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The U.S. Rebalance and Southeast Asia: A Work in Progress

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This article assesses Southeast Asian views of the US “rebalance,” examining reactions to US military deployments, military assistance to partners, and support for Southeast Asian diplomacy on South China Sea conflicts. Although not ostensibly designed to contain China, the rebalance

This article assesses Southeast Asian views of the US “rebalance,” examining reactions to US military deployments, military assistance to partners, and support for Southeast Asian diplomacy on South China Sea conflicts. Although not ostensibly designed to contain China, the rebalance provides Southeast Asia with hedging options against more assertive PRC actions in the South China Sea.

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Date Created
2015-05-01

Revival

Description

Although bipolar disorder affects millions of Americans, it is not widely discussed topic. Therefore many misconceptions remain about the disorder, which is partially due to its misrepresentation in the media. However with television producers and writers such as Julie Plec,

Although bipolar disorder affects millions of Americans, it is not widely discussed topic. Therefore many misconceptions remain about the disorder, which is partially due to its misrepresentation in the media. However with television producers and writers such as Julie Plec, co-creator of The Vampire Diaries, The Originals and Legacies, creating a humanistic characters with bipolar disorder, this is slowly changing. Inspired by these writers, I also decided to create my own video about my experience with bipolar disorder.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Characterization of the Notch Ligand Deltalike 3 from A. carolinensis

Description

The highly conserved Notch signaling pathway regulates cell-cell communication pathways, cell fate, cell determination, cell death, embryonic development, and adult tissue pathways in metazoans. The Notch receptors and ligands that bind to Notch are single pass, transmembrane proteins that communicate

The highly conserved Notch signaling pathway regulates cell-cell communication pathways, cell fate, cell determination, cell death, embryonic development, and adult tissue pathways in metazoans. The Notch receptors and ligands that bind to Notch are single pass, transmembrane proteins that communicate cell to cell via juxtacrine signaling. There are reports of the divergent function and localization of the Deltalike 3 (Dll3) ligand. In Mus musculus (an eutherin mammal) the DLL3 protein inhibits the Notch signaling pathway and is localized in the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, the DLL3 protein from zebrafish, Danio rerio (a teleost) activates Notch and is located on the cell surface. This study will focus on examining the evolutionary pathway/evolutionary similarities, localization, and function of the A. carolinensis dll3 gene in comparison to other vertebrate species. This is important because there is not much known about the evolutionary divergence of the DLL3 A. carolinensis protein, its function in Notch signaling, and its subcellular localization.
Evolutionary analysis of vertebrate DLL3 protein sequences using phylogenetic trees showed that D. rerio and A. carolinensis are more evolutionarily similar in comparison to M. musculus suggesting that they may have similar intracellular localization. However, immunofluorescence staining experiments showed that the A. carolinensis DLL3 protein co-localized significantly with an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) specific primary antibody. Since this protein is localized in the secretory system, similar to that of M. musculus DLL3, it suggests that its function is to inhibit the Notch signaling pathway. Protein sequence alignments were created that suggested that there is a region in the protein sequences where the lizard and mouse sequence are conserved, while the zebrafish sequence simultaneously varies. This region of the amino acid sequence could be responsible for the difference in localization and function of the protein in these two species.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Validity of the Australian Recommended Food Score as a Diet Quality Index for Pre-Schoolers

Description

Background: Diet quality tools provide researchers with brief methods to assess the nutrient adequacy of usual dietary intake. This study describes the development and validation of a pediatric diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Scores for Pre-schoolers (ARFS-P), for

Background: Diet quality tools provide researchers with brief methods to assess the nutrient adequacy of usual dietary intake. This study describes the development and validation of a pediatric diet quality index, the Australian Recommended Food Scores for Pre-schoolers (ARFS-P), for use with children aged two to five years.

Methods: The ARFS-P was derived from a 120-item food frequency questionnaire, with eight sub-scales, and was scored from zero to 73. Linear regressions were used to estimate the relationship between diet quality score and nutrient intakes, in 142 children (mean age 4 years) in rural localities in New South Wales, Australia.

Results: Total ARFS-P and component scores were highly related to dietary intake of the majority of macronutrients and micronutrients including protein, β-carotene, vitamin C, vitamin A. Total ARFS-P was also positively related to total consumption of nutrient dense foods, such as fruits and vegetables, and negatively related to total consumption of discretionary choices, such as sugar sweetened drinks and packaged snacks.

Conclusion: ARFS-P is a valid measure that can be used to characterize nutrient intakes for children aged two to five years. Further research could assess the utility of the ARFS-P for monitoring of usual dietary intake over time or as part of clinical management.

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Date Created
2014-08-29

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Variable Autosomal and X Divergence Near and Far From Genes Affects Estimates of Male Mutation Bias in Great Apes

Description

Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral

Male mutation bias, when more mutations are passed on via the male germline than via the female germline, is observed across mammals. One common way to infer the magnitude of male mutation bias, α, is to compare levels of neutral sequence divergence between genomic regions that spend different amounts of time in the male and female germline. For great apes, including human, we show that estimates of divergence are reduced in putatively unconstrained regions near genes relative to unconstrained regions far from genes. Divergence increases with increasing distance from genes on both the X chromosome and autosomes, but increases faster on the X chromosome than autosomes. As a result, ratios of X/A divergence increase with increasing distance from genes and corresponding estimates of male mutation bias are significantly higher in intergenic regions near genes versus far from genes. Future studies in other species will need to carefully consider the effect that genomic location will have on estimates of male mutation bias.

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Created

Date Created
2016-11-09

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Variations in the Influence of Parental Socialization of Anxiety Among Clinic Referred Children

Description

This study examined the relations between parental socialization of child anxious behaviors (i.e., reinforcement, punishment, modeling, transmission of information) and child anxiety and related problems at varying child sensitivity levels. Data corresponding to 70 clinic-referred children (M age = 9.86

This study examined the relations between parental socialization of child anxious behaviors (i.e., reinforcement, punishment, modeling, transmission of information) and child anxiety and related problems at varying child sensitivity levels. Data corresponding to 70 clinic-referred children (M age = 9.86 years; 50% girls; 49% Hispanic/Latino, 51% Caucasian) showed that for children with low (but not high) anxiety sensitivity, anxiety-related parental socialization behaviors were associated with more child anxiety and depression symptoms. Findings also indicated that parental socialization of anxious behaviors and anxiety sensitivity functioned similarly in the prediction of anxiety and depression across Caucasian and Hispanic/Latino children. There were no significant mean level variations across child sociodemographic characteristics in general, but anxiety-promoting parenting behaviors were twice as high in Hispanic/Latino compared to Caucasian families.

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Date Created
2015-06-01

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The Effects of Sex Chromosome Complement Aware Read Mapping on Variant Calling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Description

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer common in Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asian countries. Each year more than 700,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths are recorded worldwide due to HCC. According to the American

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a type of liver cancer common in Sub-Saharan Africa and South East Asian countries. Each year more than 700,000 new cases and more than 600,000 deaths are recorded worldwide due to HCC. According to the American Cancer Society HCC is ranked the 5th most common cancer worldwide with a male:female susceptibility ratio ranging between 2:1 and 8:1. HCC risk factors include lifestyle behaviors, such as persistent alcohol abuse and smoking, prolonged exposure to aflatoxins, chronic viral hepatitis infections, inherited metabolic diseases and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases. To understand the genetic effects underlying sex-bias in HCC, it is necessary to include the sex chromosomes in genomics analyses. X and Y chromosomes are often discluded in genomics studies because of the technical and analytical challenges: sequence homology. The purpose of this thesis is to analyze the effects of sex chromosome complement aware read mapping to germline variant calling. 10 male and 10 female tumor adjacent samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas Liver Hepatocellular Carcinoma (TCGA LIHC) cohort were processed using sex-aware and default reference and the concordance of the two approaches was examined. We detected a higher disconcordance of 0.69% on variants called on the X chromosome and a disconcordance of 0.51% on variants called on the Y chromosomes for the reference and alternative alleles respectively compared to autosomes. Variants called on the REF/ALT genotypes had a disconcordances of 1.00%, 1.05%, 1.35% and 12.34% for the autosomes, chromosome 7, the X, and the Y chromosome, respectively. At the end of the project we concluded that the generated datasets showed the effect of sex-aware read mapping on variant calling. Though the data did not show the sites that can be called as variants in one dataset but not in the other, rather the concordance looked at sites that were called as variants in both data sets.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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The Genomics of Cancer Resistance in Long-Lived Vesper Bats

Description

Bats (order Chiroptera) are the longest lived mammals for their size, with particularly extreme longevity evolving in the family Vespertilionidae, or vesper bats. Because of this, researchers have proposed using bats to study ageing and cancer suppression. Here, we study

Bats (order Chiroptera) are the longest lived mammals for their size, with particularly extreme longevity evolving in the family Vespertilionidae, or vesper bats. Because of this, researchers have proposed using bats to study ageing and cancer suppression. Here, we study gene duplications across mammalian genomes and show that, similar to previous findings in elephants, bats have experienced duplications of the tumor suppressor gene TP53, including five genomic copies in the genome of the little brown bat (Myotis lucifugus) and two copies in Brandt's bat (Myotis brandtii). These species can live 37 and 41 years, respectively, despite having an adult body mass of only ~7 grams. We use evolutionary genetics and next generation sequencing approaches to show that positive selection has acted on the TP53 locus across bats, and two recently duplicated TP53 gene copies in the little brown bat are both highly conserved and expressed, suggesting they are functional. We also report an extraordinary genomic copy number expansion of the tumor suppressor gene FBXO31 in the common ancestor of vesper bats which accelerated in the Myotis lineage, leading to 34\u201457 copies and the expression of 20 functional FBXO31 homologs in Brandt's bat. As FBXO31 directs the degradation of MDM2, which is a negative regulator of TP53, we suggest that increased expression of both FBXO31 and TP53 may be related to an enhanced DNA-damage response to genotoxic stress brought on by long lifespans and rapid metabolic rates in bats.

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Date Created
2018-12

Career Options for Students Seeking a Degree in the School of Life Sciences

Description

This project was designed to develop resources to highlight diverse career options for students achieving a degree within the School of Life Sciences. Many students have a very narrow view of what careers their degree prepares them for. In addition,

This project was designed to develop resources to highlight diverse career options for students achieving a degree within the School of Life Sciences. Many students have a very narrow view of what careers their degree prepares them for. In addition, if they have a career in mind, they have difficulty selecting an appropriate degree that will prepare them for their intended career. The goal of this project was to provide a broader view of career options, as well as illustrate the requirements each student would need to meet in order to pursue these careers. This was done by interviewing five career professionals and developing a major map that corresponds to the specific requirements of that career.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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Assessing Practices and Perceptions of Supplements Among College Students

Description

With the new independence of adulthood, college students are a group susceptible to adopting unsupported, if not harmful, health practices. A survey of Arizona State University undergraduate students (N=200) was conducted to evaluate supplement use, trust in information sources, and

With the new independence of adulthood, college students are a group susceptible to adopting unsupported, if not harmful, health practices. A survey of Arizona State University undergraduate students (N=200) was conducted to evaluate supplement use, trust in information sources, and beliefs about supplement regulation. Of those who reported using supplements, college students most frequently received information from friends and family. STEM majors in fields unrelated to health who were taking a supplement were found to be less likely to receive information about the supplement from a medical practitioner than those in health fields or those in non-STEM majors (-26.9%, p=0.018). STEM majors in health-related fields were 15.0% more likely to treat colds and/or cold symptoms with research-supported methods identified from reliable sources, while non-health STEM and non-STEM majors were more likely to take unsupported cold treatments (p=0.010). Surveyed students, regardless of major, also stated they would trust a medical practitioner for supplement advice above other sources (88.0%), and the majority expressed a belief that dietary supplements are approved/regulated by the government (59.8%).

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Date Created
2018-05