Matching Items (3)

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Tracking Cancer Genetic Evolution using OncoTrack

Description

It is difficult for existing methods to quantify, and track the constant evolution of cancers due to high heterogeneity of mutations. However, structural variations associated with nucleotide number changes show

It is difficult for existing methods to quantify, and track the constant evolution of cancers due to high heterogeneity of mutations. However, structural variations associated with nucleotide number changes show repeatable patterns in localized regions of the genome. Here we introduce SPKMG, which generalizes nucleotide number based properties of genes, in statistical terms, at the genome-wide scale. It is measured from the normalized amount of aligned NGS reads in exonic regions of a gene. SPKMG values are calculated within OncoTrack. SPKMG values being continuous numeric variables provide a statistical metric to track DNA level changes. We show that SPKMG measures of cancer DNA show a normative pattern at the genome-wide scale. The analysis leads to the discovery of core cancer genes and also provides novel dynamic insights into the stage of cancer, including cancer development, progression, and metastasis. This technique will allow exome data to also be used for quantitative LOH/CNV analysis for tracking tumour progression and evolution with a higher efficiency.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-07-14

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Plasma Exosome Profiling of Cancer Patients by a Next Generation Systems Biology Approach

Description

Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this

Technologies capable of characterizing the full breadth of cellular systems need to be able to measure millions of proteins, isoforms, and complexes simultaneously. We describe an approach that fulfils this criterion: Adaptive Dynamic Artificial Poly-ligand Targeting (ADAPT). ADAPT employs an enriched library of single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) to profile complex biological samples, thus achieving an unprecedented coverage of system-wide, native biomolecules. We used ADAPT as a highly specific profiling tool that distinguishes women with or without breast cancer based on circulating exosomes in their blood. To develop ADAPT, we enriched a library of ~10[superscript 11] ssODNs for those associating with exosomes from breast cancer patients or controls. The resulting 10[superscript 6] enriched ssODNs were then profiled against plasma from independent groups of healthy and breast cancer-positive women. ssODN-mediated affinity purification and mass spectrometry identified low-abundance exosome-associated proteins and protein complexes, some with known significance in both normal homeostasis and disease. Sequencing of the recovered ssODNs provided quantitative measures that were used to build highly accurate multi-analyte signatures for patient classification. Probing plasma from 500 subjects with a smaller subset of 2000 resynthesized ssODNs stratified healthy, breast biopsy-negative, and -positive women. An AUC of 0.73 was obtained when comparing healthy donors with biopsy-positive patients.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-02-20

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Nanoproteomic analysis of ischemia-dependent changes in signaling protein phosphorylation in colorectal normal and cancer tissue

Description

Background
Clinical diagnostic research relies upon the collection of tissue samples, and for those samples to be representative of the in vivo situation. Tissue collection procedures, including post-operative ischemia, can

Background
Clinical diagnostic research relies upon the collection of tissue samples, and for those samples to be representative of the in vivo situation. Tissue collection procedures, including post-operative ischemia, can impact the molecular profile of the tissue at the genetic and proteomic level. Understanding the influence of factors such as ischemia on tissue samples is imperative in order to develop both markers of tissue quality and ultimately accurate diagnostic tests.
Methods
Using NanoPro1000 technology, a rapid and highly sensitive immunoassay platform, the phosphorylation status of clinically relevant cancer-related biomarkers in response to ischemia was quantified in tissue samples from 20 patients with primary colorectal cancer. Tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue samples were collected and subjected to cold ischemia prior to nanoproteomic analysis of AKT, ERK1/2, MEK1/2, and c-MET. Ischemia-induced relative changes in overall phosphorylation and phosphorylation of individual isoforms were calculated and statistical significance determined. Any differences in baseline levels of phosphorylation between tumor tissue and normal tissue were also analyzed.
Results
Changes in overall phosphorylation of the selected proteins in response to ischemia revealed minor variations in both normal and tumor tissue; however, significant changes were identified in the phosphorylation of individual isoforms. In normal tissue post-operative ischemia, phosphorylation was increased in two AKT isoforms, two ERK1/2 isoforms, and one MEK1/2 isoform and decreased in one MEK1/2 isoform and one c-MET isoform. Following ischemia in tumor tissue, one AKT isoform showed decreased phosphorylation and there was an overall increase in unphosphorylated ERK1/2, whereas an increase in the phosphorylation of two MEK1/2 isoforms was observed. There were no changes in c-MET phosphorylation in tumor tissue.
Conclusion
This study provides insight into the influence of post-operative ischemia on tissue sample biology, which may inform the future development of markers of tissue quality and assist in the development of diagnostic tests.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-01-08