Matching Items (10)

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Young adult maturing out of alcohol involvement: : moderated effects among marriage, developmental changes in personality, and late adolescent alcohol involvement

Description

Research has shown that a developmental process of maturing out of alcohol involvement occurs during young adulthood, and that this process is related to both young adult role transitions (e.g.,

Research has shown that a developmental process of maturing out of alcohol involvement occurs during young adulthood, and that this process is related to both young adult role transitions (e.g., marriage) and personality developmental (e.g., decreased disinhibition and neuroticism). The current study extended past research by testing whether protective marriage and personality effects on maturing out were stronger among more severe late adolescent drinkers, and whether protective marriage effects were stronger among those who experienced more personality development. Parental alcoholism and gender were tested as moderators of marriage, personality, and late adolescent drinking effects on maturing out; and as distal predictors mediated by these effects. Participants were a subsample (N = 844; 51% children of alcoholics; 53% male, 71% non-Hispanic Caucasian, 27% Hispanic; Chassin, Barrera, Bech, & Kossak-Fuller, 1992) from a larger longitudinal study of familial alcoholism. Hypotheses were tested with latent growth models characterizing alcohol consumption and drinking consequence trajectories from late adolescence to adulthood (age 17-40). Past findings were replicated by showing protective effects of becoming married, sensation-seeking reductions, and neuroticism reductions on the drinking trajectories. Moderation tests showed that protective marriage effects on the drinking trajectories were stronger among those with higher pre-marriage drinking in late adolescence (i.e., higher growth intercepts). This might reflect role socialization mechanisms such that more severe drinking produces more conflict with the demands of new roles (i.e., role incompatibility), thus requiring greater drinking reductions to resolve this conflict. In contrast, little evidence was found for moderation of personality effects by late adolescent drinking or for moderation of marriage effects by personality. Parental alcoholism findings suggested complex moderated mediation pathways. Parental alcoholism predicted less drinking reduction through decreasing the likelihood of marriage (mediation) and muting marriage's effect on the drinking trajectories (moderation), but parental alcoholism also predicted more drinking reduction through increasing initial drinking in late adolescence (mediation). The current study provides new insights into naturally occurring processes of recovery during young adulthood and suggests that developmentally-tailored interventions for young adults could harness these natural recovery processes (e.g., by integrating role incompatibility themes and addressing factors that block role effects among those with familial alcoholism).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Investigating the Combined Effects of Alcohol Expectancies and Subjective Response on Future Drinking: An Interaction Approach

Description

Past research suggests that both Alcohol Expectancies and Subjective Response are strong predictors of drinking. However, most studies do not account for the shared variance or relations between the two.

Past research suggests that both Alcohol Expectancies and Subjective Response are strong predictors of drinking. However, most studies do not account for the shared variance or relations between the two. Social cognitive and expectancy theories suggest that cognitions may distort reality, creating a discrepancy between expected and subjective effects. Only one study has tested the effects of such discrepancies (Morean et al., 2015), but that study was cross-sectional, making it impossible to determine the direction of effects. As such, the present study sought to test prospective associations between expectancy-subjective response interactions and future drinking behavior. Participants (N=448) were randomly assigned to receive alcohol (target blood alcohol alcohol =.08 g%) or placebo, with 270 in the alcohol condition. Alcohol expectancies and subjective response were assessed across the full range of affective space of valence by arousal. Hierarchical regression tested whether expectancies, subjective response, and their interaction predicted follow-up drinking in 258 participants who reached a blood alcohol curve of >.06 (to differentiate blood alcohol curve limbs). Covariates included gender, age, drinking context, and baseline drinking. High arousal subjective response was tested on the ascending limb and low arousal subjective response on the descending limb. High arousal positive expectancies and subjective response interacted to predict future drinking, such that mean and low levels of high arousal positive subjective response were associated with more drinking when expectancies were higher. High arousal negative expectancies and subjective response also interacted to predict future drinking, such that high levels of high arousal negative subjective response marginally predicted more drinking when expectancies were lower. There were no interactions between low arousal positive or low arousal negative expectancies and subjective response. Results suggest that those who expected high arousal positive subjective response but did not receive many of these effects drank more, and those who did not expect to feel high arousal negative subjective response but did in fact feel these effects also drank more. The results suggest that challenging inaccurate positive expectancies and increasing awareness of true negative subjective response may be efficacious ways to reduce drinking.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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The Role of Social Media Use in Adolescent Alcohol Use Accounting for Peer Alcohol Use

Description

This study aimed to advance understanding of the relation between social media and adolescent alcohol use while accounting for offline peer alcohol use, exploring offline peer alcohol use separately as

This study aimed to advance understanding of the relation between social media and adolescent alcohol use while accounting for offline peer alcohol use, exploring offline peer alcohol use separately as a covariate and as a moderator, with an additional exploratory analysis of the relation between social media and alcohol use without offline peer alcohol use in the model. A total of 868 students (55% female) in grade 7 (n = 468) and grade 8 (n = 400) at wave 1, self-reported on alcohol use, binge drinking, and social media use as well as nominated friends from their school and grade. Data from nominated peers who also completed the questionnaires were used for peer-report of alcohol use. Data were collected annually from students at grades 8, 9, 10, and 11 were used in analyses. Final structural models consisted of a cross-lagged panel design with saved factor scores for social media and peer alcohol use predicting a categorical alcohol use variable or a binary binge drinking variable. With offline peer alcohol use as a covariate in the model, social media did not prospectively relate to subsequent grade alcohol use or binge drinking. However, without offline peer alcohol use, the path from social media use to subsequent grade alcohol use was significant but not the path to binge drinking. Offline peer alcohol use did not significantly moderate the relation between social media and subsequent grade alcohol use or binge drinking.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Are subjective effects more extreme with higher-potency cannabis?: a within-person comparison of the subjective effects of marijuana and butane hash oil

Description

Background: Hash oil, a cannabis preparation that contains ultra-high concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is quickly gaining popularity in the United States. Some evidence suggests that hash oil might produce greater

Background: Hash oil, a cannabis preparation that contains ultra-high concentrations of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), is quickly gaining popularity in the United States. Some evidence suggests that hash oil might produce greater intoxication and more severe negative effects than marijuana. This study examined whether the subjective effects of hash oil are more extreme than the subjective effects of marijuana and whether frequency of hash oil use is associated with the subjective effects of marijuana and hash oil. Method: Past-year cannabis users (n = 1,268) were recruited online to complete a questionnaire about the subjective effects of cannabis. Participants who reported past-year use of both hash oil and marijuana (n = 574) rated subjective effects of each type of cannabis in the following positive and negative domains: positive affect, cognitive enhancement, negative affect, cognitive impairment, physiological effects, reduced consciousness, and psychotic-like experiences. Results: Results of within-person comparisons showed that hash oil was rated as producing lesser positive effects (Hash oil: M = 4.53, Marijuana: M = 5.55, t = 14.67, p < .001) than marijuana. Negative effects of hash oil were minimal for the full sample (n = 574) and for both frequent and infrequent hash oil users. In general, the frequency of hash oil use was not associated with the subjective effects of marijuana but more frequent hash oil use was associated with rating hash oil as producing greater positive effects ( = 0.28, t = 6.86, p < .001) and lesser negative effects ( = -0.16, t = -3.83, p < .001). Findings were unchanged after controlling for sex, medical cannabis use, and frequency of marijuana use.

Conclusions: Hash oil produced lesser positive effects than marijuana. Negative effects of hash oil were minimal, suggesting that extreme negative effects may be unlikely for experienced cannabis users.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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High-Risk Sexual Behavior and Substance Use During Young Adulthood: Gender-Specific Developmental Trajectories and the Influence of Early Trauma, and Adolescent Peer and Family Processes

Description

High-risk sexual behavior (HRSB) and substance use (SU) are highly prevalent in the general population with adolescents and young adults at high risk for engaging in these behaviors. Unhealthy behavioral

High-risk sexual behavior (HRSB) and substance use (SU) are highly prevalent in the general population with adolescents and young adults at high risk for engaging in these behaviors. Unhealthy behavioral patterns established during these developmental periods can have detrimental long-term effects on physical and mental health. Health care expenditures, related to consequences of these behaviors, have been estimated to reach around $740 billion in the United States, indicating an imminent public health concern. Unfortunately, little is known about trajectories and risk factors of health risk behaviors (HRBs) beyond age 25, which is a critical developmental period regarding these behaviors. This study sought to better understand HRB trajectories throughout young adulthood as well as the mechanisms underlying the initiation and progression of these behaviors. This study used data from a large (n = 998), longitudinal, randomized-controlled trial with intensive measurement of HRBs and peer and family processes. Growth mixture modeling estimated gender-specific trajectories of HRSB and SU (tobacco, alcohol, marijuana) from ages 22-30. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) then examined how family and peer factors, and trauma exposure during adolescence, both separately and in combination, influenced HRB trajectories. Four unique trajectories resulted for SU (low use class; increasing use class; decreasing use class; high use class) and three for HRSB (low HRSB class; increasing HRSB class; deceasing HRSB class). There were no differences in the number of classes or trajectory patterns between men and women. Results of the MLRs demonstrated that deviant peer affiliation (DP), family conflict, parental monitoring and trauma exposure impacted trajectories of tobacco and marijuana use and HRSB during young adulthood, but that the most salient influences were DP and trauma exposure. Alcohol use trajectories and differences between the increasing, decreasing and high trajectory classes for the other HRBs were difficult to predict. These results suggest that young adults are still at risk for engaging in HRBs, and there are risk factors in adolescence that influence typologies of HRBs during this developmental period. Prevention and intervention programs targeting young adulthood are needed, and better understanding factors that lead to vulnerabilities specific to this developmental period may inform targeted interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Individual differences in subjective response to alcohol: pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors

Description

Variability in subjective response to alcohol has been shown to predict drinking behavior as well as the development of alcohol use disorders. The current study examined the extent to

Variability in subjective response to alcohol has been shown to predict drinking behavior as well as the development of alcohol use disorders. The current study examined the extent to which individual differences in alcohol pharmacokinetics impact subjective response and drinking behavior during a single session alcohol administration paradigm. Participants (N = 98) completed measures of subjective response at two time points following alcohol consumption. Pharmacokinetic properties (rate of absorption and metabolism) were inferred using multiple BAC readings to calculate the area under the curve during the ascending limb for absorption and descending limb for metabolism. Following the completion of the subjective response measures, an ad-libitum taste rating task was implemented in which participants were permitted to consume additional alcoholic beverages. The amount consumed during the taste rating task served as the primary outcome variable. Results of the study indicated that participants who metabolized alcohol more quickly maintained a greater level of subjective stimulation as blood alcohol levels declined and reported greater reductions in subjective sedation. Although metabolism did not have a direct influence on within session alcohol consumption, a faster metabolism did relate to increased ad-libitum consumption indirectly through greater acute tolerance to sedative effects and greater maintenance of stimulant effects. Rate of absorption did not significantly predict subjective response or within session drinking. The results of the study add clarity to theories of subjective response to alcohol, and suggest that those at highest risk for alcohol problems experience a more rapid reduction in sedation following alcohol consumption while simultaneously experiencing heightened levels of stimulation. Variability in pharmacokinetics, namely how quickly one metabolizes alcohol, may be an identifiable biomarker of subjective response and may be used to infer risk for alcohol problems.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Experimental Manipulation of Motivation and Self-Efficacy for Self-Control

Description

Self-control has been shown to be an important influence behind a variety of risk and protective behaviors, such as substance abuse. Although prior research points to the existence of multiple

Self-control has been shown to be an important influence behind a variety of risk and protective behaviors, such as substance abuse. Although prior research points to the existence of multiple dimensions of self-control, this concept is not consistently defined and frequently only studied as a conglomerate in clinical research. The current study sought to examine how two experimental manipulations of subcomponents of self-control (motivation and self-efficacy) affect real-world consumptive behavior after accounting for executive function. Additionally, the validity and reliability of a brief state survey measure of perceived self-control capacity, internal motivation, and external motivation was tested. The goal was to examine how basic scientific principles involved in self-control translate into clinically relevant behaviors, which may inform understanding of momentary lapses in self-control behavior, potentially leading to novel prevention and intervention efforts. 94 college students completed a 1-2 hour laboratory protocol during which they completed survey and laboratory-based tasks of self-control and related behaviors, executive function, and ad libitum alcohol consumption. Results showed that the self-efficacy manipulation successfully increased perceived self-control capacity, although this did not lead to a significant reduction in consumption. The motivation manipulation neither increased motivation nor reduced consumption in this sample. However, the brief state survey measure of self-control subcomponents demonstrated strong test-retest reliability and distinction from trait self-control, demonstrating its viability for use in future research. By elucidating the relationships between specific mechanisms of self-control, laboratory-based tasks and manipulations, and real-world consumptive behaviors, prevention and intervention efforts for problems such as alcohol abuse may be tailored to the needs of the individual and made more impactful and cost-effective.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Self-control motivation and capacity scale: a new measure of multiple facets of self-control

Description

Self-control has been shown to predict both health risk and health protective outcomes. Although top-down or “good” self-control is typically examined as a unidimensional construct, research on “poor” self-control suggests

Self-control has been shown to predict both health risk and health protective outcomes. Although top-down or “good” self-control is typically examined as a unidimensional construct, research on “poor” self-control suggests that multiple dimensions may be necessary to capture aspects of self-control. The current study sought to create a new brief survey measure of top-down self-control that differentiates between self-control capacity, internal motivation, and external motivation. Items were adapted from the Brief Self-Control Scale (BSCS; Tangney, Baumeister, & Boone, 2004) and were administered through two online surveys to 347 undergraduate students enrolled in introductory psychology courses at Arizona State University. The Self-Control Motivation and Capacity Survey (SCMCS) showed strong evidence of validity and reliability. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses supported a 3-factor structure of the scale consistent with the underlying theoretical model. The final 15-item measure demonstrated excellent model fit, chi-square = 89.722 p=.077, CFI = .989, RMSEA = .032, SRMR = .045. Despite several limitations including the cross-sectional nature of most analyses, self-control capacity, internal motivation, and external motivation uniquely related to various self-reported behavioral outcomes, and accounted for additional variance beyond that accounted for by the BSCS. Future studies are needed to establish the stability of multiple dimensions of self-control, and to develop state-like and domain-specific measures of self-control. While more research in this area is needed, the current study demonstrates the importance of studying multiple aspects of top-down self-control, and may ultimately facilitate the tailoring of interventions to the needs of individuals based on unique profiles of self-control capacity and motivation.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016

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Effects of early internalizing symptoms on speed of transition through stages of alcohol involvement

Description

Alcohol use disorders and internalizing disorders are highly comorbid in adults, but how this comorbidity unfolds over development is not well understood. Previous retrospective studies in adults have shown that

Alcohol use disorders and internalizing disorders are highly comorbid in adults, but how this comorbidity unfolds over development is not well understood. Previous retrospective studies in adults have shown that internalizing problems are associated with a rapid transition from first drink and first regular drinking to the onset of alcohol dependence. Some results also suggest that internalizing is a stronger predictor of rapid transitions through later stages of alcohol involvement, but these stage-specific effects have not been explicitly tested. The present study utilized a prospective dataset to investigate effects of adolescent internalizing symptoms on speed of transition through multiple stages of alcohol involvement. Specifically, it was hypothesized that greater early internalizing symptoms would predict a later age of first drink, a slower transition from first drink to first binge, and a faster transition from first binge to first dependence symptom. The moderating effects of gender were also examined. Data were from a longitudinal study of children of alcoholics and matched controls (n = 454) followed from late childhood to mid-life. Linear regression and Cox regression were the primary analytic strategies. Covariates were externalizing symptoms, family history of alcohol use disorders, and gender. Analyses also controlled for age at which the participant entered each interval. Generally, stage-specific hypotheses concerning the effects of internalizing were not supported. Internalizing symptoms marginally predicted an earlier age of first drink and a faster transition from first binge to first dependence symptom, and significantly predicted a faster transition through the overall interval from first drink to first dependence symptom. Internalizing was a stronger predictor of rapid transitions for women, and the effects of internalizing were not specific to early or later stages of alcohol involvement among women. These results suggest that early internalizing problems are a general risk factor for a rapid transition through all stages of alcohol involvement, and this risk may be stronger for women than for men. These results have important implications for our theoretical understanding of the relationship between internalizing problems and alcohol use disorders as well as prevention and intervention efforts targeting these problems.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Sociocultural facets of Asian international students' drinking motives in the college context: examining social norm perception, language discrimination, and need to belong

Description

Increasing numbers of Asian international students enter the U.S. each year; however, this group remains highly understudied. This is particularly true in regard to alcohol use and behavior. The purpose

Increasing numbers of Asian international students enter the U.S. each year; however, this group remains highly understudied. This is particularly true in regard to alcohol use and behavior. The purpose of the current study was to investigate if and how the sociocultural factors of social norm perception, perceived language discrimination, and need to belong relate to drinking motivation among Asian international students. Hierarchical regression was used with 194 self-identified Asian international student participants to analyze two separate three-way interactions. It was hypothesized that high social norm perceptions, greater perceived language discrimination, and high need to belong would interact to predict greater 1) drinking to cope, and 2) drinking to conform. Results did not support either hypothesis; however, main effects indicated that perceived language discrimination was related to drinking to cope and drinking to conform. In addition, need to belong and social norm perception interacted to predict drinking to conform. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016