Matching Items (5)

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The ability of oral fluency to predict reading comprehension among ELL children learning to read

Description

The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through

The current study analyzed existing data, collected under a previous U.S. Department of Education Reading First grant, to investigate the strength of the relationship between scores on the first- through third-grade Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills - Oral Reading Fluency (DIBELS-ORF) test and scores on a reading comprehension test (TerraNova-Reading) administered at the conclusion of second- and third-grade. Participants were sixty-five English Language Learners (ELLs) learning to read in a school district adjacent to the U.S.-Mexico border. DIBELS-ORF and TerraNova-Reading scores were provided by the school district, which administers the assessments in accordance with state and federal mandates to monitor early literacy skill development. Bivariate correlation results indicate moderate-to-strong positive correlations between DIBELS-ORF scores and TerraNova-Reading performance that strengthened between grades one and three. Results suggest that the concurrent relationship between oral reading fluency scores and performance on standardized and high-stakes measures of reading comprehension may be different among ELLs as compared to non-ELLs during first- and second-grade. However, by third-grade the correlations approximate those reported in previous non-ELL studies. This study also examined whether the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), a receptive vocabulary measure, could explain any additional variance on second- and third-grade TerraNova-Reading performance beyond that explained by the DIBELS-ORF. The PPVT was individually administered by researchers collecting data under a Reading First research grant prior to the current study. Receptive vocabulary was found to be a strong predictor of reading comprehension among ELLs, and largely overshadowed the predictive ability of the DIBELS-ORF during first-grade. Results suggest that receptive vocabulary scores, used in conjunction with the DIBELS-ORF, may be useful for identifying beginning ELL readers who are at risk for third-grade reading failure as early as first-grade.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Effects of different types of play on preschoolers' vocabulary learning

Description

This study investigated the effects of different types of play-embedded instruction on preschoolers' vocabulary learning during a vocabulary intervention known as Say-Tell-Do-Play (STDP). The goal of this study was to

This study investigated the effects of different types of play-embedded instruction on preschoolers' vocabulary learning during a vocabulary intervention known as Say-Tell-Do-Play (STDP). The goal of this study was to determine whether or not two types of play - Story Drama and a Vocabulary Matching Game - enhanced the effectiveness of the STDP strategy. To investigate this goal, the researcher implemented the STDP instructional routine for 17 children with three different picture books and their corresponding play activities and a control condition (Drawing) in a counterbalanced order. Descriptive statistics were utilized to understand the effects of these different play activities on the children's receptive and expressive vocabulary learning. Findings showed that the STDP vocabulary instructional strategy had a much larger impact on children's receptive vocabulary than on expressive vocabulary learning. The play activities did not seem to make much difference in the learning of receptive and expressive vocabulary. The results indicated that the STDP strategy is an effective way to teach receptive vocabulary. There was a lack of evidence that the different types of play significantly affected children's vocabulary learning.

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Date Created
  • 2012

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The evolution of play in public school kindergarten classrooms

Description

The purpose of this study is to portray kindergarten teachers' developmentally appropriate practices in order to authenticate the essential component of play. Recently, student achievement has been the primary focus

The purpose of this study is to portray kindergarten teachers' developmentally appropriate practices in order to authenticate the essential component of play. Recently, student achievement has been the primary focus in Early Childhood Education, and play is seen as an action that precludes academic learning. This is a qualitative study of teachers' perceptions and teaching practices through observations, interviews, surveys, and journal reflections. The study found that participant kindergarten teachers: (1) have a developing understanding of the positive impact play has on student development, yet they are not aware of how to successfully implement play in their classroom; (2) tend to be more work driven than play driven in their daily activities; and (3) perceive play occurrs when manipulatives are made available for student use, however, the activities are largely teacher-directed in contrast to student initiated play. In summary, participant kindergarten teachers were found to be hesitant to let their control shift to child-initiated learning. There are gaps between teacher knowledge of how child initiated play impacts learning and the actual classroom implementation of child initiated play. Teachers need further development to understand how to use materials to integrate play into daily lessons. It is important to widely disseminate and support the use of Early Childhood National Board Standards regarding play in kindergarten classrooms. Kindergarten teachers require professional development that permits the integration of knowledge of play and the implementation of play in an increasingly accountability driven environment. Keywords: Play; Perceptions of play; Learner-Centered; Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP); National Board Certification National Board Certified Teacher (NBCT); National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS); English Language Learners (ELL); English Language Development (ELD)

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Taking action!: movement-based learning for the kindergarten through grade three learner : a case study of a Waldorf education early childhood program

Description

The purpose of this dissertation was to document the teaching practices and underlying intentions of teachers in a Waldorf early childhood program in relationship to integrative movement and its connections

The purpose of this dissertation was to document the teaching practices and underlying intentions of teachers in a Waldorf early childhood program in relationship to integrative movement and its connections to learning for the kindergarten through grade three learner. Current concerns about unhealthy sedentary lifestyles and the decreasing emphasis on physical activity/movement in public schools are growing. This dissertation explores current educational research related to the effects of movement on cognitive processing and the potential effects of movement on learning, particularly in a Waldorf-based early childhood program in which movement is integrated into all aspects of learning (including all academic subjects). This dissertation includes a literature review of current research and theory, and a qualitative micro-ethnographic case study of a Waldorf-based early childhood program that involved teacher observations and interviews. Key findings: the Waldorf-based early childhood program provided practical methods for (1) encouraging various modes of free play intended to enhance a child's physical, social/emotional and academic development, (2) integrating teacher-led movements into the daily curriculum, (3) utilizing movement to aid cognitive processing and prepare students for more sedentary academic work, (4) integrating remedial work into the daily classroom curriculum, and (5) utilizing intentional movement to help a child learn to embody stillness as a means of focusing attention and energy. Movements integrated into the curriculum by the teachers created observable positive effects on the students: eagerness to participate, recall, extending focus and attention, and creating social awareness and cooperation. Conclusions: (1) Waldorf-based education programs may provide practical examples and theoretical perspectives relevant to the creation of an integrated and comprehensive movement-based curriculum for the early childhood learner, and (2) The Waldorf teachers studied provide a counter-position to early childhood teaching practices that utilize movement as a break from sedentary learning. This study revealed the effects of imposing or integrating stillness into a movement-rich curriculum. Future recommendations include more comprehensive research on Waldorf-based educational programs and educational research that reaches beyond movement's potential positive or negative effect on a student's academic progress to study in more depth how and why movement impacts learning for the young child.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Designing literacy rich classroom environments for young children: : a study of teachers' design processes and tools

Description

The development of literacy abilities in young children has been a major concern for authorities and teachers in the USA for the last two decades. Significant effort has been devoted

The development of literacy abilities in young children has been a major concern for authorities and teachers in the USA for the last two decades. Significant effort has been devoted to ensure that preschool settings allow and motivate children to engage in literacy activities before entering kindergarten. Research has found that a rich classroom environment in preschool settings enables teachers to encourage literacy interest in children at a young age. While a large amount of research has concentrated in testing the effect of prescriptive modifications in the classroom environment, few have focused on studying the design process and tools that teachers follow to design their classrooms. Public policy and research studies in the United States, mention the design of the classroom environment among teacher's responsibilities, but they do not include practical or methodological guides for them to use. The purpose of this research was to study the design process and tools that teachers use to design literacy rich classrooms in preschool settings. A case study was conducted at the ASU Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College Preschool at Arizona State University. This setting provides a unique opportunity for an exploratory study of this nature because it is a private child development laboratory with a flexible curriculum. Participant observation sessions and in depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore the design process used and experienced by the teachers. Findings revealed an iterative and cyclic design process that is repeated over time adjusting to the influence of numerous factors. Results also suggest that teacher's knowledge and beliefs highly influence the organization of their classrooms. Considering these factors as a standpoint allows for further exploration to determine a design process suitable for teachers when designing their learning environments. The use of a structured yet flexible design process, can be a potential tool for educators to design their classrooms, collaborate, document and transmit their knowledge. Although the findings correspond to a specific site studied, the implications are wide reaching as problems and opportunities expressed by the staff are common to other educational settings with similar characteristics.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013