Matching Items (12)

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Whole Blood Gene Expression Profiles in Insulin Resistant Latinos with the Metabolic Syndrome

Description

Although insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is well-characterized, the role of circulating whole blood in the metabolic syndrome phenotype is not well understood. We set out to test the hypothesis

Although insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is well-characterized, the role of circulating whole blood in the metabolic syndrome phenotype is not well understood. We set out to test the hypothesis that genes involved in inflammation, insulin signaling and mitochondrial function would be altered in expression in the whole blood of individuals with metabolic syndrome. We further wanted to examine whether similar relationships that we have found previously in skeletal muscle exist in peripheral whole blood cells. All subjects (n=184) were Latino descent from the Arizona Insulin Resistance registry. Subjects were classified based on the metabolic syndrome phenotype according to the National Cholesterol Education Program’s Adult Treatment Panel III. Of the 184 Latino subjects in the study, 74 were classified with the metabolic syndrome and 110 were without. Whole blood gene expression profiling was performed using the Agilent 4x44K Whole Human Genome Microarray. Whole blood microarray analysis identified 1,432 probes that were altered in expression ≥1.2 fold and P<0.05 after Benjamini-Hochberg in the metabolic syndrome subjects. KEGG pathway analysis revealed significant enrichment for pathways including ribosome, oxidative phosphorylation and MAPK signaling (all Benjamini-Hochberg P<0.05). Whole blood mRNA expression changes observed in the microarray data were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Transcription factor binding motif enrichment analysis revealed E2F1, ELK1, NF-kappaB, STAT1 and STAT3 significantly enriched after Bonferroni correction (all P<0.05). The results of the present study demonstrate that whole blood is a useful tissue for studying the metabolic syndrome and its underlying insulin resistance although the relationship between blood and skeletal muscle differs.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12-17

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Transcriptomic Identification of ADH1B as a Novel Candidate Gene for Obesity and Insulin Resistance in Human Adipose Tissue in Mexican Americans from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES)

Description

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex metabolic disease that is more prevalent in ethnic groups such as Mexican Americans, and is strongly associated with the risk factors obesity and insulin resistance. The goal of this study was to perform whole genome gene expression profiling in adipose tissue to detect common patterns of gene regulation associated with obesity and insulin resistance. We used phenotypic and genotypic data from 308 Mexican American participants from the Veterans Administration Genetic Epidemiology Study (VAGES). Basal fasting RNA was extracted from adipose tissue biopsies from a subset of 75 unrelated individuals, and gene expression data generated on the Illumina BeadArray platform. The number of gene probes with significant expression above baseline was approximately 31,000. We performed multiple regression analysis of all probes with 15 metabolic traits. Adipose tissue had 3,012 genes significantly associated with the traits of interest (false discovery rate, FDR ≤ 0.05). The significance of gene expression changes was used to select 52 genes with significant (FDR ≤ 10[superscript -4]) gene expression changes across multiple traits. Gene sets/Pathways analysis identified one gene, alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) that was significantly enriched (P < 10[superscript -60]) as a prime candidate for involvement in multiple relevant metabolic pathways. Illumina BeadChip derived ADH1B expression data was consistent with quantitative real time PCR data. We observed significant inverse correlations with waist circumference (2.8 x 10[superscript -9]), BMI (5.4 x 10[superscript -6]), and fasting plasma insulin (P < 0.001). These findings are consistent with a central role for ADH1B in obesity and insulin resistance and provide evidence for a novel genetic regulatory mechanism for human metabolic diseases related to these traits.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-04-01

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Prolonged Exposure of Primary Human Muscle Cells to Plasma Fatty Acids Associated with Obese Phenotype Induces Persistent Suppression of Muscle Mitochondrial ATP Synthase β Subunit

Description

Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase,

Our previous studies show reduced abundance of the β-subunit of mitochondrial H+-ATP synthase (β-F1-ATPase) in skeletal muscle of obese individuals. The β-F1-ATPase forms the catalytic core of the ATP synthase, and it is critical for ATP production in muscle. The mechanism(s) impairing β-F1-ATPase metabolism in obesity, however, are not completely understood. First, we studied total muscle protein synthesis and the translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in obese (BMI, 36±1 kg/m[superscript 2]) and lean (BMI, 22±1 kg/m[superscript 2]) subjects. Both total protein synthesis (0.044±0.006 vs 0.066±0.006%·h[superscript -1]) and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase (0.0031±0.0007 vs 0.0073±0.0004) were lower in muscle from the obese subjects when compared to the lean controls (P<0.05). We then evaluated these same responses in a primary cell culture model, and tested the specific hypothesis that circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) in obesity play a role in the responses observed in humans. The findings on total protein synthesis and translation efficiency of β-F1-ATPase in primary myotubes cultured from a lean subject, and after exposure to NEFA extracted from serum of an obese subject, were similar to those obtained in humans. Among candidate microRNAs (i.e., non-coding RNAs regulating gene expression), we identified miR-127-5p in preventing the production of β-F1-ATPase. Muscle expression of miR-127-5p negatively correlated with β-F1-ATPase protein translation efficiency in humans (r = – 0.6744; P<0.01), and could be modeled in vitro by prolonged exposure of primary myotubes derived from the lean subject to NEFA extracted from the obese subject. On the other hand, locked nucleic acid inhibitor synthesized to target miR-127-5p significantly increased β-F1-ATPase translation efficiency in myotubes (0.6±0.1 vs 1.3±0.3, in control vs exposure to 50 nM inhibitor; P<0.05). Our experiments implicate circulating NEFA in obesity in suppressing muscle protein metabolism, and establish impaired β-F1-ATPase translation as an important consequence of obesity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-08-17

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Changes in miRNA species following lifestyle intervention among obese Latino youth with prediabetes

Description

Obesity and related health disparities including type 2 diabetes disproportionately impact Latino youth. These health disparities may be the result of gene-environment interactions, but limited research has examined these interactions

Obesity and related health disparities including type 2 diabetes disproportionately impact Latino youth. These health disparities may be the result of gene-environment interactions, but limited research has examined these interactions in the pediatric age group. Lifestyle intervention is the cornerstone for preventing diabetes among high-risk populations and epigenetic and genetic factors may help explain the biological mechanisms underlying diabetes risk reduction following lifestyle changes. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding RNA’s that regulate gene expression and have emerged as potential biomarkers for predicting type 2 diabetes risk in adults but have yet to be applied to youth. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify changes in miRNA expression among Latino youth with prediabetes (4 female/2 male, ages 14-16, BMI percentile 99 ±.2) who participated in a 12-week lifestyle intervention focused on increasing physical activity and improving nutrition-related behaviors.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Next-Generation Sequencing for DNA Methylation Profiling in Blood and Skeletal Muscle

Description

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now,

DNA methylation, a subset of epigenetics, has been found to be a significant marker associated with variations in gene expression and activity across the entire human genome. As of now, however, there is little to no information about how DNA methylation varies between different tissues inside a singular person's body. By using research data from a preliminary study of lean and obese clinical subjects, this study attempts to put together a profile of the differences in DNA methylation that can be observed between two particular body tissues from this subject group: blood and skeletal muscle. This study allows us to start describing the changes that occur at the epigenetic level that influence how differently these two tissues operate, along with seeing how these tissues change between individuals of different weight classes, especially in the context of the development of symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-12

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The Obesity Epidemic: An Examination of Physical, Emotional, and Social Factors Effects on Eating Tendencies in a College Sample

Description

Thirty six percent of Americans are obese and thirty three percent are overweight; obesity has become a known killer in the U.S. yet its prevalence has maintained a firm gras

Thirty six percent of Americans are obese and thirty three percent are overweight; obesity has become a known killer in the U.S. yet its prevalence has maintained a firm grasp on the U.S. population and continues to spread across the globe as other countries slowly adopt the American lifestyle. A survey was compiled collecting demographic and body mass index (BMI) information, as well as Tanofsky-Kraff’s (2009) “Assess Eating in the Absence of Hunger” survey questions. The survey used for this study was emailed out to Arizona State University students in Barrett, The Honors College, and the ASU School of Nutrition and Health Promotion listservs. A total of 457 participants completed the survey, 72 males and 385 females (mean age, 24.5±7.7 y; average body mass index (BMI), 23.4 ± 4.8 [a BMI of 25-29.9 is classified as overweight]). When comparing BMI with the living situation, 71% of obese students were living at home with family versus off campus with friends or alone. For comparison, 45% of normal weight students lived at home with family.  These data could help structure prevention plans targeting college students by focusing on weight gain prevention at the family level. Results from the Tanofsky-Kraff (2009) survey revealed there was not a significant relationship between external or physical cues and BMI in men or women, but there was a significant positive correlation between emotional cues and BMI in women only. Anger and sadness were the emotional cues in women related to initiating consumption past satiation and consumption following several hours of fasting. Although BMI was inversely related to physical activity in this sample (r = -0.132; p=0.005), controlling for physical activity did not impact the significant associations of BMI with anger or sadness (P>0.05).  This information is important in targeting prevention programs to address behavioral change and cognitive awareness of the effects of emotion on over-consumption.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013-05

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Gene Expression Profiling in Skeletal Muscle of Patients at Risk for NODAT

Description

New-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) occurs in 20% of kidney transplant patients. In 5 patients who are at risk for new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation, skeletal muscle gene expression

New-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation (NODAT) occurs in 20% of kidney transplant patients. In 5 patients who are at risk for new-onset diabetes after kidney transplantation, skeletal muscle gene expression profiling was performed both before and after kidney transplant. The differences in gene expression before and after transplant were compared in order to identify specific genes that could be linked to developing NODAT. These findings could open new avenues for future research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Physical activity and FTO genotype by physical activity interactive influences on obesity

Description

Background
Although the effect of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on adiposity is well established, there is a lack of evidence whether physical activity (PA) modifies the effect

Background
Although the effect of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene on adiposity is well established, there is a lack of evidence whether physical activity (PA) modifies the effect of FTO variants on obesity in Latino populations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine PA influences and interactive effects between FTO variants and PA on measures of adiposity in Latinos.
Results
After controlling for age and sex, participants who did not engage in regular PA exhibited higher BMI, fat mass, HC, and WC with statistical significance (P < 0.001). Although significant associations between the three FTO genotypes and adiposity measures were found, none of the FTO genotype by PA interaction assessments revealed nominally significant associations. However, several of such interactive influences exhibited considerable trend towards association.
Conclusions
These data suggest that adiposity measures are associated with PA and FTO variants in Latinos, but the impact of their interactive influences on these obesity measures appear to be minimal. Future studies with large sample sizes may help to determine whether individuals with specific FTO variants exhibit differential responses to PA interventions.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-02-24

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Next-generation sequencing methylation profiling of subjects with obesity identifies novel gene changes

Description

Background
Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the

Background
Obesity is a metabolic disease caused by environmental and genetic factors. However, the epigenetic mechanisms of obesity are incompletely understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the role of skeletal muscle DNA methylation in combination with transcriptomic changes in obesity.
Results
Muscle biopsies were obtained basally from lean (n = 12; BMI = 23.4 ± 0.7 kg/m[superscript 2]) and obese (n = 10; BMI = 32.9 ± 0.7 kg/m[superscript 2]) participants in combination with euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps to assess insulin sensitivity. We performed reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) next-generation methylation and microarray analyses on DNA and RNA isolated from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies. There were 13,130 differentially methylated cytosines (DMC; uncorrected P < 0.05) that were altered in the promoter and untranslated (5' and 3'UTR) regions in the obese versus lean analysis. Microarray analysis revealed 99 probes that were significantly (corrected P < 0.05) altered. Of these, 12 genes (encompassing 22 methylation sites) demonstrated a negative relationship between gene expression and DNA methylation. Specifically, sorbin and SH3 domain containing 3 (SORBS3) which codes for the adapter protein vinexin was significantly decreased in gene expression (fold change −1.9) and had nine DMCs that were significantly increased in methylation in obesity (methylation differences ranged from 5.0 to 24.4 %). Moreover, differentially methylated region (DMR) analysis identified a region in the 5'UTR (Chr.8:22,423,530–22,423,569) of SORBS3 that was increased in methylation by 11.2 % in the obese group. The negative relationship observed between DNA methylation and gene expression for SORBS3 was validated by a site-specific sequencing approach, pyrosequencing, and qRT-PCR. Additionally, we performed transcription factor binding analysis and identified a number of transcription factors whose binding to the differentially methylated sites or region may contribute to obesity.
Conclusions
These results demonstrate that obesity alters the epigenome through DNA methylation and highlights novel transcriptomic changes in SORBS3 in skeletal muscle.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-07-18

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Gene and MicroRNA Expression Responses to Exercise; Relationship with Insulin Sensitivity

Description

Background
Healthy individuals on the lower end of the insulin sensitivity spectrum also have a reduced gene expression response to exercise for specific genes. The goal of this study was

Background
Healthy individuals on the lower end of the insulin sensitivity spectrum also have a reduced gene expression response to exercise for specific genes. The goal of this study was to determine the relationship between insulin sensitivity and exercise-induced gene expression in an unbiased, global manner.
Methods and Findings
Euglycemic clamps were used to measure insulin sensitivity and muscle biopsies were done at rest and 30 minutes after a single acute exercise bout in 14 healthy participants. Changes in mRNA expression were assessed using microarrays, and miRNA analysis was performed in a subset of 6 of the participants using sequencing techniques. Following exercise, 215 mRNAs were changed at the probe level (Bonferroni-corrected P<0.00000115). Pathway and Gene Ontology analysis showed enrichment in MAP kinase signaling, transcriptional regulation and DNA binding. Changes in several transcription factor mRNAs were correlated with insulin sensitivity, including MYC, r=0.71; SNF1LK, r=0.69; and ATF3, r= 0.61 (5 corrected for false discovery rate). Enrichment in the 5’-UTRs of exercise-responsive genes suggested regulation by common transcription factors, especially EGR1. miRNA species of interest that changed after exercise included miR-378, which is located in an intron of the PPARGC1B gene.
Conclusions
These results indicate that transcription factor gene expression responses to exercise depend highly on insulin sensitivity in healthy people. The overall pattern suggests a coordinated cycle by which exercise and insulin sensitivity regulate gene expression in muscle.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05-18