Matching Items (24)

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Tolerating the “doubting Thomas”: how centrality of religious beliefs vs. practices influences prejudice against atheists

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Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such

Past research has found a robust effect of prejudice against atheists in largely Christian-dominated (belief-oriented) samples. We propose that religious centrality of beliefs vs. practices influences attitudes toward atheists, such that religious groups emphasizing beliefs perceive non-believers more negatively than believers, while groups emphasizing practices perceive non-practicing individuals more negatively than practicing individuals. Studies 1–2, in surveys of 41 countries, found that Muslims and Protestants (belief-oriented) had more negative attitudes toward atheists than did Jews and Hindus (practice-oriented). Study 3 experimentally manipulated a target individual's beliefs and practices. Protestants had more negative attitudes toward a non-believer (vs. a believer), whereas Jews had more negative attitudes toward a non-practicing individual (vs. a practicing individual, particularly when they had a Jewish background). This research has implications for the psychology of religion, anti-atheist prejudice, and cross-cultural attitudes regarding where dissent in beliefs or practices may be tolerated or censured within religious groups.

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  • 2015-09-08

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The Influence of Soul Perception on Concepts of Self

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Perceptions of the self differ between cultures, generally between those cultures in the West and East. Some of the ways that these individuals from these cultures may differ are in

Perceptions of the self differ between cultures, generally between those cultures in the West and East. Some of the ways that these individuals from these cultures may differ are in their self-construal, their collectivist and individualist tendencies, and how they perceive control in their lives. The current study proposes that some of these differences are influenced by different concepts individuals hold regarding the "soul", or inner self. These concepts may be promoted by the different religious beliefs prominent in different regions. The Soul Perception Index, being developed through this study, measures belief in multiple souls, a universal soul, a single soul, or no soul. It was predicted that a belief in a single soul will correlate with an individual view of the self (individualism, independent self-construal, internal locus of control), and a universal or multi-soul belief will correlate with an interdependent view of the self (collectivism, interdependent self-construal, and external locus of control). We found that these variables did not significantly differ in their relationships with soul belief. However, Indian Hindu participants and Chinese participants seemed to score highly on all self-view variables and all soul perception types indicating that individuals from these cultures may be more predisposed to hold opposing beliefs simultaneously while US Christians are not.

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  • 2016-12

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Effect of Threat, Costly Signaling, and Religion on Trust Decisions

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Trust was measured for a target profile that varied the target's religion and costly signaling behavior. Subjects were primed with a threat, romance, or neutral response previous to viewing the

Trust was measured for a target profile that varied the target's religion and costly signaling behavior. Subjects were primed with a threat, romance, or neutral response previous to viewing the profile to determine if this had any effect on their trust ratings of the target. Participants were drawn from MTurk with ages ranging from 18 to 75 (M= 33.2) and various religious backgrounds (including 210 Christians, 190 atheists/agnostics, and 92 other religious believers). Participants were presented with the threat, romance, or neutral vignette, shown the target profile, and asked to rate the target's trustworthiness. There was no main effect of the vignette condition (p = .088) or costly signaling (p = .099) on the target's trustworthiness. There was a main effect of target religion (p = .006) wherein the Muslim target was trusted more than the Catholic target. These findings do not replicate previous findings on religion, costly signaling, and trust.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Inference of Value through Social Influence And Self-Preference

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Social proof and mismatch of self-preference have been assumed to play an important role in the inference of value. They can be influential factors when it comes to decision-making in

Social proof and mismatch of self-preference have been assumed to play an important role in the inference of value. They can be influential factors when it comes to decision-making in a mate-selection environment. In this thesis study, participants took an online survey in the form of a dating website. They answered a series of questions about the traits they would like to see in a potential mate. They were then presented with four potential mates and asked to rank them by their preferences. The results show that participants most preferred the potential mate with a high social proof and a low mismatch of self-preference and least preferred the potential mate with a low social proof and a high mismatch of self-preference. When comparing just social proof and mismatch of self-preference, there was not an interaction effect between the two. I conclude that even though social proof is a powerful influencing factor by itself, it did not have the power to trump the mismatch of self-preference.

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  • 2012-12

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The Effect of Priming Biblical Benevolence on Prosocial Behavior Rabia Memon

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Religion and the belief in supernatural agents have been assumed to play an important role in encouraging prosocial behavior. However, different studies conducted have shown a complex relation between religion

Religion and the belief in supernatural agents have been assumed to play an important role in encouraging prosocial behavior. However, different studies conducted have shown a complex relation between religion and prosociality. For example, Darley & Batson (1973) found that religious people do not always help strangers. In the present study, Christian participants were primed with benevolent commandments attributed to either the Bible or past historical figures or secular, non-benevolent quotes (control). I then measured their willingness to help pick up envelopes dropped by either a Muslim (wearing a hijab) or non-Muslim confederate woman. The results show that subjects primed with Bible or presidential quotes about benevolence were more likely to be helpful to the Muslim confederate than those in the control group. Differences between the Bible and presidential condition were not significant. I conclude that an authority, whether it be a president or God, promoting benevolence can increase prosocial behaviors toward out-group members.

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  • 2012-12

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Exploring the Relation Between Motivational and Cognitive Systems: The Case of Individual Differences in Religiosity and Working Memory

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This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity

This study examined the relation between Religiosity (a motivational system) and Working Memory Capacity (a cognitive system) to determine how they interact to promote goal-directed behavior. Participants completed a religiosity questionnaire and engaged in a battery of tasks that were used to assess their Working Memory Capacity (WMC) and overall ability to maintain goal-directed behavior. The Stroop task was used to examine the participants' ability to maintain goals in the face of interference. It was predicted that religiosity and WMC would be inversely related and that when we controlled for religiosity, WMC would be the only significant predictor of Stroop performance. Furthermore, we hypothesized that religiosity and Stoop would be inversely related, whereas WMC and Stroop would be positively correlated with one another. Religiosity and Stroop performance were each divided into three different components. Religiosity was divided into: Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and CARMA. Stroop Performance was measured through Stroop Accuracy, the Stroop Effect, and Post-Error Slowing. The results of our study supported each of our hypotheses. These findings demonstrated that there is a cognitive process underlying motivational systems, such as religion, which affect an individual's ability to sustain goal-directed behavior.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

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The Effects of Christianity and Hinduism on Environmentalism

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This research examined the influence that Christian and Hindu religious beliefs have on environmentalism; specifically, whether beliefs that one would return to this earth after death (i.e., a belief in

This research examined the influence that Christian and Hindu religious beliefs have on environmentalism; specifically, whether beliefs that one would return to this earth after death (i.e., a belief in reincarnation) and how the world might end may explain more positive attitudes toward the environment. Participants were 533 self-identified Christians and Hindus in the United States and India who completed an online survey assessing religiosity, positive attitudes towards environmentalism, afterlife beliefs, and eschatological beliefs. Christians showed significantly lower ratings of environmentalism compared with Hindus. There were also significant negative differences found based on beliefs about heaven, eschatology beliefs, and increased religiosity in Christians, and significant positive differences found based on reincarnation, eschatology beliefs, and increased religiosity in Hindus. Overall, these results suggest that Christians are less likely to have positive attitudes toward environmentalism compared with Hindus, and that beliefs about the afterlife and the end of the world were significant predictors of environmentalist attitudes.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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EVALUATION OF CASE MANAGEMENT PROGRAM REFERRALS: A COLLABORATION BETWEEN THE TEMPE YOUTH RESOURCE CENTER AND COMMUNITY ACTION RESEARCH EXPERIENCES

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Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) collaborated with the Tempe Youth Resource Center (TYRC) to evaluate the quality of the center's case management referrals, the rate of follow-up done on those

Community Action Research Experiences (CARE) collaborated with the Tempe Youth Resource Center (TYRC) to evaluate the quality of the center's case management referrals, the rate of follow-up done on those referrals, and to assess whether supports were needed to assist their clients in the follow-up process. Data were collected over a two month period from records of weekly referrals as well as in face-to-face interviews. Over the two month period, data was collected on a total of 41 potential participants and 128 referrals. Eighteen clients participated in an interview and reported on 47 referrals. The results indicated that the overall quality of the referrals was good as well as the follow-up rate. The results also indicated that the follow-up rate could be improved by implementing some supports, the main area of concern being offering assistance to clients in making phone calls.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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The Use of Dips on Increasing Vegetable Liking and Intake in College Students

Description

Statistics are rising for adults who are overweight and/or obese, putting them at higher risk of developing serious health problems. Eating fewer portions of vegetable than the daily-recommended amounts contributes

Statistics are rising for adults who are overweight and/or obese, putting them at higher risk of developing serious health problems. Eating fewer portions of vegetable than the daily-recommended amounts contributes to this increase with. College students, being more susceptible to weight gain as they are transitioning from childhood to adulthood. Previous studies demonstrated that children ate more vegetables when repeatedly paired with a low-fat dip compared to when served plain. The current study examined whether this effect was also successful in college-aged subjects. A total of 148 (55 males, 91 females) college-aged students from an introductory psychology class at Arizona State University (Tempe, AZ) participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to receive cauliflower or broccoli (raw) either served plain or with low-fat ranch dressing. Subjects showed a greater preference for and consumption of the vegetable plain that was previously given with dip than without dip. These findings suggest that serving vegetables with low-fat ranch dip two times can increase the liking and consumption of vegetables in college students.

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  • 2015-05

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Religiosity as a Heterosexual Mating Strategy and the Influence of a Homosexuality Threat

Description

A prior experiment by Li and colleagues found that when participants rated same sex faces in physical attractiveness, their self-reports of religiosity were higher in comparison to those that rated

A prior experiment by Li and colleagues found that when participants rated same sex faces in physical attractiveness, their self-reports of religiosity were higher in comparison to those that rated opposite sex faces. Could this be due to participants feeling their sexuality was threatened or misunderstood? In the current experiment, we attempted to replicate these findings and extend them by using a pseudo personality test that presented false feedback to participants. This feedback explained that their personalities were similar to homosexual or heterosexual people. Four hundred and fifty participants from Amazon Mturk were randomized into these conditions. We also measured homophobia, moral values, and the believability of the experiment. Results displayed no replication of the original findings. Men were more homophobic than women, while displaying lower moral values and religiosity. Those that self-reported being more homophobic also reported being more religious and moral. In conditions of sexual threat (homosexual personality, same sex faces) and sexual comfort (heterosexual personality, opposite sex faces), self-reports of moral values increased. Participants that reported believing the feedback displayed higher religiosity in both sexual threat and sexual comfort conditions. For a more concrete understanding of the relationship between religiosity, mating goals, and threats to sexuality, more research needs to be performed.

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  • 2014-12