Matching Items (53)

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Quantifying Biological Hydrogen Demand of Sediments

Description

Hydrogen is a key indicator of microbial activity in soils/sediments and groundwater because of its role as an electron donor for reducing sulfate and nitrate and carrying out other metabolic

Hydrogen is a key indicator of microbial activity in soils/sediments and groundwater because of its role as an electron donor for reducing sulfate and nitrate and carrying out other metabolic processes. The goal of this study was to quantitatively measure the total biological hydrogen demand (TBHD) of soils and sediments in anaerobic environments. We define the total biological hydrogen demand as the sum of all electron acceptors that can be used by hydrogen-oxidizing microorganisms. Three sets of anaerobic microcosms were set up with different soils/sediments, named Carolina, Garden, and ASM. The microcosms included 25g of soil/sediment and 75 mL of anaerobic medium. 10 mL of hydrogen were pulse-fed for 100 days. Hydrogen consumption and methane production were tracked using gas chromatography. Chemical analysis of each soil was performed at the beginning of the experiment to determine the concentration of electron acceptors in the soils/sediments, including nitrate, sulfate, iron and bicarbonate. An analysis of the microbial community was done at t = 0 and at the end of the 100 days to examine changes in the microbial community due to the metabolic processes occurring as hydrogen was consumed. Carolina consumed 9810 43 mol of hydrogen and produced 19,572 2075 mol of methane. Garden consumed 4006 33 mol of hydrogen and produced 7,239 543 mol of methane. Lastly, ASM consumed 1557 84 mol of hydrogen and produced 1,325 715 mol of methane. I conclude that the concentration of bicarbonate initially present in the soil had the most influence over the hydrogen demand and microbial community enrichment. To improve this research, I recommend that future studies include a chemical analysis of final soil geochemistry conditions, as this will provide with a better idea of what pathway the hydrogen is taking in each soil.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Mathematical Modeling: Lights Out!

Description

Lights Out is a puzzle game where the goal is to turn off all the lights on a nxn board starting from a random configuration. In order to find the

Lights Out is a puzzle game where the goal is to turn off all the lights on a nxn board starting from a random configuration. In order to find the solution of a configuration, the game is constructed using a matrix basis in the span of the field Z mod 2.This the game can be modeled by the system Ap=s which will be the center of the investigation when determining the solvability for any n×n board since A is not always invertable leading to some interesting cases. The goal of this thesis was to construct a model that will allow the player to solve for the pushes to attain the zero-state for an nxn system. Constructing the model gave a procedure that will allow to solve the puzzle game. The procedure presented here first uses a simple clearing technique (valid for any board size) to turn off all the lights except in the last row, which we call the standard-clear. The heart of the technique, is to give a way to use the information about which lights remain lit in the last row to determine which switches in the first row need to be pushed before the standard-clear. This part of the solution algorithm we call the first row adjustment, and it depends heavily on the specific board size n of the problem. Finally, after these first row pushes are made, the standard clear will now turn off all the lights including (seemingly magically) the last row. Thus the solution to the Lights Out puzzle of a given size is reduced to finding a first row adjustment for that size. (Please refer to the actual thesis for the full abstract)

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Improving the Implementation of Engineering Design Practices in Secondary Science Classrooms

Description

Various reports produced by the National Research Council suggest that K-12 curricula expand Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics to better help students develop their ability to reason and employ scientific

Various reports produced by the National Research Council suggest that K-12 curricula expand Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics to better help students develop their ability to reason and employ scientific habits rather than simply building scientific knowledge. Every spring, the Arizona Department of Education (ADE) in conjunction with Arizona State University holds a professional development workshop titled "Engineering Practices in the Secondary Science Classroom: Engineering Training for Grade 6-12 Math and Science School Teams". This workshop provides math and science teachers with the opportunity to either sustain existing engineering proficiency or be exposed to engineering design practices for the first time. To build teachers' proficiency with employing engineering design practices, they follow a two-day curriculum designed for application in both science and math classrooms as a conjoined effort. As of spring 2015, very little feedback has been received concerning the effectiveness of the ASU-ADE workshops. New feedback methods have been developed for future deployment as past and more informal immediate feedback from teachers and students was used to create preliminary changes in the workshop curriculum. In addition, basic laboratory testing has been performed to further link together engineering problem solving with experiments and computer modelling. In improving feedback and expanding available material, the curriculum was analyzed and improved to more effectively train teachers in engineering practices and implement these practices in their classrooms.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Using Games to Explore Collective Action on International Scales

Description

One of the salient challenges of sustainability is the Tragedy of the Commons, where individuals acting independently and rationally deplete a common resource despite their understanding that it is not

One of the salient challenges of sustainability is the Tragedy of the Commons, where individuals acting independently and rationally deplete a common resource despite their understanding that it is not in the group's long term best interest to do so. Hardin presents this dilemma as nearly intractable and solvable only by drastic, government-mandated social reforms, while Ostrom's empirical work demonstrates that community-scale collaboration can circumvent tragedy without any elaborate outside intervention. Though more optimistic, Ostrom's work provides scant insight into larger-scale dilemmas such as climate change. Consequently, it remains unclear if the sustainable management of global resources is possible without significant government mediation. To investigate, we conducted two game theoretic experiments that challenged students in different countries to collaborate digitally and manage a hypothetical common resource. One experiment involved students attending Arizona State University and the Rochester Institute of Technology in the US and Mountains of the Moon University in Uganda, while the other included students at Arizona State and the Management Development Institute in India. In both experiments, students were randomly assigned to one of three production roles: Luxury, Intermediate, and Subsistence. Students then made individual decisions about how many units of goods they wished to produce up to a set maximum per production class. Luxury players gain the most profit (i.e. grade points) per unit produced, but they also emit the most externalities, or social costs, which directly subtract from the profit of everybody else in the game; Intermediate players produce a medium amount of profit and externalities per unit, and Subsistence players produce a low amount of profit and externalities per unit. Variables influencing and/or inhibiting collaboration were studied using pre- and post-game surveys. This research sought to answer three questions: 1) Are international groups capable of self-organizing in a way that promotes sustainable resource management?, 2) What are the key factors that inhibit or foster collective action among international groups?, and 3) How well do Hardin's theories and Ostrom's empirical models predict the observed behavior of students in the game? The results of gameplay suggest that international cooperation is possible, though likely sub-optimal. Statistical analysis of survey data revealed that heterogeneity and levels of trust significantly influenced game behavior. Specific traits of heterogeneity among students found to be significant were income, education, assigned production role, number of people in one's household, college class, college major, and military service. Additionally, it was found that Ostrom's collective action framework was a better predictor of game outcome than Hardin's theories. Overall, this research lends credence to the plausibility of international cooperation in tragedy of the commons scenarios such as climate change, though much work remains to be done.

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Date Created
  • 2014-12

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Prestige Worldwide Resort

Description

The Prestige Worldwide Resort and development area will be constructed to the east of Scottsdale Rd and North of the 101 loop. The development area is composed of 442.58 acres

The Prestige Worldwide Resort and development area will be constructed to the east of Scottsdale Rd and North of the 101 loop. The development area is composed of 442.58 acres of land within 9 parcels. Zoning for this development area consists of commercial, recreational, golf course, residential, and water/wastewater treatment. The main feature of the development area is a luxury resort to be located at the southwest corner of Legacy Blvd and Hayden Rd. The resort includes a large pond over which the entrance road traverses. The resort also includes an 18-hole golf course located just north of Legacy Blvd. The proposed residential area is to the east of Hayden Rd on the northern half of the site. Along the northeastern border of this residential area are APS, SRP, and Bureau of Reclamation easements. A recreational area in the form of a park is proposed to the east and west of the southern portion of N Hayden Rd on the site. The southeast corner or the site is reserved for water and wastewater treatment. The southwest corner of the site is for commercial use with an additional recreational/sporting area just to the north of this commercial area. The key feature of the resort is its luxurious eight-story hotel along with two other hotel buildings that accommodate tourists who are visiting Scottsdale. The main hotel includes 210 rooms to provide enough housing for these tourists and acquire more attraction to Scottsdale. The composition of the hotel consists of the first floor being the lobby and a recreational area. The other floors each contain 30 rooms, 3 elevators, and a staircase. Surrounding the hotel is a parking lot for the hotel guests and people attending events hosted at the hotel. Regarding the hotel specifications, two different alternative designs were produced to determine the ideal steel member type, concrete reinforcement, and the steel frame layout. The final hotel design was determined by which alternative had the lowest structural response from loading and cost effective.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Development of a Mechanical Seismic Simulation Apparatus for College Engineering Education

Description

The School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment (SSEBE) used to have a shake table where FSE 100 professors would use students' model structures to demonstrate how failure occurs

The School of Sustainable Engineering and the Built Environment (SSEBE) used to have a shake table where FSE 100 professors would use students' model structures to demonstrate how failure occurs during an earthquake. The SSEBE has wanted to build a shake table ever since the original table was no longer available to them. My creative project is to design and build a shake table for FSE 100 use. This paper will go through the steps I took to design and construct my shake table as well as suggestions to anyone else who would want to build a shake table. The design of the shake table that was constructed was modeled after Quanser's Shake Table II. The pieces from the shake table were purchased from McMaster-Carr and was assembled at the TechShop in Chandler, Arizona. An educational component was added to this project to go along with the shake table. The project will be for the use of a FSE 100 classes. This project is very similar to the American Society of Civil Engineers, Pacific Southwest Conference's seismic competition. The main difference is that FSE 100 students will not be making a thirty story model but only a five story model. This shake table will make Arizona State University's engineering program competitive with other top universities that use and implement shake table analysis in their civil engineering courses.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Developing Curriculum to Educate Engineers on Unconscious Bias

Description

Engineers spend several years studying intense technical details of the processes that shape our world, yet few are exposed to classes addressing social behaviors or issues. Engineering culture creates specific

Engineers spend several years studying intense technical details of the processes that shape our world, yet few are exposed to classes addressing social behaviors or issues. Engineering culture creates specific barriers to addressing social science issues, such as unconscious bias, within engineering classrooms. I developed a curriculum that uses optical illusions, Legos, and the instructor's vulnerability to tackle unconscious bias in a way that addresses the barriers in engineering culture that prevent engineers from learning social science issues. Unconscious bias has documented long-term negative impacts on success and personal development, even in engineering environments. Creating a module in engineering education that addresses unconscious bias with the aim of reducing the negative effects of bias would benefit developing engineers by improving product development and team diversity. Engineering culture fosters disengagement with social issues through three pillars: depoliticization, technical/social dualism, and meritocracy. The developed curriculum uses optical illusions and Legos as proxies to start discussions about unconscious bias. The proxies allow engineers to explore their own biases without running into one of the pillars of disengagement that limits the engineer's willingness to discuss social issues. The curriculum was implemented in the Fall of 2017 in an upper-division engineering classroom as a professional communication module. The module received qualitatively positive feedback from fellow instructors and students. The curriculum was only implemented once by the author, but future implementations should be done with a different instructor and using quantitative data to measure if the learning objectives were achieved. Appendix A of the paper contains a lesson plan of the module that could be implemented by other instructors.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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SLICE: Sustainable PV Waste Alternative

Description

The problem is that children in developing countries are doing our dirty work. Electronic waste that end up in landfills in these developing countries pose a danger to the children

The problem is that children in developing countries are doing our dirty work. Electronic waste that end up in landfills in these developing countries pose a danger to the children extracting metals that are then resold in local markets. The dumping of solar panels in these landfills is sometimes the only alternative for some manufactures because there is no viable option for silicon wafers. Solar panel installations started to peak in the early 1990's . With the lifespan of a solar panel being 25 years, recycling these panel is not a priority task in government policies. First Solar is currently the only company in the United States that executes the full recycling process. However, there is an environmental hotspot and an energy intensity phase identified in their process. The second stage in First Solar's recycling method consist of hammering and shredding the solar panel to reduce the surface area to then move on the chemical path stage. This stage currently uses 1.1 kWh for a meter by meter solar cell. A thermal processing method was explored and found to be the most environmentally conscious chose in terms of emissions and energy cost. The thermal method uses a conventional furnace to burn away the EVA, leaving the internal components of the cell intact and ready for the remaining process of recycling. SLICE method aims to introduce an industry tailored, low energy cost process, that initiates a solar panel recycling infrastructure in the United States. The recycling infrastructure is needed to sustain the exponential growth of solar panels and avoid third party recycling to developing countries. This new method transitions from lab tested batch processes to a continuous process.

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Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Social Movements as Presented Throughout Comic Book History; Focusing Primarily on DC's "The Green Lantern"

Description

Too often are American superhero comics dismissed as childish or simplistic. However, American superhero comics have evolved alongside American society throughout history, and have, in many cases, made a conscious

Too often are American superhero comics dismissed as childish or simplistic. However, American superhero comics have evolved alongside American society throughout history, and have, in many cases, made a conscious effort to represent progressive movements that have arisen within various respective decades. This thesis will analyze the progression of American superhero comics as they have evolved throughout the decades, this essay will focus primarily on the comic book storylines of DC's, The Green Lantern, throughout the Golden, Silver, Bronze and Modern Ages of comic book history. The Golden Age was defined by war efforts and support for World War II. The Silver Age was under heavy regulation by the Comic Code Authority and had to water down content from serious topics. Despite this regulation, Silver Age comics were able to symbolize and support or oppose social movements during their respective decade. However, the Bronze Age acted as a turning point for comic book plotlines and characterization. After the Bronze Age, censorship of comic book content was nonexistent and more complex plotlines were developed. From then on the Modern Age of comics would continue to openly explore societal movements and serve as a social commentary. To explore this change, the contents of this essay will usher a discourse on how the American superhero was used to first express American propaganda, and how, throughout the twentieth century and even to this day, the superhero was transformed into a medium that examines social phenomena such as political causes and discrimination. To further analyze and compare social movements to American comics, this will focus primarily on DC's The Green Lantern comic books and how the superhero changed throughout comic book history.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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An Analysis of Craft Labor Productivity

Description

Productivity in the construction industry is an essential measure of production efficiency and economic progress, quantified by craft laborers' time spent directly adding value to a project. In order to

Productivity in the construction industry is an essential measure of production efficiency and economic progress, quantified by craft laborers' time spent directly adding value to a project. In order to better understand craft labor productivity as an aspect of lean construction, an activity analysis was conducted at the Arizona State University Palo Verde Main engineering dormitory construction site in December of 2016. The objective of this analysis on craft labor productivity in construction projects was to gather data regarding the efficiency of craft labor workers, make conclusions about the effects of time of day and other site-specific factors on labor productivity, as well as suggest improvements to implement in the construction process. Analysis suggests that supporting tasks, such as traveling or materials handling, constitute the majority of craft labors' efforts on the job site with the highest percentages occurring at the beginning and end of the work day. Direct work and delays were approximately equal at about 20% each hour with the highest peak occurring at lunchtime between 10:00 am and 11:00 am. The top suggestion to improve construction productivity would be to perform an extensive site utilization analysis due to the confined nature of this job site. Despite the limitations of an activity analysis to provide a complete prospective of all the factors that can affect craft labor productivity as well as the small number of days of data acquisition, this analysis provides a basic overview of the productivity at the Palo Verde Main construction site. Through this research, construction managers can more effectively generate site plans and schedules to increase labor productivity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12