloyd Wright's' Broadacre City), the social city (as explored in 1961 by Jane Jacobs and in 1976 by Edward Relph of the University of Chicago), and the ecological city (as expounded upon in 1924 by both Lewis Mumford and in 1969 by Ian McHarg), I have newly applied the social-ecological-technical systems framework (SETS) to help classify and analyze these urban design theories and how they have mixed to create hybrid perspectives in more recent urban design theory. Lastly, I have proposed an urban design theory that envisions the sustainable city as an ongoing process. Hopefully, this vision that will hopefully be useful to the future of sustainable development in cities, as will a more organized understanding of urban design theories and their sustainability outcomes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Transitioning to a More Sustainable Common Space in an Arizona HOA

Description

The suburbs provoke a deeply polarized reaction, more so than most other components of the urban landscape. Those who live in the suburbs often love them for their quietude and

The suburbs provoke a deeply polarized reaction, more so than most other components of the urban landscape. Those who live in the suburbs often love them for their quietude and their spaciousness, even while urban designers lament suburban sprawl. Regardless, suburbs are deeply entrenched in patterns of American urban land use, so an evolution to more sustainable land use will require incremental changes to suburban landscapes. The purpose of this project is twofold: one, to design a transition to a more sustainable landscape for an HOA in Gilbert, Arizona; and two, to abstract the process of designing this transition so that it can be applied on a larger scale.

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Date Created
  • 2018-05

The Regenerative Confluence of Water

Description

The intent of this study is to develop a new eco-cultural design model of development for the Salt River watershed and surrounding areas with renewed respect for the land in

The intent of this study is to develop a new eco-cultural design model of development for the Salt River watershed and surrounding areas with renewed respect for the land in modern society. It includes both conceptual and practical community guides to facilitate and catalyze a new community-driven typology of planning prepared for rapid community change and climate challenges. This study includes the review of prominent existing projects, both regionally and globally, with expertise in the areas of urban development, culture and place keeping/making, ecology and water management. This study aims to exhibit the diverse components of urbanism and its effects on the Salt River corridor, surrounding urban ecosystems and climate. This thesis argues for simultaneous and codependent cultural and ecological growth and healing, and its necessity for sustainable urban development. Lastly, an urban revitalization framework is manifested in a community-oriented handbook based on key findings to produce a unified vision executed by watershed community co-design of the Phoenix metropolitan area.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Community Gardening and Learning

Description

The goal of this creative thesis is to construct and implement an outdoor learning environment for the students who currently attend AIM's homework club. The project is underway and will be undergoing construction over the next few months.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Creation of a Walkability Evaluation Tool

Description

Following the prolific car-centric design of the twentieth century, many cities are grappling with increasing pedestrian deaths and greater vehicle congestion. To solve these problems, many of these cities are

Following the prolific car-centric design of the twentieth century, many cities are grappling with increasing pedestrian deaths and greater vehicle congestion. To solve these problems, many of these cities are expressing a desire to create more effective and vibrant walkable places. Aside from safety, numerous benefits come from pedestrian friendly communities, including greater economic activity, better health, greater social capital, and less environmental impact. Although there are several tools already available, evaluating an area’s current walkability situation is still varied, and evaluating a pedestrian’s thoughts on safety and enjoyability is also difficult. The benefits of walkability and past and present tools are summarized in this paper. The goal of this paper was to create a walkability evaluation tool that included smaller, often overlooked aspects of the sidewalk and site design that contribute to a pedestrian’s experience and safety. The author developed a tool containing 40 different measures of the sidewalk concerning safety, connectivity, enjoyment, and accessibility, as well as created methods for visualizing the data. The tool was then utilized to gather data at six Phoenix-metro area intersections using a combination of on street data collection and GIS software and Google Street View. The paper also details suggestions on how to act upon the data and improve walkability in an area, including minor street alterations and larger policy shifts in zoning codes. Although in preliminary data collection the tool provides a good snapshot of the data, further development of the tool and assessment of its reliability are needed, as well as greater data collection to compare evaluated areas to a larger region.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-12

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Re-imagining Rio Salado's Sensory Experience: Restorative Design Promoting Sensory and Healing Environments for Children with Sensory Processing Disorder

Description

This project focuses on providing a series of Sensory Design Guidelines (SDG) for the creation of restorative environments for people and nature promoting cognitive health, motor skill development, and outdoor

This project focuses on providing a series of Sensory Design Guidelines (SDG) for the creation of restorative environments for people and nature promoting cognitive health, motor skill development, and outdoor therapy for urban society’s most vulnerable. Although the project framework is structured around guidelines for the creation of spaces specifically designed for children with Sensory Processing Disorder, it is not restricted to that specific application. Guidelines are further developed structured around inclusive and universal design approaches.

The project is divided into four sections. The first section explores what Sensory Processing Disorder is, how Occupational Therapy with Sensory Integration positively impacts healing processes, and how designers can expand this processing into the natural healing environment of the great outdoors in a toxic and urbanized world. The second section discusses the vision, goals and objectives for implementation of Sensory Design Guidelines as discussed in the third section. And finally, the fourth section provides a conceptual example of what SDG would look like when applied to a physical site along a natural corridor in a densely urbanized landscape.

The final example of SDG implementation is applied to a site along the Salt River (Rio Salado) Corridor in Phoenix, Arizona. The Corridor is the subject of a coordinated inter-agency public/private restoration initiative spanning more than fifty-five miles along the Salt River that has been strongly supported by former U.S. Senator John McCain and greatly influenced by active involvement from Arizona State University students. The designated example site is designed as one site to be utilized in a larger network of easily accessible Sensory sites, each to be designed with a different approach to sensory development, as well as variation in challenges based on age and sensory abilities. Guidelines are intended to work in conjunction with future local projects promoting social and ecological growth and wellbeing, such as the Phoenix site is intended to work in conjunction with future Rio Re-imagined projects.

The findings, guidelines, and examples provided throughout the paper are focused on re-inventing the relationship between the built and natural environments in the urbanized landscape into one of daily nature-engagement and can be applied to any group living within an urban setting. By designing for society’s most vulnerable populations, design application benefits not only the individual, but creates a resilient, healthy environment for the entire urban population today, and for future generations.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Heat mitigation in hot urban deserts: measuring actualities, magnitude and effectiveness

Description

Urban-induced heating is a challenge to the livability and health of city dwellers. It is a complex issue that many cities are facing, and a more urgent hazard in hot

Urban-induced heating is a challenge to the livability and health of city dwellers. It is a complex issue that many cities are facing, and a more urgent hazard in hot urban deserts (HUDs) than elsewhere due to already high temperatures and aridity. The challenge compounds in the absence of more localized heat mitigation understanding. In addition, over-reliance on evidence from temperate regions is disconnected from the actualities of extreme bioclimatic dynamics found in HUDs. This dissertation is an integration of a series of studies that inform urban climate relationships specific to HUDs. This three-paper dissertation demonstrates heat mitigation aspirational goals from actualities, depicts local urban thermal drivers in Kuwait, and then tests morphological sensitivity of selected thermal modulation strategies in one neighborhood in Kuwait City.

The first paper is based on a systematic literature review where evidence from morphological mitigation strategies in HUDs were critically reviewed, synthesized and integrated. Metrics, measurements, and methods were extracted to examine the applicability of the different strategies, and a content synthesis identified the levels of strategy success. Collective challenges and uncertainties were interpreted to compare aspirational goals from actualities of morphological mitigation strategies.

The second paper unpacks the relationship of urban morphological attributes in influencing thermal conditions to assess latent magnitudes of heat amelioration strategies. Mindful of the challenges presented in the first study, a 92-day summer field-measurement campaign captured system dynamics of urban thermal stimuli within sub-diurnal phenomena. A composite data set of sub-hourly air temperature measurements with sub-meter morphological attributes was built, statistically analyzed, and modeled. Morphological mediation effects were found to vary hourly with different patterns under varying weather conditions in non-linear associations. Results suggest mitigation interventions be investigated and later tested on a site- use and time-use basis.

The third paper concludes with a simulation-based study to conform on the collective findings of the earlier studies. The microclimate model ENVI-met 4.4, combined with field measurements, was used to simulate the effect of rooftop shade-sails in cooling the near ground thermal environment. Results showed significant cooling effects and thus presented a novel shading approach that challenges orthodox mitigation strategies in HUDs.

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Date Created
  • 2019