Matching Items (118)

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Comparing Loading Provisions Between ASCE 7-10 and ASCE 7-16

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The loading provisions were compared between the ASCE 7-10 standard and ASCE 7-16 standard. Two different structural models were considered: an office building with a flat roof located in Tempe and a community center with a gable roof located in

The loading provisions were compared between the ASCE 7-10 standard and ASCE 7-16 standard. Two different structural models were considered: an office building with a flat roof located in Tempe and a community center with a gable roof located in Flagstaff. The following load types were considered: dead, live, wind, and snow loads. The only major changes between the standards were found in the wind load calculations. The winds loads were reduced by approximately 22% for the office building in Tempe and 37% for the community center in Flagstaff. A structural design was completed for the frame of the Flagstaff community building. There was a 19% reduction in cost from the design using ASCE 7-10 provisions compared to the design utilizing ASCE 7-16 provisions, leading to a saving of $7,599.17. The reduction in loading, and subsequently more cost-effective design, is attributed to the reduction in basic wind speed for the region and consideration of the ground elevation factor. The introduction of the new ASCE 7-16 standard was met with criticism, especially over the increase in specific coefficients in the wind load and seismic load chapters. Proponents of ASCE 7-16 boast that the new chapter on tsunami loads, new maps for various environmental loads, and a new electronic hazard are some of the merits of the newest standard. Others still question whether the complexity of the provisions is necessary and call for further improvements for the wind and seismic provisions. While tension exists in the desire for a simple standard, ASCE 7-16 prioritizes in having its provisions provide economical and reliable results. More consideration could be devoted to developing a more convenient standard for users. Regardless, engineering professionals should be able to adapt alongside newly developed practices and newly discovered data.

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2018-05

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Quantifying Biological Hydrogen Demand of Sediments

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Hydrogen is a key indicator of microbial activity in soils/sediments and groundwater because of its role as an electron donor for reducing sulfate and nitrate and carrying out other metabolic processes. The goal of this study was to quantitatively measure

Hydrogen is a key indicator of microbial activity in soils/sediments and groundwater because of its role as an electron donor for reducing sulfate and nitrate and carrying out other metabolic processes. The goal of this study was to quantitatively measure the total biological hydrogen demand (TBHD) of soils and sediments in anaerobic environments. We define the total biological hydrogen demand as the sum of all electron acceptors that can be used by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms. Three sets of anaerobic microcosms were set up with different soils/sediments, named Carolina, Garden, and ASM. The microcosms included 25g of soil/sediment and 75 mL of anaerobic medium. 10 mL of hydrogen were pulse-fed for 100 days. Hydrogen consumption and methane production were tracked using gas chromatography. Chemical analysis of each soil was performed at the beginning of the experiment to determine the concentration of electron acceptors in the soils/sediments, including nitrate, sulfate, iron and bicarbonate. An analysis of the microbial community was done at t = 0 and at the end of the 100 days to examine changes in the microbial community due to the metabolic processes occurring as hydrogen was consumed. Carolina consumed 9810 43 mol of hydrogen and produced 19,572 2075 mol of methane. Garden consumed 4006 33 mol of hydrogen and produced 7,239 543 mol of methane. Lastly, ASM consumed 1557 84 mol of hydrogen and produced 1,325 715 mol of methane. I conclude that the concentration of bicarbonate initially present in the soil had the most influence over the hydrogen demand and microbial community enrichment. To improve this research, I recommend that future studies include a chemical analysis of final soil geochemistry conditions, as this will provide with a better idea of what pathway the hydrogen is taking in each soil.

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2017-05

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Social Movements as Presented Throughout Comic Book History; Focusing Primarily on DC's "The Green Lantern"

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Too often are American superhero comics dismissed as childish or simplistic. However, American superhero comics have evolved alongside American society throughout history, and have, in many cases, made a conscious effort to represent progressive movements that have arisen within various

Too often are American superhero comics dismissed as childish or simplistic. However, American superhero comics have evolved alongside American society throughout history, and have, in many cases, made a conscious effort to represent progressive movements that have arisen within various respective decades. This thesis will analyze the progression of American superhero comics as they have evolved throughout the decades, this essay will focus primarily on the comic book storylines of DC's, The Green Lantern, throughout the Golden, Silver, Bronze and Modern Ages of comic book history. The Golden Age was defined by war efforts and support for World War II. The Silver Age was under heavy regulation by the Comic Code Authority and had to water down content from serious topics. Despite this regulation, Silver Age comics were able to symbolize and support or oppose social movements during their respective decade. However, the Bronze Age acted as a turning point for comic book plotlines and characterization. After the Bronze Age, censorship of comic book content was nonexistent and more complex plotlines were developed. From then on the Modern Age of comics would continue to openly explore societal movements and serve as a social commentary. To explore this change, the contents of this essay will usher a discourse on how the American superhero was used to first express American propaganda, and how, throughout the twentieth century and even to this day, the superhero was transformed into a medium that examines social phenomena such as political causes and discrimination. To further analyze and compare social movements to American comics, this will focus primarily on DC's The Green Lantern comic books and how the superhero changed throughout comic book history.

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2017-05

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SLICE: Sustainable PV Waste Alternative

Description

The problem is that children in developing countries are doing our dirty work. Electronic waste that end up in landfills in these developing countries pose a danger to the children extracting metals that are then resold in local markets. The

The problem is that children in developing countries are doing our dirty work. Electronic waste that end up in landfills in these developing countries pose a danger to the children extracting metals that are then resold in local markets. The dumping of solar panels in these landfills is sometimes the only alternative for some manufactures because there is no viable option for silicon wafers. Solar panel installations started to peak in the early 1990's . With the lifespan of a solar panel being 25 years, recycling these panel is not a priority task in government policies. First Solar is currently the only company in the United States that executes the full recycling process. However, there is an environmental hotspot and an energy intensity phase identified in their process. The second stage in First Solar's recycling method consist of hammering and shredding the solar panel to reduce the surface area to then move on the chemical path stage. This stage currently uses 1.1 kWh for a meter by meter solar cell. A thermal processing method was explored and found to be the most environmentally conscious chose in terms of emissions and energy cost. The thermal method uses a conventional furnace to burn away the EVA, leaving the internal components of the cell intact and ready for the remaining process of recycling. SLICE method aims to introduce an industry tailored, low energy cost process, that initiates a solar panel recycling infrastructure in the United States. The recycling infrastructure is needed to sustain the exponential growth of solar panels and avoid third party recycling to developing countries. This new method transitions from lab tested batch processes to a continuous process.

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2017-05

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Development of a Mechanical Seismic Simulation Apparatus for College Engineering Education

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The School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment (SSEBE) used to have a shake table where FSE 100 professors would use students' model structures to demonstrate how failure occurs during an earthquake. The SSEBE has wanted to build a

The School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment (SSEBE) used to have a shake table where FSE 100 professors would use students' model structures to demonstrate how failure occurs during an earthquake. The SSEBE has wanted to build a shake table ever since the original table was no longer available to them. My creative project is to design and build a shake table for FSE 100 use. This paper will go through the steps I took to design and construct my shake table as well as suggestions to anyone else who would want to build a shake table. The design of the shake table that was constructed was modeled after Quanser's Shake Table II. The pieces from the shake table were purchased from McMaster-Carr and was assembled at the TechShop in Chandler, Arizona. An educational component was added to this project to go along with the shake table. The project will be for the use of a FSE 100 classes. This project is very similar to the American Society of Civil Engineers, Pacific Southwest Conference's seismic competition. The main difference is that FSE 100 students will not be making a thirty story model but only a five story model. This shake table will make Arizona State University's engineering program competitive with other top universities that use and implement shake table analysis in their civil engineering courses.

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2017-05

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Prestige Worldwide Resort

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The Prestige Worldwide Resort and development area will be constructed to the east of Scottsdale Rd and North of the 101 loop. The development area is composed of 442.58 acres of land within 9 parcels. Zoning for this development area

The Prestige Worldwide Resort and development area will be constructed to the east of Scottsdale Rd and North of the 101 loop. The development area is composed of 442.58 acres of land within 9 parcels. Zoning for this development area consists of commercial, recreational, golf course, residential, and water/wastewater treatment. The main feature of the development area is a luxury resort to be located at the southwest corner of Legacy Blvd and Hayden Rd. The resort includes a large pond over which the entrance road traverses. The resort also includes an 18-hole golf course located just north of Legacy Blvd. The proposed residential area is to the east of Hayden Rd on the northern half of the site. Along the northeastern border of this residential area are APS, SRP, and Bureau of Reclamation easements. A recreational area in the form of a park is proposed to the east and west of the southern portion of N Hayden Rd on the site. The southeast corner or the site is reserved for water and wastewater treatment. The southwest corner of the site is for commercial use with an additional recreational/sporting area just to the north of this commercial area. The key feature of the resort is its luxurious eight-story hotel along with two other hotel buildings that accommodate tourists who are visiting Scottsdale. The main hotel includes 210 rooms to provide enough housing for these tourists and acquire more attraction to Scottsdale. The composition of the hotel consists of the first floor being the lobby and a recreational area. The other floors each contain 30 rooms, 3 elevators, and a staircase. Surrounding the hotel is a parking lot for the hotel guests and people attending events hosted at the hotel. Regarding the hotel specifications, two different alternative designs were produced to determine the ideal steel member type, concrete reinforcement, and the steel frame layout. The final hotel design was determined by which alternative had the lowest structural response from loading and cost effective.

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2017-05

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Building the Green Hospital: An Analysis of Construction Strategies Contributing to Building Efficiency in the Healthcare Sector

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Hospitals constitute 9 percent of commercial energy consumption in the U.S. annually, though they only make up 2 percent of the U.S. commercial floor space. Consuming an average of 259,000 Btu per square foot, U.S. hospitals spend about 8.3 billion

Hospitals constitute 9 percent of commercial energy consumption in the U.S. annually, though they only make up 2 percent of the U.S. commercial floor space. Consuming an average of 259,000 Btu per square foot, U.S. hospitals spend about 8.3 billion dollars on energy every year. Utilizing collaborative delivery method for hospital construction can effectively save healthcare business owners thousands of dollars while reducing construction time and resulting in a better product: a building that has fewer operational deficiencies and requires less maintenance. Healthcare systems are integrated by nature, and are rich in technical complexity to meet the needs of their various patients. In addition to being technologically and energy intensive, hospitals must meet health regulations while maintaining human comfort. The interdisciplinary nature of hospitals suggests that multiple perspectives would be valuable in optimizing the building design. Integrated project delivery provides a means to reaching the optimal design by emphasizing group collaboration and expertise of the architect, engineer, owner, builder, and hospital staff. In previous studies, IPD has proven to be particularly beneficial when it comes to highly complex projects, such as hospitals. To assess the effects of a high level of team collaboration in the delivery of a hospital, case studies were prepared on several hospitals that have been built in the past decade. The case studies each utilized some form of a collaborative delivery method, and each were successful in saving and/or redirecting time and money to other building components, achieving various certifications, recognitions, and awards, and satisfying the client. The purpose of this research is to determine key strategies in the construction of healthcare facilities that allow for quicker construction, greater monetary savings, and improved operational efficiency. This research aims to communicate the value of both "green building" and a high level of team collaboration in the hospital-building process.

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2017-05

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Developing Curriculum to Educate Engineers on Unconscious Bias

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Engineers spend several years studying intense technical details of the processes that shape our world, yet few are exposed to classes addressing social behaviors or issues. Engineering culture creates specific barriers to addressing social science issues, such as unconscious bias,

Engineers spend several years studying intense technical details of the processes that shape our world, yet few are exposed to classes addressing social behaviors or issues. Engineering culture creates specific barriers to addressing social science issues, such as unconscious bias, within engineering classrooms. I developed a curriculum that uses optical illusions, Legos, and the instructor's vulnerability to tackle unconscious bias in a way that addresses the barriers in engineering culture that prevent engineers from learning social science issues. Unconscious bias has documented long-term negative impacts on success and personal development, even in engineering environments. Creating a module in engineering education that addresses unconscious bias with the aim of reducing the negative effects of bias would benefit developing engineers by improving product development and team diversity. Engineering culture fosters disengagement with social issues through three pillars: depoliticization, technical/social dualism, and meritocracy. The developed curriculum uses optical illusions and Legos as proxies to start discussions about unconscious bias. The proxies allow engineers to explore their own biases without running into one of the pillars of disengagement that limits the engineer's willingness to discuss social issues. The curriculum was implemented in the Fall of 2017 in an upper-division engineering classroom as a professional communication module. The module received qualitatively positive feedback from fellow instructors and students. The curriculum was only implemented once by the author, but future implementations should be done with a different instructor and using quantitative data to measure if the learning objectives were achieved. Appendix A of the paper contains a lesson plan of the module that could be implemented by other instructors.

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2017-05

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Observations on the Rheological Response of Alkali Activated Fly Ash Suspensions: The Role of Activator Type and Concentration

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This paper reports the influence of activator type and concentration on the rheological properties of alkali-activated fly ash suspensions. A thorough investigation of the rheological influences (yield stress and plastic viscosity) of several activator parameters, including: (i) the cation type

This paper reports the influence of activator type and concentration on the rheological properties of alkali-activated fly ash suspensions. A thorough investigation of the rheological influences (yield stress and plastic viscosity) of several activator parameters, including: (i) the cation type and concentration of alkali hydroxide and (ii) the alkali-to-binder ratio (n) and silica modulus (Ms), and (iii) the volume of the activation solution, on the suspension rheology is presented. The results indicate a strong dependence on the cation and its concentration in the activation solution. The viscosity of the activation solution and the volumetric solution-to-powder ratio are shown to most strongly influence the plastic viscosity of the suspension. The suspension yield stress is predominantly influenced by the changes in fly ash particle surface charge and the ionic species in the activator. A shift from non-Newtonian to Newtonian flow behavior is noted in the case of silicate-based suspensions for Ms ≤ 1.5. This behavior, which is not observed at higher MS values, or when the fly ash is dispersed in hydroxide solutions or pure water, is hypothesized to be caused by colloidal siliceous species present in this system, or surface charge effects on the fly ash particles. Comparisons of the rheological response of alkali-activated suspensions to that of portland cement-water suspensions are also reported.

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2014-11-01

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Microstructural, Mechanical, and Durability Related Similarities in Concretes Based on OPC and Alkali-Activated Slag Binders

Description

Alkali-activated slag concretes are being extensively researched because of its potential sustainability-related benefits. For such concretes to be implemented in large scale concrete applications such as infrastructural and building elements, it is essential to understand its early and long-term performance

Alkali-activated slag concretes are being extensively researched because of its potential sustainability-related benefits. For such concretes to be implemented in large scale concrete applications such as infrastructural and building elements, it is essential to understand its early and long-term performance characteristics vis-à-vis conventional ordinary portland cement (OPC) based concretes. This paper presents a comprehensive study of the property and performance features including early-age isothermal calorimetric response, compressive strength development with time, microstructural features such as the pore volume and representative pore size, and accelerated chloride transport resistance of OPC and alkali-activated binder systems. Slag mixtures activated using sodium silicate solution (SiO2-to-Na2O ratio or Ms of 1–2) to provide a total alkalinity of 0.05 (Na2O-to-binder ratio) are compared with OPC mixtures with and without partial cement replacement with Class F fly ash (20 % by mass) or silica fume (6 % by mass). Major similarities are noted between these binder systems for: (1) calorimetric response with respect to the presence of features even though the locations and peaks vary based on Ms, (2) compressive strength and its development, (3) total porosity and pore size, and (4) rapid chloride permeability and non-steady state migration coefficients. Moreover, electrical impedance based circuit models are used to bring out the microstructural features (resistance of the connected pores, and capacitances of the solid phase and pore-solid interface) that are similar in conventional OPC and alkali-activated slag concretes. This study thus demonstrates that performance-equivalent alkali-activated slag systems that are more sustainable from energy and environmental standpoints can be proportioned.

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2014-12-01