Matching Items (31)

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Interactive Effects of Broad Social Motives and Descriptive Norms on Drinking Behavior

Description

Individuals with strong broad social motives (BSM) place high personal value on social activities and are at increased risk for heavy drinking. Those with strong BSM who also perceive that

Individuals with strong broad social motives (BSM) place high personal value on social activities and are at increased risk for heavy drinking. Those with strong BSM who also perceive that college students are heavy drinkers (high descriptive norms) might be particularly susceptible to increases in alcohol use during the transition to college, and may be likely to drink for social facilitation (social drinking motives). To test these hypotheses, we examined a mediated moderation model testing interactive effects of BSM and descriptive norms (perceptions of drinking in college) on drinking behavior, mediated by social drinking motives. Data were from 426 incoming college students and analyses were based on a subsample of 218 who reported drinking behavior at either time point. Results indicated that BSM interacted with descriptive norms to predict increases in social drinking motives from high school to college and social drinking motives in turn predicted increases in alcohol use. Probing this interaction revealed that those with high BSM and high descriptive norms experienced greater increases in social drinking motives than those with low descriptive norms. Tests of moderated indirect effects indicated that effects of BSM on drinking behavior through social drinking motives were also stronger among those with high descriptive norms. These results identify a particularly high risk group for changes in alcohol use during an important developmental period. This may have important implications for prevention and intervention methods which can attenuate college alcohol use by targeting individuals with strong BSM who perceive heavy drinking among college peers.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Effects of Parental Monitoring, Parental Autonomy-Giving, and Personal Autonomy on Drinking Behaviors during the Transition from High School to College

Description

This study addresses a gap in the literature by examining interactions between parental monitoring and parental autonomy giving/personal autonomy in predicting changes in drinking behavior from high school to college.

This study addresses a gap in the literature by examining interactions between parental monitoring and parental autonomy giving/personal autonomy in predicting changes in drinking behavior from high school to college. Using data from two unique studies (study 1 was 62.8% female, n = 425; study 2 was 59.9% female, n = 2245), we analyzed main effects of parental monitoring, parental autonomy-giving, and personal autonomy. We also analyzed interactions between parental monitoring and autonomy-giving, and between parental monitoring and personal autonomy. Analyses found significant main effects of parental monitoring on drinking, with high levels of parental monitoring protecting against heavy drinking. Personal autonomy was a protective factor in both high school and college, whereas parental autonomy-giving did not predict drinking behavior in either high school or during the transition to college. This calls into question the extent to which parental autonomy-giving is a primary influence on personal autonomy. Hypothesized interactions between parental monitoring and parental autonomy giving/personal autonomy were not statistically significant. In summary, parental monitoring seems to be protective in high school, and personal autonomy—but not parental autonomy-giving—is also protective. Whereas the latter finding is well established from previous studies, the protective effect of personal autonomy during the transition to college is a novel finding. This relationship suggests that efforts to identify sources of personal autonomy in early adulthood and methods for increasing autonomy may be warranted.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Food Addiction and Binge Eating Disorder

Description

The purpose of this literature review is to examine the distinction between Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). There is confusion and debate regarding the two: some argue

The purpose of this literature review is to examine the distinction between Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and Food Addiction (FA). There is confusion and debate regarding the two: some argue they are distinct and others argue they are too similar for FA to deserve its own diagnosis. It is important to examine differences and similarities because obesity is a growing public health problem, and determining the root cause of obesity may help with efforts to reverse the problem. In addition, developing effective treatment and prevention programs will be easier once specific risk factors and characteristics of FA and BED are established. This literature review includes empirical studies and other literature reviews looking at the overlap, unique personality correlates, and general psychopathology associated with both BED and FA. A consistent finding among studies that looked at impulsivity and FA was that negative urgency and lack of perseverance accurately predicted FA, relative to BED. Other consistent correlates of FA were negative affect, emotion dysregulation, and (negative) self-esteem. Treatment options for FA currently include a combination of addiction-based treatment and psychotherapy that is commonly used for BED (i.e. CBT, DBT). Based on my research review, it seems reasonable to conclude that FA does in fact differ from BED and that efforts to identify unique treatment targets for FA are needed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Barriers and Implementation of Evidence-Based Practices in Alcohol Treatment Settings

Description

The purpose of this literature review is to examine barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for alcohol treatment and approaches to facilitate adoption of EBPs in alcohol treatment

The purpose of this literature review is to examine barriers to the implementation of evidence-based practices (EBPs) for alcohol treatment and approaches to facilitate adoption of EBPs in alcohol treatment settings. Although EBPs represent the most effective forms of treatment, many treatment centers continue to use treatments that lack an empirical foundation. Examining current research on implementation barriers allows for a more complete understanding of factors that may prevent treatment centers from adopting EBPs, and a categorization of EBP implementation strategies and rates of adoption may aid programs seeking to utilizes EBPs. This literature review is also designed to inform a future study of EBP implementation in treatment centers in the greater Phoenix area, which will ultimately serve as a resource to individuals seeking EBPs in the local community. Research on barriers conveyed that there are two types of barriers: global and EBP specific. At the global level, there are core barriers that must be addressed before successful implementation is possible. These barriers include organization and staff barriers. EBP specific barriers should be attended to after global barriers have been addressed. Research on implementation strategies conveys that multipronged approaches are the most effective, and should focus on addressing global barriers. Treatment centers that have successfully implemented EBPs provide valuable information to the development of new implementation strategies. Lastly, research on rates conveys the implementation of EBPs is increasing over time, however the research in this area has many limitations that must be addressed in future research to determine realist rates.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018-12

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Emerging Adulthood Identity Development and Alcohol Use and Problems During the Transition out of College

Description

Alcohol use remains a large part of collegiate life and is a major public health concern. Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines,

Alcohol use remains a large part of collegiate life and is a major public health concern. Alcohol use generally peaks during the early twenties and declines with age. These declines, referred to as "maturing out," are presumed to be the result of the acquisition of adult roles (e.g. marriage, parenthood, employment) incompatible with alcohol use. Recent empirical evidence suggests that variables other than role transitions (e.g. personality) during emerging adulthood may also be important in understanding this process. Conceptually, changes in identity that occur during emerging adulthood may also be linked to the process of maturing out of heavy drinking, though no studies have yet addressed this possibility. Utilizing data from a large sample of graduating college students during senior year and the two following years (N = 907), the current study examined relations between aspects of emerging adult identity development (identity exploration, instability, self-focus, feeling in-between, and experimentation/possibilities) and drinking outcomes (alcohol use and problems). Using multiple regression, changes in emerging adult identity development accounted for significant variability in alcohol use over and above relationship and employment status. Decreases in experimentation/possibilities significantly predicted decreases in alcohol use. Conversely, increases in feeling in-between significantly predicted decreases in alcohol use. The findings have important implications for both theories of "maturing out" and the development of prevention and early intervention efforts targeting alcohol abuse during this high-risk developmental period.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Relations among Religiosity, Age of Self-Identification as Gay, Lesbian, or Bisexual, and Alcohol Use among College Students

Description

Recent research on alcohol use among LGB young adults indicates that sexual minority youth are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. One possible contributing factor is that religiosity

Recent research on alcohol use among LGB young adults indicates that sexual minority youth are at increased risk relative to their heterosexual peers. One possible contributing factor is that religiosity fails to provide the significant protection for LGB youth that it has been demonstrated to provide in general population samples. Although recent studies provide some support for this hypothesis, there is little research seeking to understand the reasons that religiosity may fail to protect against heavy drinking among LGB youth. The current study attempted to address this gap by examining relations among religiosity, age of self-identification, and alcohol use in a sample of 103 young adults self identified as lesbian, gay, or bisexual. Using multiple regression, we found that religiosity had an indirect effect on alcohol use operating through age of identification as LGB. Higher religiosity was associated with a later age of self-identification, which in turn, predicted greater increases in alcohol use among LGB youth during the transition from high school through college. Exploratory analyses found that gender significantly moderated the influence of age of self-identification on alcohol use such that a later age of self-identification was a risk factor for increased drinking for women, but not for men. The findings have important implications for understanding complex relations between religiosity and alcohol use among LGB youth. In addition, the findings may inform the development of religious support groups for LGB youth that will allow them to experience the benefits of religious involvement that heterosexual youth experience.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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Effects of Adolescent Social Isolation on Behavioral Inhibition and Ethanol Preference in Mice

Description

Exploration of a mouse model (C57BL/6J) capable of demonstrating behavioral changes after adolescent social isolation that are consistent with prior findings may prove beneficial in later research. This study examined

Exploration of a mouse model (C57BL/6J) capable of demonstrating behavioral changes after adolescent social isolation that are consistent with prior findings may prove beneficial in later research. This study examined 2 proposed long-term effects of isolated housing (one mouse/cage), when compared to group housing (two mice/cage) during adolescence. Mice were placed in their respective housing conditions after weaning (PND 21) and remained in those conditions until PND 60. The same cohorts were used in both phases of the experiment. Phase 1 sought to confirm previous findings that showed increases in ethanol intake after adolescent social isolation using a 2-bottle preference Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) design over a 4-day period (PND 64-PND 67.). Phase 2 sought to elucidate the effects present after adolescent social isolation, as measured using response inhibition capabilities demonstrated during fixed-minimum interval (FMI) trials (PND 81-PND 111). Findings in phase 1 of the experiment were non-significant, save a strong tendency for female mice in both housing conditions to drink more as a proportion of their bodyweight (g/kg). However, a trend of lower bodyweight in single housed mice did exist, which does suggest that detrimental stress was applied via the used of adolescent isolation in that housing condition. Findings in phase 2 showed little effect of adolescent social isolation on mean inter-response time (IRT) at any criterion used (FMI-0, FMI-4, FMI-6). Evaluation of mean interquartile range (IQR) of IRTs showed a significantly greater amount of variation in IRT responses within single housed mice at the highest criterion (FMI-6), and a trend in the same direction when FMI-4 and FMI-6 were tested concurrently. Taken as a whole, the findings of this experiment suggest that the effect of adolescent social isolation on ethanol intake is far less robust than the effect of sex and may be difficult to replicate in a low-power study. Additionally, adolescent social isolation may interfere with the ability of mice to show consistent accuracy during FMI tasks or a delay in recognition of FMI criterion change.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

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An In-Depth Exploration of Overcoming Adversity in Midlife: A Mixed-Methods Approach

Description

Midlife is a unique period of development during which individuals are simultaneously engaging in multiple roles. Despite this, there is a surprisingly small amount of research on this period of

Midlife is a unique period of development during which individuals are simultaneously engaging in multiple roles. Despite this, there is a surprisingly small amount of research on this period of the life course. In order to examine sources of adversity during this period, we analyzed interviews with individuals in midlife about their greatest challenge. The most common themes for types of adversity included relationships, health, and work, reflecting the unique combination of roles in midlife.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Basketball Shooting in Rhythm Reliability of View Judgment and Player Accuracy

Description

When a sports performance is at its peak, it is akin to a musical performance in the sense that each player seems to perform their part effortlessly, creating a rhythmic

When a sports performance is at its peak, it is akin to a musical performance in the sense that each player seems to perform their part effortlessly, creating a rhythmic flow of counterparts all moving as one. Rhythm and timing are vital elements in sports like basketball in which syncopated passing and shooting appear to facilitate accuracy. This study tests if shooting baskets “in rhythm,” as measured by the catch-to-release time, reliably enhances shooting accuracy. It then tests if an “in rhythm” timing is commonly detected and agreed upon by observers, and if observer timing ratings are related to shooting accuracy. Experiment 1 tests the shooting accuracy of two amateur basketball players after different delays between catching a pass and shooting the ball. Shots were taken from the three-point line (180 shots). All shots were recorded and analyzed for accuracy as a function of delay time, and the recordings were used to select stimuli varying in timing intervals for observers to view in Experiment 2. In Experiment 2, 24 observers each reviewed 17 video clips of the shots to test visual judgment of shooting-in-rhythm. The delay times ranged from 0.3 to 3.2 seconds, with a goal of having some of the shots taken too fast, some close to in rhythm, and some too slow. Observers rated if each shot occurs too fast, in rhythm slightly fast, in rhythm slightly slow, or too slow. In Experiment 1, shooters exhibited a significant cubic fit with better shooting performance in the middle of the timing distribution (1.2 sec optimal delay) between catching a pass and shooting. In Experiment, 2 observers reliably judged shots to be in rhythm centered at 1.1 ± 0.2 seconds, which matched the delay that leads to optimal performance for the shooters found in Experiment 1. The pattern of findings confirms and validates that there is a common “in rhythm” catch-to-shoot delay time of a little over 1 second that both optimizes shooter accuracy and is reliably recognized by observers.

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Date Created
  • 2021-05

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Interactive Effects of Family History and Age of Drinking Onset on Alcohol Problems through Executive Function and Drinking Induced Disinhibition

Description

The purpose of this study was to examine executive cognitive functioning (ECF) and drinking induced disinhibition as potential mechanisms through which a family history (FH) of alcohol problems contributes to

The purpose of this study was to examine executive cognitive functioning (ECF) and drinking induced disinhibition as potential mechanisms through which a family history (FH) of alcohol problems contributes to off-spring alcohol-related problems. We also examined the hypotheses that indirect effects of family history would be moderated by age of drinking onset, hypothesizing that indirect effects of family history through ECF and drinking induced disinhibition would be stronger among those with an earlier age of drinking onset. The sample included 177 college aged heavy drinking participants (66.2% men; 33.8% women; 78.8% Caucasian; 10.1 % African American; 6.9% Hispanic; 4.2% Multi-racial; 4.8% other) participating in a randomized controlled trial of naltrexone (vs. placebo) plus brief motivational counseling for drinking reduction. Measures of family history, self-control, working memory, and drinking induced disinhibition collected prior to randomization to treatment condition (intake assessment), were used to explore the hypothesized mechanisms of FH effects. Although FH was not related to either working memory or self-control, self-control predicted both drinking induced disinhibition and alcohol-related problems, with a marginal indirect effect of self-control on problems through drinking induced disinhibition. Age of drinking onset did not moderate relations between FH and measures of ECF (working memory and self-control). The findings suggest that self-control is a major factor contributing to the development of alcohol-related problems. Thus self-control may be an important target of intervention regardless of age of drinking onset or family history status.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05