Matching Items (24)

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Semi-supervised Energy Modeling (SSEM) for Building Clusters Using Machine Learning Techniques

Description

There are many data mining and machine learning techniques to manage large sets of complex energy supply and demand data for building, organization and city. As the amount of data

There are many data mining and machine learning techniques to manage large sets of complex energy supply and demand data for building, organization and city. As the amount of data continues to grow, new data analysis methods are needed to address the increasing complexity. Using data from the energy loss between the supply (energy production sources) and demand (buildings and cities consumption), this paper proposes a Semi-Supervised Energy Model (SSEM) to analyse different loss factors for a building cluster. This is done by deep machine learning by training machines to semi-supervise the learning, understanding and manage the process of energy losses. Semi-Supervised Energy Model (SSEM) aims at understanding the demand-supply characteristics of a building cluster and utilizes the confident unlabelled data (loss factors) using deep machine learning techniques. The research findings involves sample data from one of the university campuses and presents the output, which provides an estimate of losses that can be reduced. The paper also provides a list of loss factors that contributes to the total losses and suggests a threshold value for each loss factor, which is determined through real time experiments. The conclusion of this paper provides a proposed energy model that can provide accurate numbers on energy demand, which in turn helps the suppliers to adopt such a model to optimize their supply strategies.

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  • 2015-09-14

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Determining the Feasibility of Statistical Techniques to Identify the Most Important Input Parameters of Building Energy Models

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Previous studies in building energy assessment clearly state that to meet sustainable energy goals, existing buildings, as well as new buildings, will need to improve their energy efficiency. Thus, meeting

Previous studies in building energy assessment clearly state that to meet sustainable energy goals, existing buildings, as well as new buildings, will need to improve their energy efficiency. Thus, meeting energy goals relies on retrofitting existing buildings. Most building energy models are bottom-up engineering models, meaning these models calculate energy demand of individual buildings through their physical properties and energy use for specific end uses (e.g., lighting, appliances, and water heating). Researchers then scale up these model results to represent the building stock of the region studied.
Studies reveal that there is a lack of information about the building stock and associated modeling tools and this lack of knowledge affects the assessment of building energy efficiency strategies. Literature suggests that the level of complexity of energy models needs to be limited. Accuracy of these energy models can be elevated by reducing the input parameters, alleviating the need for users to make many assumptions about building construction and occupancy, among other factors. To mitigate the need for assumptions and the resulting model inaccuracies, the authors argue buildings should be described in a regional stock model with a restricted number of input parameters. One commonly-accepted method of identifying critical input parameters is sensitivity analysis, which requires a large number of runs that are both time consuming and may require high processing capacity.
This paper utilizes the Energy, Carbon and Cost Assessment for Buildings Stocks (ECCABS) model, which calculates the net energy demand of buildings and presents aggregated and individual- building-level, demand for specific end uses, e.g., heating, cooling, lighting, hot water and appliances. The model has already been validated using the Swedish, Spanish, and UK building stock data. This paper discusses potential improvements to this model by assessing the feasibility of using stepwise regression to identify the most important input parameters using the data from UK residential sector. The paper presents results of stepwise regression and compares these to sensitivity analysis; finally, the paper documents the advantages and challenges associated with each method.

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  • 2015-09-14

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Design for Disassembly and Deconstruction - Challenges and Opportunities

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Construction waste management has become extremely important due to stricter disposal and landfill regulations, and a lesser number of available landfills. There are extensive works done on waste treatment and

Construction waste management has become extremely important due to stricter disposal and landfill regulations, and a lesser number of available landfills. There are extensive works done on waste treatment and management of the construction industry. Concepts like deconstruction, recyclability, and Design for Disassembly (DfD) are examples of better construction waste management methods. Although some authors and organizations have published rich guides addressing the DfD's principles, there are only a few buildings already developed in this area. This study aims to find the challenges in the current practice of deconstruction activities and the gaps between its theory and implementation. Furthermore, it aims to provide insights about how DfD can create opportunities to turn these concepts into strategies that can be largely adopted by the construction industry stakeholders in the near future.

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  • 2015-09-14

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Low-Investment Energy Retrofit Framework for Small and Medium Office Buildings

Description

Small and medium office buildings consume a significant parcel of the U.S. building stock energy consumption. Still, owners lack resources and experience to conduct detailed energy audits and retrofit analysis.

Small and medium office buildings consume a significant parcel of the U.S. building stock energy consumption. Still, owners lack resources and experience to conduct detailed energy audits and retrofit analysis. We present an eight-steps framework for an energy retrofit assessment in small and medium office buildings. Through a bottom-up approach and a web-based retrofit toolkit tested on a case study in Arizona, this methodology was able to save about 50% of the total energy consumed by the case study building, depending on the adopted measures and invested capital. While the case study presented is a deep energy retrofit, the proposed framework is effective in guiding the decision-making process that precedes any energy retrofit, deep or light.

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  • 2016-05-20

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Learning Energy Consumption and Demand Models through Data Mining for Reverse Engineering

Description

The estimation of energy demand (by power plants) has traditionally relied on historical energy use data for the region(s) that a plant produces for. Regression analysis, artificial neural network and

The estimation of energy demand (by power plants) has traditionally relied on historical energy use data for the region(s) that a plant produces for. Regression analysis, artificial neural network and Bayesian theory are the most common approaches for analysing these data. Such data and techniques do not generate reliable results. Consequently, excess energy has to be generated to prevent blackout; causes for energy surge are not easily determined; and potential energy use reduction from energy efficiency solutions is usually not translated into actual energy use reduction. The paper highlights the weaknesses of traditional techniques, and lays out a framework to improve the prediction of energy demand by combining energy use models of equipment, physical systems and buildings, with the proposed data mining algorithms for reverse engineering. The research team first analyses data samples from large complex energy data, and then, presents a set of computationally efficient data mining algorithms for reverse engineering. In order to develop a structural system model for reverse engineering, two focus groups are developed that has direct relation with cause and effect variables. The research findings of this paper includes testing out different sets of reverse engineering algorithms, understand their output patterns and modify algorithms to elevate accuracy of the outputs.

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  • 2015-12-09

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Analyzing Arizona OSHA Injury Reports Using Unsupervised Machine Learning

Description

As the construction continue to be a leading industry in the number of injuries and fatalities annually, several organizations and agencies are working avidly to ensure the number of injuries

As the construction continue to be a leading industry in the number of injuries and fatalities annually, several organizations and agencies are working avidly to ensure the number of injuries and fatalities is minimized. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is one such effort to assure safe and healthful working conditions for working men and women by setting and enforcing standards and by providing training, outreach, education and assistance. Given the large databases of OSHA historical events and reports, a manual analysis of the fatality and catastrophe investigations content is a time consuming and expensive process. This paper aims to evaluate the strength of unsupervised machine learning and Natural Language Processing (NLP) in supporting safety inspections and reorganizing accidents database on a state level. After collecting construction accident reports from the OSHA Arizona office, the methodology consists of preprocessing the accident reports and weighting terms in order to apply a data-driven unsupervised K-Means-based clustering approach. The proposed method classifies the collected reports in four clusters, each reporting a type of accident. The results show the construction accidents in the state of Arizona to be caused by falls (42.9%), struck by objects (34.3%), electrocutions (12.5%), and trenches collapse (10.3%). The findings of this research empower state and local agencies with a customized presentation of the accidents fitting their regulations and weather conditions. What is applicable to one climate might not be suitable for another; therefore, such rearrangement of the accidents database on a state based level is a necessary prerequisite to enhance the local safety applications and standards.

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  • 2016-05-20

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The Causes of the Municipal Solid Waste and the Greenhouse Gas Emissions from the Waste Sector in the United States

Description

The United State generates the most waste among OECD countries, and there are adverse effects of the waste generation. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas, especially

The United State generates the most waste among OECD countries, and there are adverse effects of the waste generation. One of the most serious adverse effects is greenhouse gas, especially CH4, which causes global warming. However, the amount of waste generation is not decreasing, and the United State recycling rate, which could reduce waste generation, is only 26%, which is lower than other OECD countries. Thus, waste generation and greenhouse gas emission should decrease, and in order for that to happen, identifying the causes should be made a priority. The research objective is to verify whether the Environmental Kuznets Curve relationship is supported for waste generation and GDP across the U.S. Moreover, it also confirmed that total waste generation and recycling waste influences carbon dioxide emissions from the waste sector. The annual-based U.S. data from 1990 to 2012 were used. The data were collected from various data sources, and the Granger causality test was applied for identifying the causal relationships. The results showed that there is no causality between GDP and waste generation, but total waste and recycling generation significantly cause positive and negative greenhouse gas emissions from the waste sector, respectively. This implies that the waste generation will not decrease even if GDP increases. And, if waste generation decreases or recycling rate increases, the greenhouse gas emission will decrease. Based on these results, it is expected that the waste generation and carbon dioxide emission from the waste sector can decrease more efficiently.

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  • 2016-05-20

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A Non-stationary Analysis Using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition to Detect Anomalies in Building Energy Consumption

Description

Commercial buildings’ consumption is driven by multiple factors that include occupancy, system and equipment efficiency, thermal heat transfer, equipment plug loads, maintenance and operational procedures, and outdoor and indoor temperatures.

Commercial buildings’ consumption is driven by multiple factors that include occupancy, system and equipment efficiency, thermal heat transfer, equipment plug loads, maintenance and operational procedures, and outdoor and indoor temperatures. A modern building energy system can be viewed as a complex dynamical system that is interconnected and influenced by external and internal factors. Modern large scale sensor measures some physical signals to monitor real-time system behaviors. Such data has the potentials to detect anomalies, identify consumption patterns, and analyze peak loads. The paper proposes a novel method to detect hidden anomalies in commercial building energy consumption system. The framework is based on Hilbert-Huang transform and instantaneous frequency analysis. The objectives are to develop an automated data pre-processing system that can detect anomalies and provide solutions with real-time consumption database using Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) method. The finding of this paper will also include the comparisons of Empirical mode decomposition and Ensemble empirical mode decomposition of three important type of institutional buildings.

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  • 2016-05-20

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Data and Predictive Analytics for Energy Use

Description

The overall energy consumption around the United States has not been reduced even with the advancement of technology over the past decades. Deficiencies exist between design and actual energy performances.

The overall energy consumption around the United States has not been reduced even with the advancement of technology over the past decades. Deficiencies exist between design and actual energy performances. Energy Infrastructure Systems (EIS) are impacted when the amount of energy production cannot be accurately and efficiently forecasted. Inaccurate engineering assumptions can result when there is a lack of understanding on how energy systems can operate in real-world applications. Energy systems are complex, which results in unknown system behaviors, due to an unknown structural system model. Currently, there exists a lack of data mining techniques in reverse engineering, which are needed to develop efficient structural system models. In this project, a new type of reverse engineering algorithm has been applied to a year's worth of energy data collected from an ASU research building called MacroTechnology Works, to identify the structural system model. Developing and understanding structural system models is the first step in creating accurate predictive analytics for energy production. The associative network of the building's data will be highlighted to accurately depict the structural model. This structural model will enhance energy infrastructure systems' energy efficiency, reduce energy waste, and narrow the gaps between energy infrastructure design, planning, operation and management (DPOM).

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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An Analysis of Craft Labor Productivity

Description

Productivity in the construction industry is an essential measure of production efficiency and economic progress, quantified by craft laborers' time spent directly adding value to a project. In order to

Productivity in the construction industry is an essential measure of production efficiency and economic progress, quantified by craft laborers' time spent directly adding value to a project. In order to better understand craft labor productivity as an aspect of lean construction, an activity analysis was conducted at the Arizona State University Palo Verde Main engineering dormitory construction site in December of 2016. The objective of this analysis on craft labor productivity in construction projects was to gather data regarding the efficiency of craft labor workers, make conclusions about the effects of time of day and other site-specific factors on labor productivity, as well as suggest improvements to implement in the construction process. Analysis suggests that supporting tasks, such as traveling or materials handling, constitute the majority of craft labors' efforts on the job site with the highest percentages occurring at the beginning and end of the work day. Direct work and delays were approximately equal at about 20% each hour with the highest peak occurring at lunchtime between 10:00 am and 11:00 am. The top suggestion to improve construction productivity would be to perform an extensive site utilization analysis due to the confined nature of this job site. Despite the limitations of an activity analysis to provide a complete prospective of all the factors that can affect craft labor productivity as well as the small number of days of data acquisition, this analysis provides a basic overview of the productivity at the Palo Verde Main construction site. Through this research, construction managers can more effectively generate site plans and schedules to increase labor productivity.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12