Matching Items (45)

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From the Physician's Perspective: Integrating Complementary and Alternative Medicine in the United States

Description

The United States is experiencing an increase in the prevalence and influence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patient healthcare, reflecting the increasingly positive public and professional attitudes on

The United States is experiencing an increase in the prevalence and influence of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in patient healthcare, reflecting the increasingly positive public and professional attitudes on the use of CAM therapies. Despite the growing presence of CAM in U.S. healthcare, there are still many barriers to integration. This study aims to reveal the attitudes of conventional, integrative and CAM practitioners concerning the major challenges of CAM's integration, explore their proposed solutions, and reveal any discrepancies in these attitudes among different types of practitioners. Twenty-eight practitioners were interviewed on the challenges in the five facets of CAM's integration: integration into hospitals, integration into medical schools, insurance coverage for CAM, licensing & regulation of CAM practitioners, and clinical research in CAM. The overall positive attitudes on the benefits of CAM's integration support previous research on the subject; however, the conventional practitioners were unable to extend these benefits to real-world application, and they were unaware of many of the challenges facing CAM's integration. The CAM practitioners attributed many of the problems facing integration to the inability of CAM's philosophy to comply with the current ideology of medical academia, health insurance model, and laws that govern the licensing and regulation of medical practitioners. The CAM and integrative practitioners perceived there to be a large resistance from conventional practitioners, specifically concerning the integration of CAM into education, providing insurance coverage for CAM, and the licensing and regulation of CAM practitioners. They attributed this to a perceived lack of research on safe and effective treatments in CAM. The conventional practitioner responses reflected this weariness of treatment effectiveness in their responses. However, the CAM and integrative practitioners believed these claims to be largely inaccurate, and constructed by the influence and manipulation of large-scale medical corporations and organizations. The participants believed that more evidence-based research in CAM, and increased public awareness in CAM therapies will force conventional practitioners to increase their knowledge in CAM, helping to alleviate their fears and skepticism of CAM therapies. By easing these concerns, dialogue can occur among practitioners of different modalities that will help to ensure a smooth integration of CAM and will raise the quality of patient healthcare by providing safe and effective resources for alternate forms of treatment.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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The Human-Animal Relationship and Willingness to Seek Veterinary Care for One's Pet

Description

The purpose of this study was to investigate how the human-animal relationship affects one's willingness to seek veterinary care for a pet. It is important to understand this topic because

The purpose of this study was to investigate how the human-animal relationship affects one's willingness to seek veterinary care for a pet. It is important to understand this topic because past research has shown that companion animals play a very large role in the lives of many people. However, there has been a decline in the frequency of veterinary visits despite an increase in the number of pets. The variables of the human-animal relationship that were tested were one's views on the intelligence of a pet and its ability to feel emotions, and the closeness one feels to a pet. Demographic factors were also considered. The dependent variable of one's willingness to seek veterinary care was measured by the amount one would spend on veterinary treatment for a healthy pet, the amount one would spend on an older pet, and the responsibility one feels for the health and well-being of one's pet. The study revealed that the closeness one feels to a pet and one's views on a pet's ability to feel emotion both have a positive correlation with one's willingness to seek veterinary care for a pet. However, there was no correlation between one's views on the intelligence of a pet and one's willingness to seek veterinary care, and there was only a very slight correlation between income and one's willingness to seek veterinary care. Understanding these factors could be important in ensuring that companion animals receive the necessary care to promote their health and well-being.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Dualism and the Self: Conceptions of the Core Self Within a Dualistic Framework

Description

Some scholars have suggested that individuals are inclined to believe that they have souls because they are also inclined to believe that they have a core, immutable self. The present

Some scholars have suggested that individuals are inclined to believe that they have souls because they are also inclined to believe that they have a core, immutable self. The present study will explore this question in several parts. First, what is the extent to which individuals report having a core self? Next, how do beliefs about a core self relate to belief or non-belief in an eternal soul? The final question looks at location as an extension of the core self and soul relationship. Where is the self perceived to reside within a dualistic framework, the body or the soul? This study assessed the stated beliefs of 200 respondents using Amazon Mechanical Turk as a recruiting platform. Greater belief in a core self was moderately associated with greater belief in an eternal soul (r= 0.30, p<.01), and with belief in the self as a reflection of the soul (r=0.31, p<.01) and as a reflection of the brain (r=0.21, p<.01). This suggests that belief in a core self does hold association with belief in an eternal soul. However, its perceived location seems to show little preference as residing withing the soul versus the body.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Morality And Disgust In Food Preferences

Description

How are perceptions of morality and disgust regarding meat consumption related to each other? Which factor is more salient in determining one's willingness to eat the meat of a specific

How are perceptions of morality and disgust regarding meat consumption related to each other? Which factor is more salient in determining one's willingness to eat the meat of a specific animal? How do these answers vary across religious groups? This study investigates the ways that concepts like morality and disgust are related to food preferences and hopes to shed light on the mechanisms that enforce culturally sanctioned food taboos. The study compares 4 groups of people in the U.S.: Christians (n = 39), Hindus (n = 29), Jews (n = 23), and non-religious people (n = 63). A total of 154 participants were given surveys in which they rated their feelings about eating various animals. Data from Christian and non-religious groups exhibited similar patterns such as a high likelihood of eating a given animal when starving, while results from Jews and Hindus were consistent with their religion's respective food taboos. Despite these differences, morality and disgust are strongly correlated with one another in almost all instances. Moreover, morality and disgust are almost equally important considerations when determining willingness to eat when starving.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Traditional Healing and Pubilc Health Integration: Utilizing Cultural Strengths to Provide Targeted HIV Interventions

Description

Curanderos are Hispanic traditional healers who attend to their clients through spiritual, natural, and physical techniques. Recent studies have shown that a subset of the Hispanic population refer to these

Curanderos are Hispanic traditional healers who attend to their clients through spiritual, natural, and physical techniques. Recent studies have shown that a subset of the Hispanic population refer to these healers for HIV and STD treatment and believe they are important in a collaborative targeted HIV intervention. Thus, curanderos were interviewed and the lay population of Phoenix was sampled in order to get a better idea of the utility of these healers in an HIV prevention effort targeted at the Hispanic community. Due to the limitations of this study there was not sufficient enough data to make significant conclusions; however the interviews with the curanderos were surprising in the they had significant roles as healers in the Phoenix area, patients have referred to them for HIV and STD treatment, and a couple of the healers have integrated western medical knowledge into their practice.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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The Importance of Friendship and Community in a Phoenix Homeless Population

Description

The lonely, empty face panhandling on the street corner has a story to tell. At first glance, most people write the homeless off as less than worthy. However, there is

The lonely, empty face panhandling on the street corner has a story to tell. At first glance, most people write the homeless off as less than worthy. However, there is a deeper connection and understanding of relationships and a sense of community unseen by the majority of passer-byers. Amidst the humdrum beat of every day life, there is toil to find basic necessities such as food, water, sanitation, and a place to rest. At the same time, there is laughter and friendship as they help one another through the hostilities of their circumstances. Combining the creative elements of photojournalism and qualitative interviewing, the basic daily needs and struggles of the homeless will be delved into to answer how friendship is pertinent to survival on the streets.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012-12

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Mapping Clean Water Solutions in Africa: Navigating the Difficulties and Keeping Africa's Water Flowing

Description

Africa is the area of the largest economic water scarcity on earth, with multiple countries, political systems, and geographies involved. Additionally, water scarcity affects more countries in sub-Saharan African than

Africa is the area of the largest economic water scarcity on earth, with multiple countries, political systems, and geographies involved. Additionally, water scarcity affects more countries in sub-Saharan African than anywhere else on earth, with consequences like waterborne diseases, loss of agricultural development, educational setbacks, and security threats. This thesis synthesizes data on the diverse geographies and politics involved in building a sustainable African water system. It presents historical and present technologies, costs, and problems implementing sustainable potable water solutions, and suggests regional differences and individualized solutions, pointing out advantages and disadvantages of damming, boreholes, open wells, open-source water, and sewer systems. It goes on to discuss grant programs for water and wastewater solutions and technologies. Finally it addresses two divergent, yet equally important data models for African water planning, combining their contributions in order to gain insight into the problem that neither alone can. The research overlaps aquifer and demographic data to see where water should be a priority in Africa. The author finds that hydrology as well as demographic data, when combined, point to the greatest water need in the Sahel. However, many growing cities are situated in areas with high aquifer levels making borehole technology some of the most economical as well as sustainable water sourcing. Recommendations include cultural humility, attention to political and environmental consequences of solutions, and cost-effective ways of addressing the lack of access to clean drinking water in Africa.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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FAT STIGMA AND THE SKINNY IDEAL: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THE INTERNALIZATION AND EXPRESSION OF BODY NORMS AMONG AMERICAN VERSUS GUATEMALAN ADOLESCENTS

Description

Fat-stigma has become a popular topic of research in recent years as obesity and Western ideals have made their way around the globe. Previous studies have found that the internalization

Fat-stigma has become a popular topic of research in recent years as obesity and Western ideals have made their way around the globe. Previous studies have found that the internalization and expression of body norms can vary dramatically depending on location, gender, and many other cultural factors. Differing levels of body satisfaction have been linked to the internalization of these norms, and the development of low body esteem can result in many physical and emotional problems. Although there is an abundance of research on the topic of fat-stigma, few studies have investigated the related, but seemingly independent, topic of the ideal thin body. Furthermore, limited research has looked directly at body size stereotypes in Guatemala, and those that have, focused solely on Guatemala City. Furthermore, no previous cross-cultural analyses were found comparing body norms among US and rural Guatemalan adolescents. By surveying 9-10 year old students in Acatenango, Guatemala and Phoenix, Arizona, this study compared the preferences as well as stereotypes for average, thin, and fat body sizes in these two contexts. The results of this study illustrate a contrast between a fat-negative and a thin-negative culture, and highlight the complexity of the emergence of body norms around the world. We find that, in contrast to previous studies, neither the western ideal thin body nor obesity stereotypes have been internalized in Acatenango. Furthermore, negative evaluations of fat bodies and positive evaluations of thin bodies seem to be made independently of each other. Americans had a much higher prejudice against fat children and were more likely to be thin-positive (OR=1.997), while Guatemalans were more likely to be thin-negative. On average, the American students were much more polarized in their judgments on different body sizes, and experienced greater levels of body dissatisfaction. Finally, American students favored an ideal figure over one size smaller than Guatemalan students. Results suggest that there are still rural communities that have not been entirely affected by the spread of western body norms.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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The Integration of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) into Western Biomedical Oncology Treatment

Description

Through a standpoint feminist perspective (Harding 2009) I conducted a situational analysis (Clarke, 2015) that examined academic literature and cancer support discussion boards (DBs) to identify how Western biomedicine, specifically

Through a standpoint feminist perspective (Harding 2009) I conducted a situational analysis (Clarke, 2015) that examined academic literature and cancer support discussion boards (DBs) to identify how Western biomedicine, specifically oncology, can integrate complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to improve cancer treatment in children. The aims of this project were: 1) to identify the CAM treatments that are being used to alleviate the side effects from oncological treatments and/or treat pediatric cancers; 2) to compare the subjective experience of CAM to Western biomedicine of cancer patients who leave comments on Group Loop, Cancer Compass and Cancer Forums, which are online support groups (N=20). I used grounded theory and situational mapping to analyze discussion threads. The participants identified using the following CAM treatments: herbs, imagery, prayer, stinging nettle, meditation, mind-body therapies and supplements. The participants turned to CAM treatments when their cancer was late-stage or terminal, often as an integrative and not exclusively to treat their cancer. CAM was more "effective" than biomedical oncology treatment at improving their overall quality of life and functionality. We found that youth on discussion boards did not discuss CAM treatments like the adult participants, but all participants visited these sites for support and verification of their cancer treatments. My main integration recommendation is to combine mind-body CAM therapies with biomedical treatment. This project fills the gap in literature that ignores the ideas of vulnerable populations by providing the experiences of adult and pediatric cancer patients, and that of their families. It is applicable to areas of the social studies of medicine, patient care, and families suffering from cancer. KEYWORDS: Cancer; Complementary and Alternative Medicine; Situational Analysis; Standpoint Feminism

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Stress and Biological Pathways of Schizophrenia: EGR3 Dependent HTR2A Expression in Response to Sleep Deprivation

Description

Environmental and genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia etiology, yet few studies have demonstrated how environmental stimuli impact genes associated with the disorder. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are of great interest

Environmental and genetic factors contribute to schizophrenia etiology, yet few studies have demonstrated how environmental stimuli impact genes associated with the disorder. Immediate early genes (IEGs) are of great interest to schizophrenia research because they are activated in response to physiological stress from the environment, and subsequently regulate the expression of downstream genes that are essential to neuropsychiatric function. An IEG, early growth response 3 (EGR3) has been identified as a main gene involved in a network of transcription factors implicated in schizophrenia susceptibility. The serotonin 2A receptor (5-HT2AR) seems to play an important role in schizophrenia and the dysfunction of the 5-HT2AR encoding gene, HTR2A, within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes to multiple psychiatric illnesses including schizophrenia. EGR3's role as a transcription factor that is activated by environmental stimuli suggests it may regulate Htr2a transcription in response to physiological stress, thus affecting 5-HT2AR function in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Egr3 activation and Htr2a expression after an environmental stimulus. Sleep deprivation is an acute physiological stressor that activates Egr3. Therefore to examine the relationship between Egr3 and Htr2a expression after an acute stress, wild type and Egr3 knockout mice that express EGFP under the control of the Htr2a promoter were sleep deprived for 8 hours. We used immunohistochemistry to determine the location and density of Htr2a-EGFP expression after sleep deprivation and found that Htr2a-EGFP expression was not affected by sex or subregions of the PFC. Additionally, Htr2a-EGFP expression was not affected by the loss of Egr3 or sleep deprivation within the PFC. The LPFC subregions, layers V and VI showed significantly more Htr2a-EGFP expression than layers I-III in all animals for both sleep deprivation and control conditions. Possible explanations for the lack of significant effects in this study may be the limited sample size or possible biological abnormalities in the Htr2a-EGFP mice. Nonetheless, we did successfully visualize the anatomical distribution of Htr2a in the prefrontal cortex via immunohistochemical staining. This study and future studies will provide insight into how Egr3 activation affects Htr2a expression in the PFC and how physiological stress from the environment can alter candidate schizophrenia gene function.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05