Matching Items (114)

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Utilization of Passive Samplers for Water Quality Monitoring of Hexavalent Chromium in Water Treatment Plants

Description

The current EPA regulation for total chromium in drinking water is the MCL standard of 0.1 milligrams per liter or 100 parts per billion (ppb) to avoid dermatological effects. With

The current EPA regulation for total chromium in drinking water is the MCL standard of 0.1 milligrams per liter or 100 parts per billion (ppb) to avoid dermatological effects. With a toxicology study released in 2008 by the Department of Health and Human Services noting that hexavalent chromium is carcinogenic, the EPA is currently reviewing this MCL standard. During this review, the EPA provides monitoring guidance that requires quarterly sampling of surface water for hexavalent chromium. However, these samples monitor the instant in time that they were taken, and do not account for varying concentrations that are time-dependent. This research seeks to develop a method for monitoring hexavalent chromium in water. Using ion exchange technology, passive samplers were developed and installed at the Chandler Water Treatment Plant for a week-long monitoring event. Results show that passive samplers using ion exchange technology provide an accurate assessment of the average concentration of total chromium within the water treatment plant's effluent with 90.3% recovery of Cr(VI) in SIR-100 resin and 62.6% recovery in SIR-700.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Understanding the Influence of Fly Ash and Activator Chemistry on Geopolymer Kinetics and Property Development

Description

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C

It is the intent of this research to determine the feasibility of utilizing industrial byproducts in cementitious systems in lieu of Portland Cement to reduce global CO2 emissions. Class C and Class F Fly Ash (CFA and FFA, respectively) derived from industrial coal combustion were selected as the replacement materials for this study. Sodium sulfate and calcium oxide were used as activators. In Part 1 of this study, focus was placed on high volume replacement of OPC using sodium sulfate as the activator. Despite improvements in heat generation for both CFA and FFA systems in the presence of sulfate, sodium sulfate was found to have adverse effects on the compressive strength of CFA mortars. In the CFA mixes, strength improved significantly with sulfate addition, but began to decrease in strength around 14 days due to expansive ettringite formation. Conversely, the addition of sulfate led to improved strength for FFA mixes such that the 28 day strength was comparable to that of the CFA mixes with no observable strength loss. Maximum compressive strengths achieved for the high volume replacement mixes was around 40 MPa, which is considerably lower than the baseline OPC mix used for comparison. In Part 2 of the study, temperature dependency and calcium oxide addition were studied for sodium sulfate activated systems composed of 100% Class F fly ash. In the presence of sulfate, added calcium increased reactivity and compressive strength at early ages, particularly at elevated temperatures. It is believed that sulfate and calcium react with alumina from fly ash to form ettringite, while heat overcomes the activation energy barrier of fly ash. The greatest strengths were obtained for mixes containing the maximum allowed quantity of calcium oxide (5%) and sodium sulfate (3%), and were around 12 MPa. This is a very low compressive strength relative to OPC and would therefore be an inadequate substitute for OPC needs.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Improving Undergraduate Structural Engineering Education and Assessing the Use of Technology in Structural Analysis and Design Courses

Description

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics,

The civil engineering curriculum includes the engineering fields of environmental, geotechnical, hydrology, structural, and transportation. A particular focus on the structural engineering curriculum outline involves courses in mathematics, engineering mechanics, structural analysis, and structural design. The core structural analysis and design course at Arizona State University (CEE 321) is a transition course to connect realistic structural design and analysis concepts to an engineering foundation created by the first and second year mathematics and mechanics courses. CEE 321 is styled after a flipped classroom model and students are assessed through quizzes, midterms, design projects, and a final exam. Student performance was evaluated for the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters through an error analysis technique designed to categorize student mistakes based on type of error and related topic. This analysis revealed that student's basic engineering mechanics skills improved throughout the course as well as identified the areas that students struggle in. The slope-deflection and direct stiffness methods of analysis and calculating cross-sectional properties are the primary areas of concern. Using appropriate technology in the engineering classroom has the potential to enhance the learning environment and address the areas of inadequacy identified by the performance analysis. A survey of CEE 321 students demonstrated that technology is a highly integrated and useful portion of student's lives. Therefore, the engineering classroom should reflect this. Through the use of analysis and design software, students are able to begin to develop design intuition and understanding while completing realistic engineering projects in their third year of undergraduate studies. Additionally, incorporating internet resources into and outside of the classroom allows students to be connected to course content from any web-enabled device of their choice. Lecture videos posted online covering the course content were requested by many CEE 321 students and are an emerging resource that supplements the flipped classroom model. The availability of such a tool allows students to revisit concepts that they do not understand or pause, rewind, and replay the lectures when necessary. An expansion of the structural analysis and design online lecture videos for CEE 321 are expected to address and improve the areas that students struggle in as identified by the error analysis.

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Date Created
  • 2013-12

Development and Use of Instructional Multimedia to Enhance Student Comprehension of Fundamental Structural Analysis and Design Techniques

Description

In the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters, a survey was taken of students enrolled in the principal undergraduate civil engineering structures course, CEE 321: Structural Analysis and Design, to

In the Spring 2013 and Fall 2013 semesters, a survey was taken of students enrolled in the principal undergraduate civil engineering structures course, CEE 321: Structural Analysis and Design, to assess both the prevalence of technology in the lives of the students and the potential ways this information could be use to improve the educational experience. The results of this survey indicated that there was a considerable demand for additional online resources outside of the formal classroom. The students of CEE 321 requested online lecture videos in particular, and so a project was launched at the start of the Spring 2014 semester to deliver a large body of academic instructional videos. In total, a collection of 30 instructional videos which covered all key topics covered over a semester of CEE 321 was published. The driving interest behind this creative project is to increase the level of understanding, comfort, and performance in students enrolled in the class. Although the quantity of initial student feedback is relatively small, the reactions are distinctly positive and reflect an improvement in understanding amongst the responding students. Over the course of upcoming semesters, qualitative and quantitative assessments of the impact of the videos are expected to provide a better indication of their quality and effectiveness in supporting student comprehension and performance in CEE 321. Above all, the success of these videos is directly tied to their ability to function as living, adaptable resources which are continuously molded and improved by student feedback.

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Date Created
  • 2014-05

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Synthesis and Structural Properties of FAU-Type Zeolite Prepared from Fly Ash

Description

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash,

The influence of mix design on the structural properties of FAU-type (faujasite) zeolite was studied. Samples were synthesized in a forced convection oven using various proportions of coal fly ash, sodium hydroxide (NaOH), and sodium chloride (NaCl). Three faujasite varieties, labeled X, P and S, were prepared for each mix design. Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA). Mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP) was used to obtain porosity information on the samples. Mechanical strength testing was performed on solid blocks of the zeolite samples prepared in a mold. It was found that the S variety in mix design (iv) had the most desirable balance of porosity and strength for engineering applications.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Assessing Research on the Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Freshwater Vertebrates

Description

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances that disrupt the function of the endocrine system by blocking or mimicking hormones. Over the years, these substances have been identified as responsible for producing

Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are substances that disrupt the function of the endocrine system by blocking or mimicking hormones. Over the years, these substances have been identified as responsible for producing adverse reproductive effects in freshwater vertebrate populations. Freshwater vertebrates include reptiles, amphibians, and fish living in bodies of water such as lakes or streams and are exposed when concentrations of EDCs enter their habitats. With over 800 known or potential EDCs identified, ample studies can be conducted on the effects of EDCs on freshwater vertebrates; however, studies can be costly. Since studies are costly, I have developed a methodology to prioritize EDC studies. I analyzed ten EDCs to determine their impact on freshwater vertebrates. I specified four criteria and EDCs that passed all four criteria were considered significant. The four criteria I utilized were population decreases, routes of exposure, adverse reproductive effects, and environmental persistence. I analyzed research studies as evidence for the pass or fail of each criterion, where I considered the EDC "ambiguous" if there was not enough information to make a judgment. I then assessed the research available for each EDC. Only one EDC had adequate information to pass or fail each criterion. The one with adequate information passed all criteria. Two EDCs lacked adequate information for three of the four criteria, three EDCs lacked adequate information for two of the four criteria, and four EDCs lacked adequate information for one of the four criteria. I assessed the EDCs based on whether there was adequate information available in each criterion in order to provide researchers direction for future research endeavors. The results indicate either there is much research that remains to be conducted or that researchers are not making existing results of studies available. Companies producing EDCs that are released into the environment can use the information in this report as a basis for determining strategies to minimize the impacts of EDCs on freshwater vertebrates.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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A Longitudinal Assessment of U.S. Public Transportation Energy Use and GHG Emissions

Description

While public transit systems are perceived to produce lower GHG emission intensities per passenger miles traveled (PMT) and per vehicle miles traveled (VMT), there is a limited understanding of emissions

While public transit systems are perceived to produce lower GHG emission intensities per passenger miles traveled (PMT) and per vehicle miles traveled (VMT), there is a limited understanding of emissions per PMT/VMT across cities, or of how emissions may change across modes (light, metro, commuter, and bus) and time (e.g., with changing electricity mixes in the future). In order to better understand the GHG emissions intensity of public transit systems, a comparative emissions assessment was developed utilizing the National Transit Database (NTD) which reports energy use from 1997 to 2012 of rail and bus systems across the US. By determining the GHG emission intensities (per VMT or per PMT) for each mode of transit across multiple years, the modes of transit can be better compared between one another. This comparison can help inform future goals to reduce GHG emissions as well as target reductions from the mode of transit that has the highest emissions. The proposed analysis of the NTD and comparison of modal emission intensities will be used to develop future forecasting that can guide public transit systems towards a sustainable future.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Evaluating the feasibility of molasses as an electron donor for enhanced bioremediation of chlorinated solvents

Description

Lactate and methanol have been the most commonly used electron donors in the Krajmalnik-Brown laboratory for efficient microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE). Our goal was to assess the technical and

Lactate and methanol have been the most commonly used electron donors in the Krajmalnik-Brown laboratory for efficient microbial dechlorination of trichloroethene (TCE). Our goal was to assess the technical and economic feasibility of molasses and ethanol, two alternative electron donors by evaluating their costs and ability support complete TCE dechlorination to ethene. First, ethanol and molasses, with and without methanol, were evaluated for their abilities to support complete dechlorination in batch serum bottles. Molasses, the cheapest alternative, supported a similar dechlorination performance to lactate in batch experiments, so we then used it in an upflow anaerobic bioreactor (UABR) to test its ability to support rapid dechlorination in this continuous system. Molasses supported 88% TCE conversion to ethene at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 13 hours after 80 days of operation in continuous mode. Compared to the UABR operated previously using lactate and methanol, molasses led to a reduction of TCE conversion to ethene, and a possible increase in time required to produce culture. Additionally, when molasses was used as the electron donor, we encountered new difficulties in the operation of the UABR, such as drastic pH changes. Therefore, I conclude that the savings from using molasses is outweighed by the costs associated with the reduction in dechlorination performance and increase in reactor maintenance. I recommend that lactate and methanol continue to be used as the electron donors in the Krajmalnik- Brown dechlorination lab to support fast-rate and cost-effective production of dechlorinating culture in an UABR. Because molasses supported fast rates of dechlorination in the batch experiment, however, it is potentially a better option than lactate and methanol for batch production of culture or for biostimulation, where the aquifer resembles a batch system. I recommend that further studies be done to reach a general conclusion about the feasibility of molasses as an electron donor for other enhanced bioremediation projects.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Physical Water Treatment Effects on Evaporation Rates, Hardness, and Microbial Life

Description

The rising need for water reuse in the Southwest United States has increased awareness of the quality of wastewater. This need is caused by an increased population having basic water

The rising need for water reuse in the Southwest United States has increased awareness of the quality of wastewater. This need is caused by an increased population having basic water needs; inefficient water use, such as overwatering lawns and leaking pipes; and recent drought conditions all over the southwestern US. Reclaimed water is a possible solution. It's used for a variety of non-potable, or non-drinkable, reasons. These uses include: cooling power plants, concrete mixing, artificial lakes, and irrigation for public parks and golf courts. Cooling power plants utilizes roughly 41% of the total water consumed by the United States, which makes it the highest user of water in the US. The attention is turned to optimizing mechanical processes and reducing the amount of water consumed. Wet-recirculating systems reuse cooling water in a second cycle rather than discharging it immediately. Cooling towers are commonly used to expose water to ambient air. As the water evaporates, more water is withdrawn while the rest continues to circulate. These systems have much lower water withdrawals than once-through systems, but have higher water consumption. The cooling towers in wet-recirculating plants and other warm machinery have two major limitations: evaporation of pumped water and scale formation in the components. Cooling towers circulate water, and only draw as it evaporates, which conserves water. The scale formation in the components is due to the hardness of the water. Scale occurs when hard water evaporates and forms solid calcium carbonate. This formation can lead to reduced flow or even clogging in pipes, fouling of components or pipes, and reduced cooling efficiency. Another concern from the public over the use of reclaimed water is the possibility of there being fecal contamination. This fear stems from the stigma associated with drinking water that essentially came from the toilet. An emerging technology, in order to address these three issues, is the use of an electromagnetic device. The wires have a current flowing through which induces a magnetic field perpendicular to the direction of the flow, while the electrical field is proportional to the flow velocity. In other words, the magnetic and electrical fields will create an effect that will concentrate cations at the center of the pipe and anions at the wall of the pipe or the other way depending on the direction of the flow. Reversing the field will then cause the cations and anions to move toward one another and increase the collision frequency and energy. The purpose of these experiments is to test the effects of the electromagnetic device on the aforementioned topics. There are three tests that were performed, a surface tension test, a hardness test, and a microbial test. The surface tension test focused on the angle of a water droplet until it burst. The angle would theoretically decrease as the bond between water molecules increased due to the device. The results of this test shows a lower angle for the treated water but a higher angle for the untreated one. This means the device had an effect on the surface tension of the water. Hard water is caused by calcium and magnesium ions in the water. These ions are dissolved in the water as it travels past soil and rocks. The purpose of this test is to measure the free calcium ion amount in the water. If the free calcium number lowers, then it can be assumed it collided with the carbonate and formed calcium carbonate. This calcium carbonate causes a reduction in hardness in the water. The result of the test showed no correlation between ion concentrations in the treated/untreated system. The e. coli test focused on testing the effects of an electromagnetic device on inhibiting fecal contamination in water/wastewater at a treatment facility. In order to detect fecal contamination, we test for bacteria known as fecal coliforms, more specifically e. coli. The test involved spiking the system with bacteria and testing its concentrations after time had passed.The e. coli results showed no trend in the inactivation of the bacteria. In conclusion, the device had varying results, but multiple steps can be taken in the future in order to continue research.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Home Automation's Influence on Life

Description

This honors thesis utilizes smart home components and concepts from Dr. Burleson's Game as Life, Life as Game (GaLLaG) systems. The thesis focuses on an automated lifestyle, where individuals utilize

This honors thesis utilizes smart home components and concepts from Dr. Burleson's Game as Life, Life as Game (GaLLaG) systems. The thesis focuses on an automated lifestyle, where individuals utilize technology, such as door sensors, appliance and lamp modules, and system notifications, to assist in daily activities. The findings from our efforts to date indicate that after weeks of observations, there is no evidence that automated lifestyles create more productive and healthy lifestyles and lead to overall satisfaction in life; however, there are certain design principles that would assist future home automation applications.

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Date Created
  • 2013-05