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The Effects of Increased Standing and Light Physical Activity in the Workplace on Postprandial Glucose

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This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors. An easy way to implement change is by decreasing sedentary

This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors. An easy way to implement change is by decreasing sedentary time in workplaces where sitting is common, such as office workspaces. To consider how postprandial glucose is affected by decreasing sedentary time, participants ate a standardized meal for lunch and were asked to decrease their sitting time by replacing it with standing and light physical activity.

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2020-12

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Oral Microbiome Analysis Reveals Potential for Streamlining Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder where the body mistakenly attacks healthy joints. This in turn causes inflammation resulting in pain and swelling. It is very important to get RA accurately diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Similarly,

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder where the body mistakenly attacks healthy joints. This in turn causes inflammation resulting in pain and swelling. It is very important to get RA accurately diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Similarly, with any disease: the longer it is left untreated, the more damage it can cause. RA can cause irreversible joint damage leading to disability. The purpose of this study is to determine if oral microbiome can be used as an additional criterion to aid in diagnosing RA. Several oral microbes have already been identified as biomarkers for RA in saliva. In this study, 10 participants were recruited: 6 diagnosed with RA and 4 Healthy as a control. Two subgroups of RA were done within this study; those diagnose with a positive Rheumatoid Factor (RF) and those diagnose with a negative RF. These subgroups were then compared in order to determine the validity of using certain microbes as biomarkers for RA even when different diagnostic criteria were met. The microbe Parahaemolyticus had the largest measure of effect, showing the greatest potential for statistically significant results with a larger sample size. If we can work narrow to down specific microbes to be undoubtedly higher in abundance with already diagnosed RA patients when comparing to healthy participants, this will be a gamechanger. Not only could we give a higher sense of confidence with the diagnosis of RA, but this could streamline RA diagnosis.

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2020-12

HPV Vaccine Administration in Community Pharmacies

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The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can help prevent numerous cancers and genital warts. Traditionally, pediatricians and family medicine providers administer the vaccine. However, pharmacists can also vaccinate against HPV. The objective for this study is to assess Arizona pharmacists’ behaviors

The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine can help prevent numerous cancers and genital warts. Traditionally, pediatricians and family medicine providers administer the vaccine. However, pharmacists can also vaccinate against HPV. The objective for this study is to assess Arizona pharmacists’ behaviors and influences in relation to administering the HPV vaccine. We administered a survey to Arizona pharmacists at a statewide virtual conference. The key points that are assessed: pharmacists’ behaviors, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral in relation to the human papillomavirus vaccination. Looking at the measures, the leading outcomes of the study involved the HPV vaccination behavior and intentions to administer the vaccine. Secondary outcomes related more to the Theory of Planned Behavior constructs, which ended up being stronger with predictions of HPV vaccine administration intentions and behavior. Our results show that most of pharmacists held very positive attitudes (on a Likert Scale of 1-5)towards the HPV vaccine. It looked like attitude, perceived behavioral control, and subjective norm combined had a big influence on HPV vaccination intentions; however, the strongest predictor came down to the subjective norms, in administering the vaccine. Pharmacists believed strongly with implementing the HPV vaccine, and want to do so in the near future. In conclusion, the overall point of the study is that there should be a need in increasing pharmacy professionals’ subjective norms to vaccinate against the HPV in order to accelerate pharmacy-based HPV immunizations. Implementing human papillomavirus vaccine promotions in the near future could help engage leadership in pharmacy, and further encourage pharmacists’ awareness to administer the vaccine. Additionally, raising pharmacists’ awareness to administer the vaccine among adolescents could add facilitation in increasing human papillomavirus rates.

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2020-12

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Kinematics of Soccer Players During a 5-10-5 Agility Drill

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe similarities and differences within soccer players during a 5-10-5 agility drill between the first and second change of direction. Overall body mechanics and center of mass position relative to the feet

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe similarities and differences within soccer players during a 5-10-5 agility drill between the first and second change of direction. Overall body mechanics and center of mass position relative to the feet were assessed within players. Methods: A total of 6 soccer players participated in the study. Each player ran through the 5-10-5 agility drill 10 times. All trials were video recorded and oriented to include the whole drill. Data was assessed using the program Kinovea (open-source) for 5 out of the 6 players. One player was excluded due to not meeting the inclusion criteria. The metrics assessed were total time to complete the task, the change of direction time, the time it took for the lag leg to stop moving laterally to the planting of the lead leg, and the leg angle. All tasks, except for total task time, were assessed for both the first and second change of direction. An individual analysis was performed for each player in order to obtain observational differences between the first and second change of direction for players. Results: The total task time determined the order of the players, thus the fastest player became player 1 and the slowest player 5. Players 1, 2, 4, and 5 were all found to have a statistical significance in change of direction time. When statistically significant the change of direction time was faster for the second change of direction. The slower players, player 4 and 5, had a statistically significant difference in leg angle, with the leg angle being larger for the first change of direction. Player 3 had no significant differences between any of the metrics. When looking closer at the faster players an observable difference in center of mass position relative to the feet was observed. The second change of direction showed the center of mass being positioned further anterior to the feet, and better mechanics were used to slow down and prepare to change direction. Discussion: The center of mass position relative to the feet could likely explain why the second change of direction was faster for 4 out of the 5 players. With the current information from the present study it could be adapted to help coaches instruct players to incorporate better mechanics into their change of direction tasks, and possibly improve their agility. This study could be improved by using multiple camera angles, high definition cameras, body markers, and force plates. By using these tools information could be obtained about variables that impact change of direction tasks but were not measured in the current study.

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2020-12

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Perfection’s Reflection: Influencers on Bodybuilder Behavior

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Perfection’s Reflection: Influencers on Bodybuilder Behavior is an honors thesis project that provides insight on the impact of influencers and may be a value to those who wish to be influential to competitive bodybuilders. Six current and former competitive bodybuilders

Perfection’s Reflection: Influencers on Bodybuilder Behavior is an honors thesis project that provides insight on the impact of influencers and may be a value to those who wish to be influential to competitive bodybuilders. Six current and former competitive bodybuilders explained the impact of influencers in seven key themes: 1.) Body dissatisfaction, 2.) Inspiration, 3.) Imitation, 4.) Motivation, 5.) Skepticism and distrust, 6.) Information, and 7.) Avoidance. These seven key themes were identified throughout three stages of the bodybuilders’ journeys, “The Beginning,” during their early childhood to high school years, “The Middle,” the start of their bodybuilding careers, and “The End,” the present day. It is concluded that influencers may impact competitive bodybuilders differently based on the stage of their journeys and to be influential, one should provide the ideal impact based on bodybuilders’ stage of their journeys.

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2019-05

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Perceptions And Physiological Implications Of Vaping As Compared To Other Carcinogens

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Since e-cigarettes were put on the market in 2007, the use of them has increased rapidly especially among young adults and adolescents. The purpose of this thesis was to identify young individuals’ harm perceptions of using e-cigarettes as compared to

Since e-cigarettes were put on the market in 2007, the use of them has increased rapidly especially among young adults and adolescents. The purpose of this thesis was to identify young individuals’ harm perceptions of using e-cigarettes as compared to the harm perceptions of using carcinogens, and to compare the physiological effects of using e-cigarettes with those same carcinogens. Research was conducted by searching the Arizona State University Library website for articles that pertained to perceptions and physiological effects of e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Overall, young individuals have extremely low harm perceptions of using e-cigarettes, as compared to the other carcinogens. They perceived cigarettes to be the most dangerous and had the most knowledge on the subject, followed by methamphetamine, marijuana, and e-cigarettes with very little knowledge on the latter subjects. Many of the physiological effects of using e-cigarettes found in the research were shared with conventional cigarettes, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Specifically, using e-cigarettes results in negative physiological effects such as increased airway resistance, increased airway and lung tissue inflammation, increased bronchitic symptoms, increased mucin production, distal airspace enlargement, and increased cytokine and protease expression which are linked to COPD in chronic cigarette smokers. Other effects associated with decreased lung and respiratory function were shared with the chronic use of conventional cigarettes, marijuana, or methamphetamine. These findings can be used to inform young individuals of the harms that e-cigarettes may cause. More research needs to be conducted on the topic to identify the full range of physiological effects that using e-cigarettes may have on the body.

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2019-05

The Babble Boot Camp turns 2: Phonetic and phonemic inventory complexity and expressive vocabulary growth in infants with Classic Galactosemia undergoing an experimental prevention therapy

Description

Classic Galactosemia (CG) is a rare recessive metabolic disease resulting in the inability to digest galactose. Despite early detection via newborn screening and strict diet management, infants with CG are at high risk for severe speech (60%) and language (90%)

Classic Galactosemia (CG) is a rare recessive metabolic disease resulting in the inability to digest galactose. Despite early detection via newborn screening and strict diet management, infants with CG are at high risk for severe speech (60%) and language (90%) disorders (Waggoner, D., Buist, N., & Donnell, 1990). Although this risk is known since birth, no preventive treatment approaches in the area of speech and language have been developed. The Babble Boot Camp (BBC) is the first experimental proactive intervention for infants with CG ages 2 to 24 months. It is designed to stimulate early vocalization, coo, babble, first words, vocabulary growth, and syntactic complexity, with the goal of preventing or at least ameliorating the expected speech and language difficulties. All children undergo close monitoring. Day-long audio recordings, collected once per month using the Language Environment Analysis (LENA) system, are the source material for pre-speech and speech measures including Mean Babbling Level (MBL), Syllable Structure Level (SSL), and phonetic and phonemic inventory complexity.
Parent questionnaires are analyzed for expressive vocabulary size. Here, findings are described for the first 9 children who underwent the BBC and an untreated control child, all with CG. The initial results are consistent with higher MBL and SSL scores in the treatment cohort, compared to the untreated control infant. In addition, most children in the treatment cohort achieved larger vocabulary sizes than the control child. Of the four oldest children in the treatment cohort, three had expressive vocabularies within normal limits at 21 months. Phonetic
inventory complexity at 11 months predicted expressive vocabulary at 18 months. Given the high risk for speech and language disorders in children with CG, these results are encouraging, but an appropriately powered clinical trial is necessary to validate these findings. The BBC is on its way to a full clinical trial with 75 families, fully funded by the National Institutes of Health.

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2019-05

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Rabid Animals Prevention Program in Gila County

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a community-based rabies education program as a means to improve knowledge and awareness of rabies in rural, underprivileged areas. Using a non-randomized pre-test and post-test design (see Appendix A),

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a community-based rabies education program as a means to improve knowledge and awareness of rabies in rural, underprivileged areas. Using a non-randomized pre-test and post-test design (see Appendix A), community leaders and government officials within Gila County participated in a training on rabies prevention. Results were drawn through analyzing two education-based interventions held in Globe and Payson within Gila County. The descriptive statistics run within the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test indicated that Question 10 was significant because it fell out of the normal distribution category for both Globe and Payson (Tables 3 and 4). The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test indicated that Question 9 was significant for both Globe and Payson because it was below the .05 significance level (Tables 5 and 6). Finally, the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient also indicated that Question 9 was significant for both Globe and Payson since their values were below the .05 significance level. The repetition of Questions 9 and 10 being significant for each test represent that prominent sources of animals spreading rabies in Arizona and how different areas are affected by rabies in Arizona are areas for future studies to focus on. Given that the amount of knowledge gained was not consistent amongst participants nor groups, even when the population was targeted to be similar, it was concluded that education-based interventions are selectively effective at increasing knowledge and awareness of rabies.

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2019-05

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Image Reference Extraction: Linking References to Radiology Images with Clinically Significant Findings

Description

Background: Pulmonary embolism is a deadly condition that is often diagnosed using a technique known as computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). CTPA reports are free-text, narrative-style forms of documentation conferring radiologist findings—both primary (regarding pulmonary embolism) and incidental. This project

Background: Pulmonary embolism is a deadly condition that is often diagnosed using a technique known as computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA). CTPA reports are free-text, narrative-style forms of documentation conferring radiologist findings—both primary (regarding pulmonary embolism) and incidental. This project seeks to combine simple natural language processing (NLP) techniques, such as regular expressions and rules, to build upon and
further process output from a machine learning based named entity recognition (NER) tool for the purposes of (1) linking references to radiological images with the corresponding clinical findings and (2) extracting primary and incidental findings.

Methods: The project’s system utilized a regular expression to extract image references. All CTPA reports were first processed with NER software to obtain the text and spans of clinical findings. A heuristic was used to determine the appropriate clinical finding that should be linked with a particular image reference. Another regular expression was used to extract primary findings from NER output; the remaining findings were considered incidental. Performance was
assessed against a gold standard, which was based upon a manually annotated version of the CTPA reports used in this project.

Results: Extraction of image references achieved a 100% accuracy. Linkages between these references and exact gold standard spans of the clinical findings achieved a precision of 0.24, a recall of 0.22, and an F1 score of 0.23. Linkages with partial spans of clinical findings as determined by the gold standard achieved a precision of 0.71, a recall of 0.67, and an F1 score of 0.69. Primary and incidental finding extraction achieved a precision of 0.67, a recall of 0.80, and
an F1 score of 0.73.

Discussion: Various elements reduced system performance such as the difficulty of exactly matching the spans of clinical findings from NER output with those found in the gold standard. The heuristic linking clinical findings and image references was especially sensitive to NER false positives and false negatives due to its assumption that the appropriate clinical finding was that which was immediately prior to the image reference. Although the system did not perform as well as hoped, lessons were learned such as the need for clear research methodology and proper gold standard creation; without a proper gold standard, problem scope and system performance cannot be properly assessed. Improvements to the system include creating a more robust heuristic, sifting NER false positives, and training the NER tool used on a dataset of CTPA reports.

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2019-05

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The Physiological and Psychological Effects of Swing Dancing Compared to Traditional Exercise

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Swing dancing is a form of partnered dancing that has a focus on social interactions. The purpose of this study is to determine how social factors and intrinsic motivation effect how college age students perceive how much energy exertion swing

Swing dancing is a form of partnered dancing that has a focus on social interactions. The purpose of this study is to determine how social factors and intrinsic motivation effect how college age students perceive how much energy exertion swing dancing requires compared to traditional exercise. 20 ASU students were split into 10 female-male couples. The participants first completed a 30-minute session of social dancing and then a week later completed a 30-minute session of cycling on a stationary bike. Physiological data was collected using a Polar heart rate (HR) monitor wristwatch and chest strap. The HR of participants was taken after a period of rest and every five minutes during swing dancing and cycling. The rate of perceived exertion (RPE) was measured based on a Borg scale (6-20). RPE was taken after a period of rest and every five minutes during swing dancing and cycling. After both physiological sessions a psychological survey was distributed measuring the social factors of dancing, the intrinsic motivation of dancing, and the intrinsic motivation of traditional exercise. There was no significant difference between average HR during rest (p=0.34) or during the two types of exercises (p=0.26). There also was no significant difference in RPE during rest (p=0.33) or during the two types of exercises (p=0.46). At the same intensity participants perceived swing dancing to require as much energy exertion as cycling. Participants were significantly more intrinsically motivated to swing dance compared to traditional exercise. Participants reported high levels of social factors while swing dancing and these social factors had a moderately positive effect on intrinsic motivation for swing dancing. People are more intrinsically motivated to engage in swing dancing over traditional exercise and this may be due to the high social factors found in partnered dancing. Swing dancing is a form of exercise that can be used to reach the recommended level of physical activity.

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2019-05