Matching Items (12)

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The modified Thomas test is not a valid measure of hip extension unless pelvic tilt is controlled

Description

The modified Thomas test was developed to assess the presence of hip flexion contracture and to measure hip extensibility. Despite its widespread use, to the authors’ knowledge, its criterion reference

The modified Thomas test was developed to assess the presence of hip flexion contracture and to measure hip extensibility. Despite its widespread use, to the authors’ knowledge, its criterion reference validity has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess the criterion reference validity of the modified Thomas test for measuring peak hip extension angle and hip extension deficits, as defined by the hip not being able to extend to 0º, or neutral. Twenty-nine healthy college students (age = 22.00 ± 3.80 years; height = 1.71 ± 0.09 m; body mass = 70.00 ± 15.60 kg) were recruited for this study. Bland–Altman plots revealed poor validity for the modified Thomas test’s ability to measure hip extension, which could not be explained by differences in hip flexion ability alone. The modified Thomas test displayed a sensitivity of 31.82% (95% CI [13.86–54.87]) and a specificity of 57.14% (95% CI [18.41–90.10]) for testing hip extension deficits. It appears, however, that by controlling pelvic tilt, much of this variance can be accounted for (r = 0.98). When pelvic tilt is not controlled, the modified Thomas test displays poor criterion reference validity and, as per previous studies, poor reliability. However, when pelvic tilt is controlled, the modified Thomas test appears to be a valid test for evaluating peak hip extension angle.

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Date Created
  • 2016-08-11

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Effects of load on good morning kinematics and EMG activity

Description

Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM) to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG) activity and kinematics, and how

Many strength and conditioning coaches utilize the good morning (GM) to strengthen the hamstrings and spinal erectors. However, little research exists on its electromyography (EMG) activity and kinematics, and how these variables change as a function of load. The purpose of this investigation was to examine how estimated hamstring length, integrated EMG (IEMG) activity of the hamstrings and spinal erectors, and kinematics of the lumbar spine, hip, knee, and ankle are affected by changes in load. Fifteen trained male participants (age = 24.6 ± 5.3 years; body mass = 84.7 ± 11.3 kg; height = 180.9 ± 6.8 cm) were recruited for this study. Participants performed five sets of the GM, utilizing 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) in a randomized fashion. IEMG activity of hamstrings and spinal erectors tended to increase with load. Knee flexion increased with load on all trials. Estimated hamstring length decreased with load. However, lumbar flexion, hip flexion, and plantar flexion experienced no remarkable changes between trials. These data provide insight as to how changing the load of the GM affects EMG activity, kinematic variables, and estimated hamstring length. Implications for hamstring injury prevention are discussed. More research is needed for further insight as to how load affects EMG activity and kinematics of other exercises.

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Date Created
  • 2015-01-06

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Differences in unilateral chest press muscle activation and kinematics on a stable versus unstable surface while holding one versus two dumbbells

Description

Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Twenty participants were

Training the bench press exercise on a traditional flat bench does not induce a level of instability as seen in sport movements and activities of daily living. Twenty participants were recruited to test two forms of instability: using one dumbbell rather than two and lifting on the COR bench compared to a flat bench. Electromyography (EMG) amplitudes of the pectoralis major, middle trapezius, external oblique, and internal oblique were recorded and compared. Differences in range of motion (ROM) were evaluated by measuring an angular representation of the shoulder complex. Four separate conditions of unilateral bench press were tested while lifting on a: flat bench with one dumbbell, flat bench with two dumbbells, COR Bench with one dumbbell, and COR Bench with two dumbbells. The results imply that there are no differences in EMG amplitude or ROM between the COR bench and traditional bench. However, greater ROM was found to be utilized in the single dumbbell condition, both in the COR bench and the flat bench.

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Date Created
  • 2015-10-27

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The Effects of Forearm Wearable Resistance on Horizontal Force-Velocity Profiles in Sprinting

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Given the importance of arm mechanics in sprinting and the utility of F-V profiles, the purpose of the following study was to determine the effects of forearm WR on the

Given the importance of arm mechanics in sprinting and the utility of F-V profiles, the purpose of the following study was to determine the effects of forearm WR on the horizontal F-V profile during sprinting. To determine the effect of forearm WR on the horizontal F-V profile during sprinting, a cross-sectional, repeated measure within subjects design was used, with athletes assessed both with and without forearm WR. The WR condition used 2% BM attached to the forearms. In a randomized order, subjects performed a series of maximal effort 30 m sprints; two unloaded sprints and four with WR. Three sprints were executed from a block start: one unloaded, and two with WR. The additional three sprints were executed from a split-stance start: one unloaded and two with WR. From this study, 2%BM WR was found to significantly increase sprint times from both block and standing starts. It also significantly decreased V0 and Fsystem from a block start and Psystem from a standing start. The significance from a block start may imply the arm’s greater role during the start and acceleration phases of sprinting during that position. The overloading of V0 from a block start in the F-V profile points to forearm WR as a possible tool for athletes to use during training who are overly force dominant from a block start and need to shift their profile to V0 dominance or balance in general.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Injury Prevention of Young Adult Competitive Athletes

Description

Injury Prevention of Young Adult Competitive Athletes Abstract: This literature review covers many aspects of health and injury prevention that affects the young adult population. This review will begin to

Injury Prevention of Young Adult Competitive Athletes Abstract: This literature review covers many aspects of health and injury prevention that affects the young adult population. This review will begin to formulate a general guideline for sustaining performance while minimizing the incidence for injury. This population is specifically narrowed down to competitive athletes between the ages of 16-22. Some of the topics covered in this paper are the effects of macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients such as iron, calcium, vitamin D and vitamin C, on the body. Along with relating nutrition to lowering the risk of injury, there are also other topics covered such as sleep, stress relief in the form of binaural sounds, training and over-training. Nutrition topics include carbohydrates, proteins and fats, which are then split into their respective roles inside the body. These macro-nutrients are also associated with recovery and the timing and quantity consumed can be at optimal levels for competitive athletes based on gender, age and size. The vitamins and minerals discussed are also important factors in injury prevention related to bone, ligament and muscle strength. These micro-nutrients are also related to hormone regulation and immune system response which are necessary in mitigating the risk of injury in the population being analyzed. Finally, there is a training section of this literary review which covers monitoring external and internal loads experienced by the athletes, movement patterns as well as flexibility, and how to respond to over-training syndrome and overreaching in young adult athletes. Creating a balance between all aspects covered will result in a high likelihood of reducing the risk for injury in the young adult population.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Keys to the Mind of an Elite Pole Vaulter: An Investigation of Psychological Skills and Mental Toughness

Description

Athletes at any level of competition face high-stress environments in which they are still expected to perform at a high level. Because of this, athletes require mental toughness in order

Athletes at any level of competition face high-stress environments in which they are still expected to perform at a high level. Because of this, athletes require mental toughness in order to skillfully perform and hopefully outperform their opponents. Mental toughness in sport is a term used to describe a variety of psychological skills that an athlete utilizes that allows them to perform better and more consistently than their competitors. This study was designed to determine whether mental toughness distinguished pole vaulters at three different levels of competition. It was hypothesized that post-collegiate athletes would have higher mental toughness scores than collegiate athletes who would subsequently score higher than high school athletes. Two questionnaires were given to high school, collegiate, and post-collegiate pole vaulters (n = 65) to determine total mental toughness scores as well as scores for eight different subcategories of mental toughness including motivation, self-belief, intensity, focus, control, coping, thriving on pressure, and assertiveness. ANOVA and multiple comparisons demonstrated that mental toughness differentiated post-collegiate pole vaulters from high school pole vaulters, but not between collegiate and post-collegiate. Additionally, collegiate and post-collegiate vaulters scored significantly higher than high school vaulters in the subcategories of motivation and control. Data also showed that male competitors demonstrated significantly higher mental toughness scores than female athletes on both questionnaires. Based on the research, knowing that mental toughness scores differentiate high school pole vaulters from elite pole vaulters (particularly in the areas of control and motivation) could set the foundation for training programs and targeted psychological interventions for younger athletes.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Functional Movement Screening and Range of Motion Monitoring in Collegiate Baseball Players

Description

Injury, a prevalent issue in Division I collegiate sports, can have negative mental and physical implications. It is thought that certain modifiable biomechanical factors such as muscle imbalance, alterations in

Injury, a prevalent issue in Division I collegiate sports, can have negative mental and physical implications. It is thought that certain modifiable biomechanical factors such as muscle imbalance, alterations in posture, flexibility, and movement dysfunction can increase an athlete's risk of injury. It is imperative to implement a protocol that monitors athletes' functional capabilities and improves movement patterns upon identifying dysfunction to not only reduce the risk of injury, but also to promote and maintain high performance standards. This project studied the effect of a corrective exercise regimen on Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and range of motion (ROM) scores of the Arizona State University baseball team.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-12

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A Comparison of the Effects of Two Warm- Up Protocols on Strength and Power in College- Aged Females

Description

The following study compared the effects of acute static stretching (SS) and whole body vibration (WBV) protocols on strength and power in college-aged recreationally active females. Ten active, Arizona State

The following study compared the effects of acute static stretching (SS) and whole body vibration (WBV) protocols on strength and power in college-aged recreationally active females. Ten active, Arizona State University females participated in the study after providing informed consent and filling out a survey to determine their health status and physical activity level. Participants took part in the study over two days, each day starting with a standardized cycling protocol, followed by random assignment to either a static stretching or whole body vibration warm-up condition. Whichever protocol they did not complete during the first session, they completed during the second session. After the warm-up protocol, vertical hang time and vertical jump were used to test leg power, and 1- RM bench press, and 1- RM leg press were used to evaluate the participants’ upper and lower body strength, respectively. Multiple t-tests were conducted for each sports performance test conducted: vertical hang time, vertical jump, bench press, and leg press. Strength and power, as assessed in this sample, were not significantly different based on warm-up protocol. T-tests comparing the effects of two warm-up techniques revealed that there were no significant differences in the leg power scores for vertical hang time (p ≤0.86) (effect size = 0), or vertical jump height (p =1) (effect size = 0). Similarly, there were no significant differences in bench press (p ≤0.08) (effect size = 0.38), and leg press (p ≤0.29) (effect size = 0.31), although effect sizes were moderate. Because of the medium effect sizes for leg press (0.31) and bench press (0.38), it is possible that WBV can facilitate greater strength gains in female college students, but more subjects are needed to further evaluate this finding. Given that leg power was not different based on warm-up technique, it is possible that static stretching for less than 30 seconds did not impede power in these active females. Clearly, more research needs to be performed on the effectiveness of the vibration platform comparing additional bouts of duration and frequency in active and athletic college-aged females.

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Date Created
  • 2017-12

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Flexibility: An Optimal Range to Minimize Injury Risk

Description

Stretching and flexibility are important components of athletic performance and general fitness. Though many individuals and athletic professionals take into account flexibility, the concept that a certain range of joint

Stretching and flexibility are important components of athletic performance and general fitness. Though many individuals and athletic professionals take into account flexibility, the concept that a certain range of joint motion places one at an increased risk of injury has not been fully explored. This paper seeks to review the research on hip, shoulder, ankle, and spine ranges of motion that increase risk of injury to an athlete, it seeks to provide information on the best way to increase flexibility and range of motion. While this paper provides an insight as to what these potential ranges are, the overall research in the area is lacking and further research is suggested.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Implementing the Functional Movement Screen Into Fitness Facilities

Description

Poor functional movement capabilities can often be indicative of an increased risk for non-contact musculoskeletal injury. The Functional Movement Screen is an efficient screen that categorizes people into "at risk

Poor functional movement capabilities can often be indicative of an increased risk for non-contact musculoskeletal injury. The Functional Movement Screen is an efficient screen that categorizes people into "at risk for injury" or "not at risk for injury" through the use of seven comprehensive movement tests. Past research has shown that the screen is a valid and reliable tool in identifying an increased risk for injury. The Functional Movement Screen is ideal for fitness settings because those who exercise more often are putting themselves at a higher risk of developing harmful movement patterns or imbalances. Therefore, highly active populations would benefit the most from regular Functional Movement Screens. Functional Movement Screen scores could be utilized by fitness professionals to produce more effective and more individualized training programs that include exercises to maintain or correct functional movement capabilities. The scores on each individual movement test could be analyzed, and any low scores or asymmetries should be noted. Corrective exercises should target the low and asymmetrical scores. The Functional Movement Screen would benefit people who are seeking personal training, because their score on the screen could allow the fitness professional to design a program that targets their individual movement needs. Training programs could implement corrective exercise into the training plan to correct or maintain functional movement while also increasing strength or endurance. Motivational theory-based strategies could provide a method for fitness professionals to foster adherence to the corrective exercises. By increasing feelings of intrinsic motivation using the constructs of the Self-Determination Theory, fitness professionals could increase clients' adherence to corrective exercise and maintain or improve upon their functional movement capabilities.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05