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The Effects of Increased Standing and Light Physical Activity in the Workplace on Postprandial Glucose

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This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors. An easy way to implement change is by decreasing sedentary

This thesis paper examines the effects of increased standing and light physical activity in the workplace on postprandial glucose. Sedentary behavior is detrimental to our health, affecting metabolic risk factors. An easy way to implement change is by decreasing sedentary time in workplaces where sitting is common, such as office workspaces. To consider how postprandial glucose is affected by decreasing sedentary time, participants ate a standardized meal for lunch and were asked to decrease their sitting time by replacing it with standing and light physical activity.

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2020-12

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Oral Microbiome Analysis Reveals Potential for Streamlining Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder where the body mistakenly attacks healthy joints. This in turn causes inflammation resulting in pain and swelling. It is very important to get RA accurately diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Similarly,

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disorder where the body mistakenly attacks healthy joints. This in turn causes inflammation resulting in pain and swelling. It is very important to get RA accurately diagnosed and treated as early as possible. Similarly, with any disease: the longer it is left untreated, the more damage it can cause. RA can cause irreversible joint damage leading to disability. The purpose of this study is to determine if oral microbiome can be used as an additional criterion to aid in diagnosing RA. Several oral microbes have already been identified as biomarkers for RA in saliva. In this study, 10 participants were recruited: 6 diagnosed with RA and 4 Healthy as a control. Two subgroups of RA were done within this study; those diagnose with a positive Rheumatoid Factor (RF) and those diagnose with a negative RF. These subgroups were then compared in order to determine the validity of using certain microbes as biomarkers for RA even when different diagnostic criteria were met. The microbe Parahaemolyticus had the largest measure of effect, showing the greatest potential for statistically significant results with a larger sample size. If we can work narrow to down specific microbes to be undoubtedly higher in abundance with already diagnosed RA patients when comparing to healthy participants, this will be a gamechanger. Not only could we give a higher sense of confidence with the diagnosis of RA, but this could streamline RA diagnosis.

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2020-12

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Kinematics of Soccer Players During a 5-10-5 Agility Drill

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Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe similarities and differences within soccer players during a 5-10-5 agility drill between the first and second change of direction. Overall body mechanics and center of mass position relative to the feet

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to observe similarities and differences within soccer players during a 5-10-5 agility drill between the first and second change of direction. Overall body mechanics and center of mass position relative to the feet were assessed within players. Methods: A total of 6 soccer players participated in the study. Each player ran through the 5-10-5 agility drill 10 times. All trials were video recorded and oriented to include the whole drill. Data was assessed using the program Kinovea (open-source) for 5 out of the 6 players. One player was excluded due to not meeting the inclusion criteria. The metrics assessed were total time to complete the task, the change of direction time, the time it took for the lag leg to stop moving laterally to the planting of the lead leg, and the leg angle. All tasks, except for total task time, were assessed for both the first and second change of direction. An individual analysis was performed for each player in order to obtain observational differences between the first and second change of direction for players. Results: The total task time determined the order of the players, thus the fastest player became player 1 and the slowest player 5. Players 1, 2, 4, and 5 were all found to have a statistical significance in change of direction time. When statistically significant the change of direction time was faster for the second change of direction. The slower players, player 4 and 5, had a statistically significant difference in leg angle, with the leg angle being larger for the first change of direction. Player 3 had no significant differences between any of the metrics. When looking closer at the faster players an observable difference in center of mass position relative to the feet was observed. The second change of direction showed the center of mass being positioned further anterior to the feet, and better mechanics were used to slow down and prepare to change direction. Discussion: The center of mass position relative to the feet could likely explain why the second change of direction was faster for 4 out of the 5 players. With the current information from the present study it could be adapted to help coaches instruct players to incorporate better mechanics into their change of direction tasks, and possibly improve their agility. This study could be improved by using multiple camera angles, high definition cameras, body markers, and force plates. By using these tools information could be obtained about variables that impact change of direction tasks but were not measured in the current study.

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2020-12

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Universal Framework for Edge Controllability of Complex Network

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Dynamical processes occurring on the edges in complex networks are relevant to a variety of real-world situations. Despite recent advances, a framework for edge controllability is still required for complex networks of arbitrary structure and interaction strength. Generalizing a previously

Dynamical processes occurring on the edges in complex networks are relevant to a variety of real-world situations. Despite recent advances, a framework for edge controllability is still required for complex networks of arbitrary structure and interaction strength. Generalizing a previously introduced class of processes for edge dynamics, the switchboard dynamics, and exploit- ing the exact controllability theory, we develop a universal framework in which the controllability of any node is exclusively determined by its local weighted structure. This framework enables us to identify a unique set of critical nodes for control, to derive analytic formulas and articulate efficient algorithms to determine the exact upper and lower controllability bounds, and to evaluate strongly structural controllability of any given network. Applying our framework to a large number of model and real-world networks, we find that the interaction strength plays a more significant role in edge controllability than the network structure does, due to a vast range between the bounds determined mainly by the interaction strength. Moreover, transcriptional regulatory networks and electronic circuits are much more strongly structurally controllable (SSC) than other types of real-world networks, directed networks are more SSC than undirected networks, and sparse networks are typically more SSC than dense networks.

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2017-06-26

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Universal Formalism of Fano Resonance

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The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest.

The phenomenon of Fano resonance is ubiquitous in a large variety of wave scattering systems, where the resonance profile is typically asymmetric. Whether the parameter characterizing the asymmetry should be complex or real is an issue of great experimental interest. Using coherent quantum transport as a paradigm and taking into account of the collective contribution from all available scattering channels, we derive a universal formula for the Fano-resonance profile. We show that our formula bridges naturally the traditional Fano formulas with complex and real asymmetry parameters, indicating that the two types of formulas are fundamentally equivalent (except for an offset). The connection also reveals a clear footprint for the conductance resonance during a dephasing process. Therefore, the emergence of complex asymmetric parameter when fitting with experimental data needs to be properly interpreted. Furthermore, we have provided a theory for the width of the resonance, which relates explicitly the width to the degree of localization of the close-by eigenstates and the corresponding coupling matrices or the self-energies caused by the leads. Our work not only resolves the issue about the nature of the asymmetry parameter, but also provides deeper physical insights into the origin of Fano resonance. Since the only assumption in our treatment is that the transport can be described by the Green’s function formalism, our results are also valid for broad disciplines including scattering problems of electromagnetic waves, acoustics, and seismology.

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2015-01-01

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Universal Flux-Fluctuation Law in Small Systems

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The relation between flux and fluctuation is fundamental to complex physical systems that support and transport flows. A recently obtained law predicts monotonous enhancement of fluctuation as the average flux is increased, which in principle is valid but only for

The relation between flux and fluctuation is fundamental to complex physical systems that support and transport flows. A recently obtained law predicts monotonous enhancement of fluctuation as the average flux is increased, which in principle is valid but only for large systems. For realistic complex systems of small sizes, this law breaks down when both the average flux and fluctuation become large. Here we demonstrate the failure of this law in small systems using real data and model complex networked systems, derive analytically a modified flux-fluctuation law, and validate it through computations of a large number of complex networked systems. Our law is more general in that its predictions agree with numerics and it reduces naturally to the previous law in the limit of large system size, leading to new insights into the flow dynamics in small-size complex systems with significant implications for the statistical and scaling behaviors of small systems, a topic of great recent interest.

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2014-10-27

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Water Footprint of Cities: A Review and Suggestions for Future Research

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Cities are hotspots of commodity consumption, with implications for both local and systemic water resources. Water flows “virtually” into and out of cities through the extensive cross-boundary exchange of goods and services. Both virtual and real water flows are affected

Cities are hotspots of commodity consumption, with implications for both local and systemic water resources. Water flows “virtually” into and out of cities through the extensive cross-boundary exchange of goods and services. Both virtual and real water flows are affected by water supply investments and urban planning decisions, which influence residential, commercial, and industrial development. This form of water “teleconnection” is being increasingly recognized as an important aspect of water decision-making. The role of trade and virtual water flows as an alternative to expanding a city’s “real” water supply is rarely acknowledged, with an emphasis placed instead on monotonic expansion of engineering potable water supplies. We perform a literature review of water footprint studies to evaluate the potential and importance of taking virtual flows into account in urban planning and policy. We compare and contrast current methods to assess virtual water flows. We also identify and discuss priorities for future research in urban water footprint analysis.

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2015-06-30

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Perfection’s Reflection: Influencers on Bodybuilder Behavior

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Perfection’s Reflection: Influencers on Bodybuilder Behavior is an honors thesis project that provides insight on the impact of influencers and may be a value to those who wish to be influential to competitive bodybuilders. Six current and former competitive bodybuilders

Perfection’s Reflection: Influencers on Bodybuilder Behavior is an honors thesis project that provides insight on the impact of influencers and may be a value to those who wish to be influential to competitive bodybuilders. Six current and former competitive bodybuilders explained the impact of influencers in seven key themes: 1.) Body dissatisfaction, 2.) Inspiration, 3.) Imitation, 4.) Motivation, 5.) Skepticism and distrust, 6.) Information, and 7.) Avoidance. These seven key themes were identified throughout three stages of the bodybuilders’ journeys, “The Beginning,” during their early childhood to high school years, “The Middle,” the start of their bodybuilding careers, and “The End,” the present day. It is concluded that influencers may impact competitive bodybuilders differently based on the stage of their journeys and to be influential, one should provide the ideal impact based on bodybuilders’ stage of their journeys.

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2019-05

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Perceptions And Physiological Implications Of Vaping As Compared To Other Carcinogens

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Since e-cigarettes were put on the market in 2007, the use of them has increased rapidly especially among young adults and adolescents. The purpose of this thesis was to identify young individuals’ harm perceptions of using e-cigarettes as compared to

Since e-cigarettes were put on the market in 2007, the use of them has increased rapidly especially among young adults and adolescents. The purpose of this thesis was to identify young individuals’ harm perceptions of using e-cigarettes as compared to the harm perceptions of using carcinogens, and to compare the physiological effects of using e-cigarettes with those same carcinogens. Research was conducted by searching the Arizona State University Library website for articles that pertained to perceptions and physiological effects of e-cigarettes, conventional cigarettes, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Overall, young individuals have extremely low harm perceptions of using e-cigarettes, as compared to the other carcinogens. They perceived cigarettes to be the most dangerous and had the most knowledge on the subject, followed by methamphetamine, marijuana, and e-cigarettes with very little knowledge on the latter subjects. Many of the physiological effects of using e-cigarettes found in the research were shared with conventional cigarettes, marijuana, and methamphetamine. Specifically, using e-cigarettes results in negative physiological effects such as increased airway resistance, increased airway and lung tissue inflammation, increased bronchitic symptoms, increased mucin production, distal airspace enlargement, and increased cytokine and protease expression which are linked to COPD in chronic cigarette smokers. Other effects associated with decreased lung and respiratory function were shared with the chronic use of conventional cigarettes, marijuana, or methamphetamine. These findings can be used to inform young individuals of the harms that e-cigarettes may cause. More research needs to be conducted on the topic to identify the full range of physiological effects that using e-cigarettes may have on the body.

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2019-05

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Rabid Animals Prevention Program in Gila County

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a community-based rabies education program as a means to improve knowledge and awareness of rabies in rural, underprivileged areas. Using a non-randomized pre-test and post-test design (see Appendix A),

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of a community-based rabies education program as a means to improve knowledge and awareness of rabies in rural, underprivileged areas. Using a non-randomized pre-test and post-test design (see Appendix A), community leaders and government officials within Gila County participated in a training on rabies prevention. Results were drawn through analyzing two education-based interventions held in Globe and Payson within Gila County. The descriptive statistics run within the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test indicated that Question 10 was significant because it fell out of the normal distribution category for both Globe and Payson (Tables 3 and 4). The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test indicated that Question 9 was significant for both Globe and Payson because it was below the .05 significance level (Tables 5 and 6). Finally, the Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient also indicated that Question 9 was significant for both Globe and Payson since their values were below the .05 significance level. The repetition of Questions 9 and 10 being significant for each test represent that prominent sources of animals spreading rabies in Arizona and how different areas are affected by rabies in Arizona are areas for future studies to focus on. Given that the amount of knowledge gained was not consistent amongst participants nor groups, even when the population was targeted to be similar, it was concluded that education-based interventions are selectively effective at increasing knowledge and awareness of rabies.

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2019-05