Matching Items (16)

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VLIW Remotely Reconfigurable DSP Element

Description

The purpose of the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) Remotely Reconfigurable DSP Element is to use VLIW as a design process and to design hardware components of a reconfigurable DSP

The purpose of the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) Remotely Reconfigurable DSP Element is to use VLIW as a design process and to design hardware components of a reconfigurable DSP Element and ascertaining the overall length of the Very Long Instruction Word. This project is focused solely on hardware components being designed by hand with regards to certain specifications deemed by General Dynamics Mission Systems, and using the designs, finding the overall length of the VLIW for use in future work. To design each of the elements, General Dynamics had specified several requirements. Each element was then designed individually according to the requirements. After the initial design, each was sent back for a design review from General Dynamics, and after revision, all parts were linked together for an overall calculation on the length of the VLIW. VLIW Reconfigurable DSP Elements is not a new concept, but has yet to have a proof of concept published. Future work includes a proof of concept with software (done by the ASU Capstone team), then future development by General Dynamics. Should they choose to continue with this project, they will continue testing on FPGA boards, and perhaps future development into an ASIC. Overall the purpose of General Dynamics for proposing this project is for deep space payloads, for which this project has the most applications.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Predictive modeling for extremely scaled CMOS and post silicon devices

Description

To extend the lifetime of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS), emerging process techniques are being proposed to conquer the manufacturing difficulties. New structures and materials are proposed with superior electrical properties to

To extend the lifetime of complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors (CMOS), emerging process techniques are being proposed to conquer the manufacturing difficulties. New structures and materials are proposed with superior electrical properties to traditional CMOS, such as strain technology and feedback field-effect transistor (FB-FET). To continue the design success and make an impact on leading products, advanced circuit design exploration must begin concurrently with early silicon development. Therefore, an accurate and scalable model is desired to correctly capture those effects and flexible to extend to alternative process choices. For example, strain technology has been successfully integrated into CMOS fabrication to improve transistor performance but the stress is non-uniformly distributed in the channel, leading to systematic performance variations. In this dissertation, a new layout-dependent stress model is proposed as a function of layout, temperature, and other device parameters. Furthermore, a method of layout decomposition is developed to partition the layout into a set of simple patterns for model extraction. These solutions significantly reduce the complexity in stress modeling and simulation. On the other hand, semiconductor devices with self-feedback mechanisms are emerging as promising alternatives to CMOS. Fe-FET was proposed to improve the switching by integrating a ferroelectric material as gate insulator in a MOSFET structure. Under particular circumstances, ferroelectric capacitance is effectively negative, due to the negative slope of its polarization-electrical field curve. This property makes the ferroelectric layer a voltage amplifier to boost surface potential, achieving fast transition. A new threshold voltage model for Fe-FET is developed, and is further revealed that the impact of random dopant fluctuation (RDF) can be suppressed. Furthermore, through silicon via (TSV), a key technology that enables the 3D integration of chips, is studied. TSV structure is usually a cylindrical metal-oxide-semiconductors (MOS) capacitor. A piecewise capacitance model is proposed for 3D interconnect simulation. Due to the mismatch in coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) among materials, thermal stress is observed in TSV process and impacts neighboring devices. The stress impact is investigated to support the interaction between silicon process and IC design at the early stage.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Statistical characterization and decomposition of SRAM cell variability and aging

Description

Memories play an integral role in today's advanced ICs. Technology scaling has enabled high density designs at the price paid for impact due to variability and reliability. It is imperative

Memories play an integral role in today's advanced ICs. Technology scaling has enabled high density designs at the price paid for impact due to variability and reliability. It is imperative to have accurate methods to measure and extract the variability in the SRAM cell to produce accurate reliability projections for future technologies. This work presents a novel test measurement and extraction technique which is non-invasive to the actual operation of the SRAM memory array. The salient features of this work include i) A single ended SRAM test structure with no disturbance to SRAM operations ii) a convenient test procedure that only requires quasi-static control of external voltages iii) non-iterative method that extracts the VTH variation of each transistor from eight independent switch point measurements. With the present day technology scaling, in addition to the variability with the process, there is also the impact of other aging mechanisms which become dominant. The various aging mechanisms like Negative Bias Temperature Instability (NBTI), Channel Hot Carrier (CHC) and Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown (TDDB) are critical in the present day nano-scale technology nodes. In this work, we focus on the impact of NBTI due to aging in the SRAM cell and have used Trapping/De-Trapping theory based log(t) model to explain the shift in threshold voltage VTH. The aging section focuses on the following i) Impact of Statistical aging in PMOS device due to NBTI dominates the temporal shift of SRAM cell ii) Besides static variations , shifting in VTH demands increased guard-banding margins in design stage iii) Aging statistics remain constant during the shift, presenting a secondary effect in aging prediction. iv) We have investigated to see if the aging mechanism can be used as a compensation technique to reduce mismatch due to process variations. Finally, the entire test setup has been tested in SPICE and also validated with silicon and the results are presented. The method also facilitates the study of design metrics such as static, read and write noise margins and also the data retention voltage and thus help designers to improve the cell stability of SRAM.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Radiation hardened pulse based D flip flop design

Description

ABSTRACT The D flip flop acts as a sequencing element while designing any pipelined system. Radiation Hardening by Design (RHBD) allows hardened circuits to be fabricated on commercially available CMOS

ABSTRACT The D flip flop acts as a sequencing element while designing any pipelined system. Radiation Hardening by Design (RHBD) allows hardened circuits to be fabricated on commercially available CMOS manufacturing process. Recently, single event transients (SET's) have become as important as single event upset (SEU) in radiation hardened high speed digital designs. A novel temporal pulse based RHBD flip-flop design is presented. Temporally delayed pulses produced by a radiation hardened pulse generator design samples the data in three redundant pulse latches. The proposed RHBD flip-flop has been statistically designed and fabricated on 90 nm TSMC LP process. Detailed simulations of the flip-flop operation in both normal and radiation environments are presented. Spatial separation of critical nodes for the physical design of the flip-flop is carried out for mitigating multi-node charge collection upsets. The proposed flip-flop is also used in commercial CAD flows for high performance chip designs. The proposed flip-flop is used in the design and auto-place-route (APR) of an advanced encryption system and the metrics analyzed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Smart compilers for reliable and power-efficient embedded computing

Description

Thanks to continuous technology scaling, intelligent, fast and smaller digital systems are now available at affordable costs. As a result, digital systems have found use in a wide range of

Thanks to continuous technology scaling, intelligent, fast and smaller digital systems are now available at affordable costs. As a result, digital systems have found use in a wide range of application areas that were not even imagined before, including medical (e.g., MRI, remote or post-operative monitoring devices, etc.), automotive (e.g., adaptive cruise control, anti-lock brakes, etc.), security systems (e.g., residential security gateways, surveillance devices, etc.), and in- and out-of-body sensing (e.g., capsule swallowed by patients measuring digestive system pH, heart monitors, etc.). Such computing systems, which are completely embedded within the application, are called embedded systems, as opposed to general purpose computing systems. In the design of such embedded systems, power consumption and reliability are indispensable system requirements. In battery operated portable devices, the battery is the single largest factor contributing to device cost, weight, recharging time, frequency and ultimately its usability. For example, in the Apple iPhone 4 smart-phone, the battery is $40\%$ of the device weight, occupies $36\%$ of its volume and allows only $7$ hours (over 3G) of talk time. As embedded systems find use in a range of sensitive applications, from bio-medical applications to safety and security systems, the reliability of the computations performed becomes a crucial factor. At our current technology-node, portable embedded systems are prone to expect failures due to soft errors at the rate of once-per-year; but with aggressive technology scaling, the rate is predicted to increase exponentially to once-per-hour. Over the years, researchers have been successful in developing techniques, implemented at different layers of the design-spectrum, to improve system power efficiency and reliability. Among the layers of design abstraction, I observe that the interface between the compiler and processor micro-architecture possesses a unique potential for efficient design optimizations. A compiler designer is able to observe and analyze the application software at a finer granularity; while the processor architect analyzes the system output (power, performance, etc.) for each executed instruction. At the compiler micro-architecture interface, if the system knowledge at the two design layers can be integrated, design optimizations at the two layers can be modified to efficiently utilize available resources and thereby achieve appreciable system-level benefits. To this effect, the thesis statement is that, ``by merging system design information at the compiler and micro-architecture design layers, smart compilers can be developed, that achieve reliable and power-efficient embedded computing through: i) Pure compiler techniques, ii) Hybrid compiler micro-architecture techniques, and iii) Compiler-aware architectures''. In this dissertation demonstrates, through contributions in each of the three compiler-based techniques, the effectiveness of smart compilers in achieving power-efficiency and reliability in embedded systems.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Software Techniques For Dependable Execution

Description

Advances in semiconductor technology have brought computer-based systems intovirtually all aspects of human life. This unprecedented integration of semiconductor based systems in our lives has significantly increased the domain and

Advances in semiconductor technology have brought computer-based systems intovirtually all aspects of human life. This unprecedented integration of semiconductor based systems in our lives has significantly increased the domain and the number

of safety-critical applications – application with unacceptable consequences of failure. Software-level error resilience schemes are attractive because they can provide commercial-off-the-shelf microprocessors with adaptive and scalable reliability.

Among all software-level error resilience solutions, in-application instruction replication based approaches have been widely used and are deemed to be the most effective. However, existing instruction-based replication schemes only protect some part of computations i.e. arithmetic and logical instructions and leave the rest as unprotected. To improve the efficacy of instruction-level redundancy-based approaches, we developed several error detection and error correction schemes. nZDC (near Zero silent

Data Corruption) is an instruction duplication scheme which protects the execution of whole application. Rather than detecting errors on register operands of memory and control flow operations, nZDC checks the results of such operations. nZDC en

sures the correct execution of memory write instruction by reloading stored value and checking it against redundantly computed value. nZDC also introduces a novel control flow checking mechanism which replicates compare and branch instructions and

detects both wrong direction branches as well as unwanted jumps. Fault injection experiments show that nZDC can improve the error coverage of the state-of-the-art schemes by more than 10x, without incurring any more performance penalty. Further

more, we introduced two error recovery solutions. InCheck is our backward recovery solution which makes light-weighted error-free checkpoints at the basic block granularity. In the case of error, InCheck reverts the program execution to the beginning of last executed basic block and resumes the execution by the aid of preserved in formation. NEMESIS is our forward recovery scheme which runs three versions of computation and detects errors by checking the results of all memory write and branch

operations. In the case of a mismatch, NEMESIS diagnosis routine decides if the error is recoverable. If yes, NEMESIS recovery routine reverts the effect of error from the program state and resumes program normal execution from the error detection

point.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Automated place and route methodologies for multi-project test chips

Description

This work describes the development of automated flows to generate pad rings, mixed signal power grids, and mega cells in a multi-project test chip. There were three major design flows

This work describes the development of automated flows to generate pad rings, mixed signal power grids, and mega cells in a multi-project test chip. There were three major design flows that were created to create the test chip. The first was the pad ring which was used as the staring block for creating the test chip. This flow put all of the signals for the chip in the order that was wanted along the outside of the die along with creation of the power ring that is used to supply the chip with a robust power source.

The second flow that was created was used to put together a flash block that is based off of a XILIX XCFXXP. This flow was somewhat similar to how the pad ring flow worked except that optimizations and a clock tree was added into the flow. There was a couple of design redoes due to timing and orientation constraints.

Finally, the last flow that was created was the top level flow which is where all of the components are combined together to create a finished test chip ready for fabrication. The main components that were used were the finished flash block, HERMES, test structures, and a clock instance along with the pad ring flow for the creation of the pad ring and power ring.

Also discussed is some work that was done on a previous multi-project test chip. The work that was done was the creation of power gaters that were used like switches to turn the power on and off for some flash modules. To control the power gaters the functionality change of some pad drivers was done so that they output a higher voltage than what is seen in the core of the chip.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Electrostatic Analysis of Gate All Around (GAA) Nanowire over FinFET

Description

CMOS Technology has been scaled down to 7 nm with FinFET replacing planar MOSFET devices. Due to short channel effects, the FinFET structure was developed to provide better electrostatic control

CMOS Technology has been scaled down to 7 nm with FinFET replacing planar MOSFET devices. Due to short channel effects, the FinFET structure was developed to provide better electrostatic control on subthreshold leakage and saturation current over planar MOSFETs while having the desired current drive. The FinFET structure has an undoped or fully depleted fin, which supports immunity from random dopant fluctuations (RDF – a phenomenon which causes a reduction in the threshold voltage and is prominent at sub 50 nm tech nodes due to lesser dopant atoms) and thus causes threshold voltage (Vth) roll-off by reducing the Vth. However, as the advanced CMOS technologies are shrinking down to a 5 nm technology node, subthreshold leakage and drain-induced-barrier-lowering (DIBL) are driving the introduction of new metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) structures to improve performance. GAA field effect transistors are shown to be the potential candidates for these advanced nodes. In nanowire devices, due to the presence of the gate on all sides of the channel, DIBL should be lower compared to the FinFETs.

A 3-D technology computer aided design (TCAD) device simulation is done to compare the performance of FinFET and GAA nanowire structures with vertically stacked horizontal nanowires. Subthreshold slope, DIBL & saturation current are measured and compared between these devices. The FinFET’s device performance has been matched with the ASAP7 compact model with the impact of tensile and compressive strain on NMOS & PMOS respectively. Metal work function is adjusted for the desired current drive. The nanowires have shown better electrostatic performance over FinFETs with excellent improvement in DIBL and subthreshold slope. This proves that horizontal nanowires can be the potential candidate for 5 nm technology node. A GAA nanowire structure for 5 nm tech node is characterized with a gate length of 15 nm. The structure is scaled down from 7 nm node to 5 nm by using a scaling factor of 0.7.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Radiation effects measurement test structure using GF 32-nm SOI process

Description

This thesis describes the design of a Single Event Transient (SET) duration measurement test-structure on the Global Foundries (previously IBM) 32-nm silicon-on insulator (SOI) process. The test structure is designed

This thesis describes the design of a Single Event Transient (SET) duration measurement test-structure on the Global Foundries (previously IBM) 32-nm silicon-on insulator (SOI) process. The test structure is designed for portability and allows quick design and implementation on a new process node. Such a test structure is critical in analyzing the effects of radiation on complementary metal oxide semi-conductor (CMOS) circuits. The focus of this thesis is the change in pulse width during propagation of SET pulse and build a test structure to measure the duration of a SET pulse generated in real time. This test structure can estimate the SET pulse duration with 10ps resolution. It receives the input SET propagated through a SET capture structure made using a chain of combinational gates. The impact of propagation of the SET in a >200 deep collection structure is studied. A novel methodology of deploying Thick Gate TID structure is proposed and analyzed to build multi-stage chain of combinational gates. Upon using long chain of combinational gates, the most critical issue of pulse width broadening and shortening is analyzed across critical process corners. The impact of using regular standard cells on pulse width modification is compared with NMOS and/or PMOS skewed gates for the chain of combinational gates. A possible resolution to pulse width change is demonstrated using circuit and layout design of chain of inverters, two and three inputs NOR gates. The SET capture circuit is also tested in simulation by introducing a glitch signal that mimics an individual ion strike that could lead to perturbation in SET propagation. Design techniques and skewed gates are deployed to dampen the glitch that occurs under the effect of radiation. Simulation results, layout structures of SET capture circuit and chain of combinational gates are presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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6T-SRAM 1Mb design with test structures and post silicon validation

Description

Static random-access memories (SRAM) are integral part of design systems as caches and data memories that and occupy one-third of design space. The work presents an embedded low power SRAM

Static random-access memories (SRAM) are integral part of design systems as caches and data memories that and occupy one-third of design space. The work presents an embedded low power SRAM on a triple well process that allows body-biasing control. In addition to the normal mode operation, the design is embedded with Physical Unclonable Function (PUF) [Suh07] and Sense Amplifier Test (SA Test) mode. With PUF mode structures, the fabrication and environmental mismatches in bit cells are used to generate unique identification bits. These bits are fixed and known as preferred state of an SRAM bit cell. The direct access test structure is a measurement unit for offset voltage analysis of sense amplifiers. These designs are manufactured using a foundry bulk CMOS 55 nm low-power (LP) process. The details about SRAM bit-cell and peripheral circuit design is discussed in detail, for certain cases the circuit simulation analysis is performed with random variations embedded in SPICE models. Further, post-silicon testing results are discussed for normal operation of SRAMs and the special test modes. The silicon and circuit simulation results for various tests are presented.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017