Matching Items (58)

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Design & Analysis of a 21st Century, Scalable, Student-Centric Model of Innovation at the Collegiate Level

Description

The Luminosity Lab, located at Arizona State University, is a prototype for a novel model of interdisciplinary, student-led innovation. The model’s design was informed by the following desired outcomes: i)

The Luminosity Lab, located at Arizona State University, is a prototype for a novel model of interdisciplinary, student-led innovation. The model’s design was informed by the following desired outcomes: i) the model would be well-suited for the 21st century, ii) it would attract, motivate, and retain the university’s strongest student talent, iii) it would operate without the oversight of faculty, and iv) it would work towards the conceptualization, design, development, and deployment of solutions that would positively impact society. This model of interdisciplinary research was tested at Arizona State University across four academic years with participation of over 200 students, who represented more than 20 academic disciplines. The results have shown successful integration of interdisciplinary expertise to identify unmet needs, design innovative concepts, and develop research-informed solutions. This dissertation analyzes Luminosity’s model to determine the following: i) Can a collegiate, student-driven interdisciplinary model of innovation designed for the 21st century perform without faculty management? ii) What are the motivators and culture that enable student success within this model? and iii) How does Luminosity differ from traditional research opportunities and learning experiences?
Through a qualitative, grounded theory analysis, this dissertation examines the phenomena of the students engaging in Luminosity’s model, who have demonstrated their ability to serve as the principal investigators and innovators in conducting substantial discovery, research, and innovation work through full project life cycles. This study supports a theory that highly talented students often feel limited by the pace and scope of their college educations, and yearn for experiences that motivate them with agency, achievement, mastery, affinity for colleagues, and a desire to impact society. Through the cumulative effect of these motivators and an organizational design that facilitates a bottom-up approach to student-driven innovation, Luminosity has established itself as a novel model of research and development in the collegiate space.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Communications Between Air Traffic Controllers and Pilots During Simulated Arrivals: Relation of Closed Loop Communication Deviations to Loss of Separation

Description

Communications between air traffic controllers and pilots are critical to national airspace traffic management. Measuring communications in real time made by pilots and air traffic controllers has the potential to

Communications between air traffic controllers and pilots are critical to national airspace traffic management. Measuring communications in real time made by pilots and air traffic controllers has the potential to predict human error. In this thesis a measure for Deviations from Closed Loop Communications is defined and tested to predict a human error event, Loss of Separation (LOS). Six retired air traffic controllers were recruited and tested in three conditions of varying workload in an Terminal Radar Approach Control Facility (TRACON) arrival radar simulation. Communication transcripts from simulated trials were transcribed and coding schemes for Closed Loop Communication Deviations (CLCD) were applied. Results of the study demonstrated a positive correlation between CLCD and LOS, indicating that CLCD could be a variable used to predict LOS. However, more research is required to determine if CLCD can be used to predict LOS independent of other predictor variables, and if CLCD can be used in a model that considers many different predictor variables to predict LOS.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Research Administration Training and Developmental Provisions for Staff: Professional Developing and Structuring of a Library for Research Administrators

Description

This action research study utilized a mixed-method approach to better understand the current situation of the research administration community with respect to addressing the training and development needs for new

This action research study utilized a mixed-method approach to better understand the current situation of the research administration community with respect to addressing the training and development needs for new and junior staff within Arizona State University’s Fulton Schools of Engineering and encompass other departments and units at Arizona State University. The study extended on those efforts of support by implementing an innovative resource library as a foundation, to decipher the needs of the research administration community and better equip staff through successful training, development and learning experiences. This study assessed Arizona State University’s research administration training and development platforms and other institutional platforms (e.g., National Council of University Research Administrators, National Science Foundation, Grants.gov, and National Institutes of Health) – to garner the necessary ingredients and components to creatively design, develop and implement the innovative library. This study involved two naturally occurring groups consisting of a cohort of research administration staff with varying levels of experience. Specifically, a group of junior and a group of senior research staff were invited to participate in this study. The groups delivered on their experience, perceptions, evaluations, and ideas, which also aided in the necessary modifications to the library resource. For instance, following the delivery from the group of senior participants’ adjustments and modifications aided in the preparation of the junior participants' performance in the library portal. The junior participants performance experience in the library embodied and measured their perceptions, experience, confidence, and comfort levels. Performances within the site enabled the participants to clearly identify and clarify areas of need within the research administration infrastructure within Fulton Schools of Engineering and at Arizona State University overall. In addition, encouragement for future iterations of the library resource were strongly declared and proposed. The revelations brought about through the discussion modules from both groups gave insight through the eyes of participants (e.g., seniors and juniors); which heightened and strengthened the results of the study. Overall, the outcomes received and tracked through the discussion modules from both groups suggested that the current training and development research administration infrastructure within Arizona State University’s research community needed adjustments.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

Analytics in Baseball: Retention of Sport Specific Analytic Information Based on Various Presentation Methods

Description

Analytics are being collected on a day to day basis on just about anything that you can think of. Sports is one of the recent fields that has started

Analytics are being collected on a day to day basis on just about anything that you can think of. Sports is one of the recent fields that has started implementing the tool into their game. Analytics can be described as an abundance of statistical information that show situational tendencies of other teams and players. It is hypothesized that analytics provide anticipatory information that allows athletes to know what is coming; therefore, allowing them to perform better in real game scenarios. However, it is unclear how this information should be presented to athletes and whether athletes can actually retain the abundance of information given to them. Two different types of presentation methods (Numeric and Numeric plus Graph) and two different amounts of analytic information (High and Low) were compared for baseball players in an online based baseball specific retention survey: High Numeric (excess information shown in spreadsheet format), Low Numeric (key information shown in spreadsheet format), High Numeric plus Graph (excess information shown as a spreadsheet with hitting zone maps), and Low Numeric plus Graph (key information shown as a spreadsheet with hitting zone maps). Athletes produced different retention scores for the type of presentation method given across the whole study. Athletes presented analytic as Numeric plus Graph performed better than athletes in just Numeric condition. Additionally, playing experience had a significant effect on an athlete’s ability to retain analytic information. Athletes with 10 plus years of baseball experience performed better in every condition other than High Numeric plus Graph compared to athletes with less than 10 years of experience. Amount and experience also had an interaction effect that produced statistical significance; those with less experience performed better in conditions with less baseball information given whereas those with more experience were able to handle more baseball information at once. Providing analytic information gives athletes, especially baseball batters, a significant advantage over their opponent; however, ability to retain analytic information depends on how the information is presented and to whom the information is being presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Information pooling bias in collaborative cyber forensics

Description

Cyber threats are growing in number and sophistication making it important to continually study and improve all dimensions of cyber defense. Human teamwork in cyber defense analysis has been overlooked

Cyber threats are growing in number and sophistication making it important to continually study and improve all dimensions of cyber defense. Human teamwork in cyber defense analysis has been overlooked even though it has been identified as an important predictor of cyber defense performance. Also, to detect advanced forms of threats effective information sharing and collaboration between the cyber defense analysts becomes imperative. Therefore, through this dissertation work, I took a cognitive engineering approach to investigate and improve cyber defense teamwork. The approach involved investigating a plausible team-level bias called the information pooling bias in cyber defense analyst teams conducting the detection task that is part of forensics analysis through human-in-the-loop experimentation. The approach also involved developing agent-based models based on the experimental results to explore the cognitive underpinnings of this bias in human analysts. A prototype collaborative visualization tool was developed by considering the plausible cognitive limitations contributing to the bias to investigate whether a cognitive engineering-driven visualization tool can help mitigate the bias in comparison to off-the-shelf tools. It was found that participant teams conducting the collaborative detection tasks as part of forensics analysis, experience the information pooling bias affecting their performance. Results indicate that cognitive friendly visualizations can help mitigate the effect of this bias in cyber defense analysts. Agent-based modeling produced insights on internal cognitive processes that might be contributing to this bias which could be leveraged in building future visualizations. This work has multiple implications including the development of new knowledge about the science of cyber defense teamwork, a demonstration of the advantage of developing tools using a cognitive engineering approach, a demonstration of the advantage of using a hybrid cognitive engineering methodology to study teams in general and finally, a demonstration of the effect of effective teamwork on cyber defense performance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Equating user experience and Fitts law in gesture based input modalities

Description

The International Standards Organization (ISO) documentation utilizes Fitts’ law to determine the usability of traditional input devices like mouse and touchscreens for one- or two-dimensional operations. To test the hypothesis

The International Standards Organization (ISO) documentation utilizes Fitts’ law to determine the usability of traditional input devices like mouse and touchscreens for one- or two-dimensional operations. To test the hypothesis that Fitts’ Law can be applied to hand/air gesture based computing inputs, Fitts’ multi-directional target acquisition task is applied to three gesture based input devices that utilize different technologies and two baseline devices, mouse and touchscreen. Three target distances and three target sizes were tested six times in a randomized order with a randomized order of the five input technologies. A total of 81 participants’ data were collected for the within subjects design study. Participants were instructed to perform the task as quickly and accurately as possible according to traditional Fitts’ testing procedures. Movement time, error rate, and throughput for each input technology were calculated.

Additionally, no standards exist for equating user experience with Fitts’ measures such as movement time, throughput, and error count. To test the hypothesis that a user’s experience can be predicted using Fitts’ measures of movement time, throughput and error count, an ease of use rating using a 5-point scale for each input type was collected from each participant. The calculated Mean Opinion Scores (MOS) were regressed on Fitts’ measures of movement time, throughput, and error count to understand the extent to which they can predict a user’s subjective rating.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Human-Centered Automation for Resilience in Acquiring Construction Field Information

Description

Resilient acquisition of timely, detailed job site information plays a pivotal role in maintaining the productivity and safety of construction projects that have busy schedules, dynamic workspaces, and unexpected events.

Resilient acquisition of timely, detailed job site information plays a pivotal role in maintaining the productivity and safety of construction projects that have busy schedules, dynamic workspaces, and unexpected events. In the field, construction information acquisition often involves three types of activities including sensor-based inspection, manual inspection, and communication. Human interventions play critical roles in these three types of field information acquisition activities. A resilient information acquisition system is needed for safer and more productive construction. The use of various automation technologies could help improve human performance by proactively providing the needed knowledge of using equipment, improve the situation awareness in multi-person collaborations, and reduce the mental workload of operators and inspectors.

Unfortunately, limited studies consider human factors in automation techniques for construction field information acquisition. Fully utilization of the automation techniques requires a systematical synthesis of the interactions between human, tasks, and construction workspace to reduce the complexity of information acquisition tasks so that human can finish these tasks with reliability. Overall, such a synthesis of human factors in field data collection and analysis is paving the path towards “Human-Centered Automation” (HCA) in construction management. HCA could form a computational framework that supports resilient field data collection considering human factors and unexpected events on dynamic job sites.

This dissertation presented an HCA framework for resilient construction field information acquisition and results of examining three HCA approaches that support three use cases of construction field data collection and analysis. The first HCA approach is an automated data collection planning method that can assist 3D laser scan planning of construction inspectors to achieve comprehensive and efficient data collection. The second HCA approach is a Bayesian model-based approach that automatically aggregates the common sense of people from the internet to identify job site risks from a large number of job site pictures. The third HCA approach is an automatic communication protocol optimization approach that maximizes the team situation awareness of construction workers and leads to the early detection of workflow delays and critical path changes. Data collection and simulation experiments extensively validate these three HCA approaches.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Examining the Immediate Effects of an Online Breathing Meditation Practice on Working Memory Capacity

Description

Mindfulness meditation practices have become an intervention of focus in the literature, but little attention has been drawn to the effectiveness of this practice as a single execution in an

Mindfulness meditation practices have become an intervention of focus in the literature, but little attention has been drawn to the effectiveness of this practice as a single execution in an online format. Several approaches were employed to capture the effects of a mindful breathing exercise and yoga experience on working memory capacity. Through several analyses, they found that though there was no significant difference between working memory capacity scores before and after this breathing exercise, and mindfulness and yoga experience had no influence on working memory performance. Although these findings were not statistically significant, there are several trends to note and implications for this research within the body of literature.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2020

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Understanding Humans to Better Understand Robots in a Joint-Task Environment: The Study of Surprise and Trust in Human-Machine Physical Coordination

Description

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be seamless and effective humans must be willing to trust the capabilities of assistive robots. A major priority for human-robot interaction should be to understand how human dyads have been historically effective within a joint-task setting. This will ensure that all goals can be met in human robot settings. The aim of the present study was to examine human dyads and the effects of an unexpected interruption. Humans’ interpersonal and individual levels of trust were studied in order to draw appropriate conclusions. Seventeen undergraduate and graduate level dyads were collected from Arizona State University. Participants were broken up into either a surprise condition or a baseline condition. Participants individually took two surveys in order to have an accurate understanding of levels of dispositional and individual levels of trust. The findings showed that participant levels of interpersonal trust were average. Surprisingly, participants who participated in the surprise condition afterwards, showed moderate to high levels of dyad trust. This effect showed that participants became more reliant on their partners when interrupted by a surprising event. Future studies will take this knowledge and apply it to human-robot interaction, in order to mimic the seamless team-interaction shown in historically effective dyads, specifically human team interaction.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Advance cues in soccer penalty kicks

Description

The study at hand investigated the effects of guidance and type of occlusion on the prediction of shot direction during a soccer penalty kick. Seventy participants took an online survey

The study at hand investigated the effects of guidance and type of occlusion on the prediction of shot direction during a soccer penalty kick. Seventy participants took an online survey where they had to guess the direction of a penalty kick from the perspective of a goalkeeper. Half the participants were placed in a group where they had access to tips on what to look for, while the other group had no tips provided. Participants were shown videos in which the penalty shooter had their upper body covered or their lower body covered. Participants had 30 seconds to decide what side the ball was going to, right or left. Results showed that there is no significant between the two groups in terms of judgment accuracy. The group that received no guidance and had the kicker's lower body covered was the group with the highest average score, 50.44%. The findings may help future studies that focus on what material is taught to goalkeepers in a classroom setting and the role of occlusion during free kicks outside the 18-yard box.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2019