Matching Items (21)

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A Computational Investigation of Theoretical GeSn Alloys

Description

In materials science, developing GeSn alloys is major current research interest concerning the production of efficient Group-IV photonics. These alloys are particularly interesting because the development of next-generation semiconductors for

In materials science, developing GeSn alloys is major current research interest concerning the production of efficient Group-IV photonics. These alloys are particularly interesting because the development of next-generation semiconductors for ultrafast (terahertz) optoelectronic communication devices could be accomplished through integrating these novel alloys with industry-standard silicon technology. Unfortunately, incorporating a maximal amount of Sn into a Ge lattice has been difficult to achieve experimentally. At ambient conditions, pure Ge and Sn adopt cubic (α) and tetragonal (β) structures, respectively, however, to date the relative stability and structure of α and β phase GeSn alloys versus percent composition Sn has not been thoroughly studied. In this research project, computational tools were used to perform state-of-the-art predictive quantum simulations to study the structural, bonding and energetic trends in GeSn alloys in detail over a range of experimentally accessible compositions. Since recent X-Ray and vibrational studies have raised some controversy about the nanostructure of GeSn alloys, the investigation was conducted with ordered, random and clustered alloy models.
By means of optimized geometry analysis, pure Ge and Sn were found to adopt the alpha and beta structures, respectively, as observed experimentally. For all theoretical alloys, the corresponding αphase structure was found to have the lowest energy, for Sn percent compositions up to 90%. However at 50% Sn, the correspondingβ alloy energies are predicted to be only ~70 meV higher. The formation energy of α-phase alloys was found to be positive for all compositions, whereas only two beta formation energies were negative. Bond length distributions were analyzed and dependence on Sn incorporation was found, perhaps surprisingly, not to be directly correlated with cell volume. It is anticipated that the data collected in this project may help to elucidate observed complex vibrational properties in these systems.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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A computational and theoretical study of conductance in hydrogen-bonded molecular junctions

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This thesis is devoted to the theoretical and computational study of electron transport in molecular junctions where one or more hydrogen bonds are involved in the process. While electron transport

This thesis is devoted to the theoretical and computational study of electron transport in molecular junctions where one or more hydrogen bonds are involved in the process. While electron transport through covalent bonds has been extensively studied, in recent work the focus has been shifted towards hydrogen-bonded systems due to their ubiquitous presence in biological systems and their potential in forming nano- junctions between molecular electronic devices and biological systems.

This analysis allows us to significantly expand our comprehension of the experimentally observed result that the inclusion of hydrogen bonding in a molecular junc- tion significantly impacts its transport properties, a fact that has important implications for our understanding of transport through DNA, and nano-biological interfaces in general. In part of this work I have explored the implications of quasiresonant transport in short chains of weakly-bonded molecular junctions involving hydrogen bonds. I used theoretical and computational analysis to interpret recent experiments and explain the role of Fano resonances in the transmission properties of the junction.

In a different direction, I have undertaken the study of the transversal conduction through nucleotide chains that involve a variable number of different hydrogen bonds, e.g. NH···O, OH···O, and NH···N, which are the three most prevalent hydrogen bonds in biological systems and organic electronics. My effort here has fo- cused on the analysis of electronic descriptors that allow a simplified conceptual and computational understanding of transport properties. Specifically, I have expanded our previous work where the molecular polarizability was used as a conductance de- scriptor to include the possibility of atomic and bond partitions of the molecular polarizability. This is important because it affords an alternative molecular descrip- tion of conductance that is not based on the conventional view of molecular orbitals as transport channels. My findings suggest that the hydrogen-bond networks are crucial in understanding the conductance of these junctions.

A broader impact of this work pertains the fact that characterizing transport through hydrogen bonding networks may help in developing faster and cost-effective approaches to personalized medicine, to advance DNA sequencing and implantable electronics, and to progress in the design and application of new drugs.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Novel transparent composite electrodes and mixed oxide layers for improved flexible electronics

Description

Transparent conductive oxides (TCO) comprise a class of materials that exhibit unique combination of high transparency in the visible region along with high electrical conductivity. TCOs play an important role

Transparent conductive oxides (TCO) comprise a class of materials that exhibit unique combination of high transparency in the visible region along with high electrical conductivity. TCOs play an important role as transparent electrodes for optoelectronic devices such as solar cell panels, liquid crystal displays, transparent heat mirrors and organic light emitting devices (OLED). The most commonly used transparent electrodes in optoelectronic applications is indium tin oxide (ITO) due to its low resistivity (~ 10−4 Ω-cm) and high transmittance (~ 80 %). However, the limited supply of indium and the growing demand for ITO make the resulting fabrication costs prohibitive for future industry. Thus, cost factors have promoted the search for inexpensive materials with good electric-optical properties.

The object of this work is to study the structure-property-processing relationship and optimize a suitable transparent electrode with the intent to optimize them for flexible optoelectronics applications. The work focuses on improved processing of the mixed oxide (indium gallium zinc oxide, IGZO) thin films for superior optical and electrical properties. The study focuses on two different methods of post-deposition annealing-microwave and conventional. The microwave annealing was seen to have the dual advantage of reduced time and lower temperature, as compared to conventional annealing. Another work focuses on an indium free transparent composite electrode (TCE) where a very thin metal layer is inserted between the two TCO layers. A novel Nb2O5/Ag/Nb2O5 multilayered structure can exhibit better electrical and optical properties than a single layered TCO thin film. The focus for low cost alternative leads to a TiO2/metal/TiO2 based TCE. A systematic study was done to understand the effect of metal thickness and substituting different metals (Ag, Cu or Au) on the opto-electrical properties of the TCEs. The TiO2/Ag/TiO2 with mid Ag thickness 9.5 nm has been optimized to have a sheet resistance of 5.7 Ohm/sq. average optical transmittance of 90 % at 550 nm and figure of merit with 61.4 ×10-3 Ω-1. The TCEs showed improved optical and electrical properties when annealed in forming gas and vacuum. These dielectric/metal/dielectric multilayer TCEs have lower total thickness and are more efficient than a single-layer ITO film.

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Date Created
  • 2015

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Investigation of light absorption and emission in Ge and GeSn films grown on Si substrates

Description

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with

Ge1-ySny alloys represent a new class of photonic materials for integrated optoelectronics on Si. In this work, the electrical and optical properties of Ge1-ySny alloy films grown on Si, with concentrations in the range 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.04, are studied via a variety of methods. The first microelectronic devices from GeSn films were fabricated using newly developed CMOS-compatible protocols, and the devices were characterized with respect to their electrical properties and optical response. The detectors were found to have a detection range that extends into the near-IR, and the detection edge is found to shift to longer wavelengths with increasing Sn content, mainly due to the compositional dependence of the direct band gap E0. With only 2 % Sn, all of the telecommunication bands are covered by a single detector. Room temperature photoluminescence was observed from GeSn films with Sn content up to 4 %. The peak wavelength of the emission was found to shift to lower energies with increasing Sn content, corresponding to the decrease in the direct band gap E0 of the material. An additional peak in the spectrum was assigned to the indirect band gap. The separation between the direct and indirect peaks was found to decrease with increasing Sn concentration, as expected. Electroluminescence was also observed from Ge/Si and Ge0.98Sn0.02 photodiodes under forward bias, and the luminescence spectra were found to match well with the observed photoluminescence spectra. A theoretical expression was developed for the luminescence due to the direct band gap and fit to the data.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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The optical and electronic properties of Ge₁-ySny and Ge₁-x-ySixSny materials and devices for silicon integrated optoelectronics

Description

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances

Group-IV semiconductor alloys are of interest for Si-integrated optoelectronic applications due to the band gap tunability and enhanced optical capabilities that can be achieved through compositional tuning. This work advances the field by presenting a systematic study of the optical and electronic properties of Ge1-ySny and analogous Ge1-x-ySixSny alloys.

The fundamental direct and indirect band gaps of Ge1-ySny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence in samples containing 0 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 and a transition to direct gap materials is found to occur at yc = 0.087. This result is enabled by the development of sample growth and processing protocols that produce high-quality materials epitaxially on Ge-buffered Si(100) substrates. Strategies to optimize the optical performance are explored by varying the film thickness, thermal and surface treatments, and n-type doping. The electrical and optical properties of diodes based on these materials are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements. These show improved optical performance near yc with tunable emission out to 2500 nm. Measuring the carrier lifetimes in devices with strain relaxed and fully strained interfaces show significantly longer lifetimes in the fully strained case.

The direct and indirect band gaps of Sn-rich (y > x) Ge1-x-ySixSny materials are measured by room temperature photoluminescence on optimized samples. These data confirm a transition to direct gap materials occurs for the ternary alloy as well. Devices based on compositions 0.02 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 and 0.03 ≤ y ≤ 0.11 are characterized by current-voltage, optical responsivity, and electroluminescence measurements and show competitive performance with analogous devices based on Ge1-ySny materials. A detailed study of the direct gap in Ge1-xSix alloys gives parameters crucial en route to a global description of the Ge1-x-ySixSny fundamental band gaps.

Archetypal laser device designs on Si are explored by fabricating degenerate pn junction diodes and highly doped waveguide devices based on high-quality Ge1-ySny materials. The diodes showed tunnel-like current-voltage characteristics and tailored electroluminescence based on the doping profile. The waveguides demonstrate emission under optical stimulation.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Indoor air quality investigations on particulate matter, carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines

Description

Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can

Americans spend upwards of 90% of their time indoors, hence indoor air quality (IAQ) and the impact of IAQ on human health is a major public health concern. IAQ can be negatively impacted by outdoor pollution infiltrating indoors, the emission of indoor pollutants, indoor atmospheric chemistry and poor ventilation. Energy saving measures like retrofits to seal the building envelope to prevent the leakage of heated or cooled air will impact IAQ. However, existing studies have been inconclusive as to whether increased energy efficiency is leading to detrimental IAQ. In this work, field campaigns were conducted in apartment homes in Phoenix, Arizona to evaluate IAQ as it relates to particulate matter (PM), carbonyls, and tobacco specific nitrosamines (TSNA).

To investigate the impacts of an energy efficiency retrofit on IAQ, indoor and outdoor air quality sampling was carried out at Sunnyslope Manor, a city-subsidized senior living apartment complex. Measured indoor formaldehyde levels before the building retrofit exceeded reference exposure limits, but in the long term follow-up sampling, indoor formaldehyde decreased for the entire study population by a statistically significant margin. Indoor PM levels were dominated by fine particles and showed a statistically significant decrease in the long term follow-up sampling within certain resident subpopulations (i.e. residents who reported smoking and residents who had lived longer at the apartment complex). Additionally, indoor glyoxal and methylglyoxal exceeded outdoor concentrations, with methylglyoxal being more prevalent pre-retrofit than glyoxal, suggesting different chemical pathways are involved. Indoor concentrations reported are larger than previous studies. TSNAs, specifically N'-nitrosonornicotine (NNN), 4-(methyl-nitrosamino)-4-(3-pyridyl)-butanal (NNA) and 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) were evaluated post-retrofit at Sunnyslope Manor. Of the units tested, 86% of the smoking units and 46% of the non-smoking units had traces of at least one of the nitrosamines.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Epitaxial development of advanced group IV materials and high performance optical devices for applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics

Description

Group IV alloy films exhibit the ability to tune both band structure and lattice parameters and have recently attracted attention for their potential applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics. In this

Group IV alloy films exhibit the ability to tune both band structure and lattice parameters and have recently attracted attention for their potential applications in Si-photonics and photovoltaics. In this work, several new approaches to produce these alloys directly on Si(100) and Ge(100) wafers are developed. For photovoltaics, use of Ge-buffered Si(100) wafers as a low cost platform for epitaxy of In1-xGaxAs layers was explored. The results indicate that this approach has promise for transitioning from bulk Ge platforms to virtual substrates for a significant cost reduction. The electrical and optical properties of Ge and Ge1-ySny layers produced using several different techniques were explored via fabrication of high performance heterostructure photodiodes. First, a new CVD approach to Ge-like materials was developed in which germanium is alloyed with very small amounts of tin. These alloys exhibited no significant difference in their structural properties or band gap compared to pure Ge, however superior photo response and reduced dark currents were observed from fabricated devices relative to pure Ge on Si reference diodes. Additionally, pure Ge/Si(100) photodiodes were fabricated using layers grown via reactions of Ge4H10 on Si(100) and found to exhibit low dark current densities with high collection efficiencies. Ge1-x-ySixSny materials represent the newest member of group IV alloy family. The ability to decouple the lattice constant and the band gap in this system has led to strong interest both for strain/confinement layers in quantum well structures, and as the possible "missing" 1 eV junction in multijunction photovoltaics. Recent progress in this field has allowed for the first time growth, fabrication and measurement of novel photodiodes based on Ge1-x-ySixSny. This work presents the material, electrical and optical properties of Ge1-x-ySixSny layers and photodiodes grown directly on Ge and Si wafers using two different synthetic approaches. A series of photodiodes containing Sn concentrations from 1-5%, all lattice matched to Ge, was fabricated. The devices exhibited low dark current densities with high collection efficiencies as required for photovoltaics. By measuring the photoresponse, tunable band gaps ranging from 0.85 eV to 1.02 eV were observed.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Chemical vapor deposition of metastable germanium based semiconductors for optoelectronic applications

Description

Optoelectronic and microelectronic applications of germanium-based materials have received considerable research interest in recent years. A novel method for Ge on Si heteroepitaxy required for such applications was developed via

Optoelectronic and microelectronic applications of germanium-based materials have received considerable research interest in recent years. A novel method for Ge on Si heteroepitaxy required for such applications was developed via molecular epitaxy of Ge5H12. Next, As(GeH3)3, As(SiH3)3, SbD3, S(GeH3)2 and S(SiH3)2 molecular sources were utilized in degenerate n-type doping of Ge. The epitaxial Ge films produced in this work incorporate donor atoms at concentrations above the thermodynamic equilibrium limits. The donors are nearly fully activated, and led to films with lowest resistivity values thus far reported.

Band engineering of Ge was achieved by alloying with Sn. Epitaxy of the alloy layers was conducted on virtual Ge substrates, and made use of the germanium hydrides Ge2H6 and Ge3H8, and the Sn source SnD4. These films exhibit stronger emission than equivalent material deposited directly on Si, and the contributions from the direct and indirect edges can be separated. The indirect-direct crossover composition for Ge1-ySny alloys was determined by photoluminescence (PL). By n-type doping of the Ge1-ySny alloys via P(GeH3)3, P(SiH3)3 and As(SiH3)3, it was possible to enhance photoexcited emission by more than an order-of-magnitude.

The above techniques for deposition of direct gap Ge1-ySny alloys and doping of Ge were combined with p-type doping methods for Ge1-ySny using B2H6 to fabricate pin heterostructure diodes with active layer compositions up to y=0.137. These represent the first direct gap light emitting diodes made from group IV materials. The effect of the single defected n-i¬ interface in a n-Ge/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architecture on electroluminescence (EL) was studied. This led to lattice engineering of the n-type contact layer to produce diodes of n-Ge1-xSnx/i-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz architecture which are devoid of interface defects and therefore exhibit more efficient EL than the previous design. Finally, n-Ge1-ySny/p-Ge1-zSnz pn junction devices were synthesized with varying composition and doping parameters to investigate the effect of these properties on EL.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Tuning the electronic properties of nanoscale semiconductors

Description

Nanoscale semiconductors with their unique properties and potential applications have been a focus of extensive research in recent years. There are many ways in which semiconductors change the world with

Nanoscale semiconductors with their unique properties and potential applications have been a focus of extensive research in recent years. There are many ways in which semiconductors change the world with computers, cell phones, and solar panels, and nanoscale semiconductors having a promising potential to expand the efficiency, reduce the cost, and improve the flexibility and durability of their design. In this study, theoretical quantum mechanical simulations were performed on several different nanoscale semiconductor materials, including graphene/phosphorene nanoribbons and group III-V nanowires. First principles density functional theory (DFT) was used to study the electronic and structural properties of these nanomaterials in their fully relaxed and strained states. The electronic band gap, effective masses of charge carriers, electronic orbitals, and density of states were most commonly examined with strain, both from intrinsic and external sources. For example, armchair graphene nanoribbons (AGNR) were found to have unprecedented band gap-strain dependence. Phosphorene nanoribbons (PNRs) demonstrate a different behavior, including a chemical scissors effect, and studies revealed a strong relationship between passivation species and band gap tunability. Unlike the super mechanical flexibility of AGNRs and PNRs which can sustain incredible strain, modest yet large strain was applied to group III-V nanowires such as GaAs/InAs. The calculations showed that a direct and indirect band gap transition occurs at some critical strains and the origination of these gap transitions were explored in detail. In addition to the pure nanowires, GaAs/InAs core/shell heterostructure nanowires were also studied. Due to the lattice mismatch between GaAs and InAs, the intrinsic strain in the core/shell nanowires demonstrates an interesting behavior on tuning the electronic properties. This interesting behavior suggests a mechanical way to exert compressive strain on nanowires experimentally, and can create a finite quantum confinement effect on the core.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Molecular polarizability as a descriptor for molecular conductance

Description

We studied the relationship between the polarizability and the molecular conductance

that arises in the response of a molecule to an external electric field. To illustrate

the plausibility of the idea, we

We studied the relationship between the polarizability and the molecular conductance

that arises in the response of a molecule to an external electric field. To illustrate

the plausibility of the idea, we used Simmons' tunneling model, which describes image

charge and dielectric effects on electron transport through a barrier. In such a

model, the barrier height depends on the dielectric constant of the electrode-molecule-electrode junction, which in turn can be approximately expressed in terms of the

molecular polarizability via the classical Clausius-Mossotti relation. In addition to

using the tunneling model, the validity of the relationships between the molecular

polarizability and the molecular conductance was tested by comparing calculated

and experimentally measured conductance of different chemical structures ranging

from covalent bonded to non-covalent bonded systems. We found that either using

the tunneling model or the first-principle calculated quantities or experimental data,

the conductance decreases as the molecular polarizability increases. In contrast to

this strong correlation, our results showed that in some cases there was a weaker or

none correlation between the conductance and other molecular electronic properties

including HOMO-LUMO gap, chemical geometries, and interactions energies. All

these results together suggest that using the molecular polarizability as a molecular

descriptor for conductance can offer some advantages compared to using other

molecular electronic properties and can give additional insight about the electronic

transport property of a junction.

These results also show the validity of the physically intuitive picture that to a first

approximation a molecule in a junction behaves as a dielectric that is polarized in the

opposite sense of the applied bias, thereby creating an interfacial barrier that hampers

tunneling. The use of the polarizability as a descriptor of molecular conductance offers

signicant conceptual and practical advantages over a picture based in molecular

orbitals. Despite the simplicity of our model, it sheds light on a hitherto neglected

connection between molecular polarizability and conductance and paves the way for

further conceptual and theoretical developments.

The results of this work was sent to two publications. One of them was accepted

in the International Journal of Nanotechnology (IJNT) and the other is still under

review in the Journal of Physical Chemistry C.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014