Matching Items (24)

The Need for Contextual Design when Creating Electronic Health Records

Description

Electronic Health Records (EHRs) began to be introduced in the 1960s. Government-run hospitals were the primary adopters of technology. The rate of adoption continually rose from there, doubling from 2007

Electronic Health Records (EHRs) began to be introduced in the 1960s. Government-run hospitals were the primary adopters of technology. The rate of adoption continually rose from there, doubling from 2007 to 2012 from 34.8% to about 71%. Most of the growth seen from 2007 to 2012 is a result of the passage of the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act as part of the American Reinvestment and Recovery (ARRA) Act. $19 billion dollars were made available as part of these two acts to increase the rate of Health Information Technology (HIT), of which EHRs are a large part. A national health information network is envisioned for the end stages of HITECH which will enable health information to be exchanged immediately from one health network to another. While the ability to exchange data quickly appears to be an achievable goal, it might come with the cost of loss of usability and functionality for providers who interact with the EHRs and often enter health data into an EHR. The loss of usability can be attributed to how the EHR was designed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

131772-Thumbnail Image.png

A Look into Measuring Trust in Medical Devices

Description

The purpose of this review is to determine how to measure and assess human trust in medical technology. A systematic literature review was selected as the path to understand the

The purpose of this review is to determine how to measure and assess human trust in medical technology. A systematic literature review was selected as the path to understand the landscape for measuring trust up to this point. I started by creating a method of systematically reading through related studies in databases before summarizing results and concluding with a recommended design for the upcoming study. This required searching several databases and learning each advanced search methods for each in order to determine which databases provided the most relevant results. From there, the reader examined the results, keeping track in a spreadsheet. The first pass through filtered out the results which did not include detailed methods of measuring trust. The second pass took detailed notes on the remaining studies, keeping track of authors, participants, subjects, methods, instruments, issues, limitations, analytics, and validation. After summarizing the results, discussing trends in the results, and mentioning limitations a conclusion was devised. The recommendation is to use an uncompressed self-reported questionnaire with 4-10 questions on a six-point-Likert scale with reversing scales throughout. Though the studies analyzed were specific to medical settings, this method can work outside of the medical setting for measuring human trust.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020-05

147586-Thumbnail Image.png

Diabetes Education/Management Needs for Chinese Americans with Type 2 Diabetes: Opportunities and Implications for Design

Description

Diabetes education has shown to improve diabetes health markers but there is a need for it to be more accessible Diabetes education in the form of Diabetes Self Education and

Diabetes education has shown to improve diabetes health markers but there is a need for it to be more accessible Diabetes education in the form of Diabetes Self Education and Management (DSMES) could potentially utilize IT technologies, which have shown promise as a more accessible way to access healthcare and manage health. However, both these methods have not been optimized for the diverse population in the US. In particular, Chinese Americans are a growing minority group in America whose health needs such as diabetes type 2 are growing. As a cultural group, Chinese Americans have cultural characteristics that have been identified in the literature, which should be accounted for in the design of a technology-enabled DSMES program. This qualitative study aims to understand what ways Chinese Americans with type 2 diabetes are learning about and managing diabetes, as well as their technology usage. Themes such as cultural food importance, family roles, information acquisition, and attitudes and motivation emerged. Themes motivated the design implications and recommendations such as creating a more specified, culturally tailored Chinese food menu, integrated family features, and trackers with increased feedback. More research should be conducted to test the effectiveness of including these features in a technology-enabled DSMES program.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2021-05

132761-Thumbnail Image.png

AI in Radiology: How the Adoption of an Accountability Framework can Impact Technology Integration in the Expert-Decision-Making Job Space

Description

Rapid advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning, and Deep Learning technologies are widening the playing field for automated decision assistants in healthcare. The field of radiology offers a unique

Rapid advancements in Artificial Intelligence (AI), Machine Learning, and Deep Learning technologies are widening the playing field for automated decision assistants in healthcare. The field of radiology offers a unique platform for this technology due to its repetitive work structure, ability to leverage large data sets, and high position for clinical and social impact. Several technologies in cancer screening, such as Computer Aided Detection (CAD), have broken the barrier of research into reality through successful outcomes with patient data (Morton, Whaley, Brandt, & Amrami, 2006; Patel et al, 2018). Technologies, such as the IBM Medical Sieve, are growing excitement with the potential for increased impact through the addition of medical record information ("Medical Sieve Radiology Grand Challenge", 2018). As the capabilities of automation increase and become a part of expert-decision-making jobs, however, the careful consideration of its integration into human systems is often overlooked. This paper aims to identify how healthcare professionals and system engineers implementing and interacting with automated decision-making aids in Radiology should take bureaucratic, legal, professional, and political accountability concerns into consideration. This Accountability Framework is modeled after Romzek and Dubnick’s (1987) public administration framework and expanded on through an analysis of literature on accountability definitions and examples in military, healthcare, and research sectors. A cohesive understanding of this framework and the human concerns it raises helps drive the questions that, if fully addressed, create the potential for a successful integration and adoption of AI in radiology and ultimately the care environment.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019-05

157435-Thumbnail Image.png

Understanding the Effect of Animation and its Speed on User Enjoyment

Description

Providing the user with good user experience is complex and involves multiple factors. One of the factors that can impact the user experience is animation. Animation can be tricky to

Providing the user with good user experience is complex and involves multiple factors. One of the factors that can impact the user experience is animation. Animation can be tricky to get right and needs to be understood by designers. Animations that are too fast might not accomplish anything and having them too slow could slow the user down causing them to get frustrated.

This study explores the subject of animation and its speed by trying to answer the following questions – 1) Do people notice whether an animation is present 2) Does animation affect the enjoyment of a transition? and 3) If animation does affect enjoyment, what is the effect of different animation speeds?

The study was conducted using 3 prototypes of an application to order bottled water in which the transitions between different brands of bottled water were animated at 0ms, 300ms and 650ms. A survey was conducted to see if the participants were able to spot any difference between the prototypes and if they did, which one they preferred.

It was found that most people did not recognize any difference between the prototypes. Even people who recognized a difference between the prototypes did not have any preference of speed.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

157421-Thumbnail Image.png

Understanding Humans to Better Understand Robots in a Joint-Task Environment: The Study of Surprise and Trust in Human-Machine Physical Coordination

Description

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be

Human-robot interaction has expanded immensely within dynamic environments. The goals of human-robot interaction are to increase productivity, efficiency and safety. In order for the integration of human-robot interaction to be seamless and effective humans must be willing to trust the capabilities of assistive robots. A major priority for human-robot interaction should be to understand how human dyads have been historically effective within a joint-task setting. This will ensure that all goals can be met in human robot settings. The aim of the present study was to examine human dyads and the effects of an unexpected interruption. Humans’ interpersonal and individual levels of trust were studied in order to draw appropriate conclusions. Seventeen undergraduate and graduate level dyads were collected from Arizona State University. Participants were broken up into either a surprise condition or a baseline condition. Participants individually took two surveys in order to have an accurate understanding of levels of dispositional and individual levels of trust. The findings showed that participant levels of interpersonal trust were average. Surprisingly, participants who participated in the surprise condition afterwards, showed moderate to high levels of dyad trust. This effect showed that participants became more reliant on their partners when interrupted by a surprising event. Future studies will take this knowledge and apply it to human-robot interaction, in order to mimic the seamless team-interaction shown in historically effective dyads, specifically human team interaction.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

157653-Thumbnail Image.png

Pervasive quantied-self using multiple sensors

Description

The advent of commercial inexpensive sensors and the advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have brought forth the era of pervasive Quantified-Self. Automatic diet monitoring is one of the

The advent of commercial inexpensive sensors and the advances in information and communication technology (ICT) have brought forth the era of pervasive Quantified-Self. Automatic diet monitoring is one of the most important aspects for Quantified-Self because it is vital for ensuring the well-being of patients suffering from chronic diseases as well as for providing a low cost means for maintaining the health for everyone else. Automatic dietary monitoring consists of: a) Determining the type and amount of food intake, and b) Monitoring eating behavior, i.e., time, frequency, and speed of eating. Although there are some existing techniques towards these ends, they suffer from issues of low accuracy and low adherence. To overcome these issues, multiple sensors were utilized because the availability of affordable sensors that can capture the different aspect information has the potential for increasing the available knowledge for Quantified-Self. For a), I envision an intelligent dietary monitoring system that automatically identifies food items by using the knowledge obtained from visible spectrum camera and infrared spectrum camera. This system is able to outperform the state-of-the-art systems for cooked food recognition by 25% while also minimizing user intervention. For b), I propose a novel methodology, IDEA that performs accurate eating action identification within eating episodes with an average F1-score of 0.92. This is an improvement of 0.11 for precision and 0.15 for recall for the worst-case users as compared to the state-of-the-art. IDEA uses only a single wrist-band which includes four sensors and provides feedback on eating speed every 2 minutes without obtaining any manual input from the user.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

157710-Thumbnail Image.png

The Effect of an Educational Intervention on Affect and Trust of Autonomous Vehicles

Description

With the growth of autonomous vehicles’ prevalence, it is important to understand the relationship between autonomous vehicles and the other drivers around them. More specifically, how does one’s knowledge about

With the growth of autonomous vehicles’ prevalence, it is important to understand the relationship between autonomous vehicles and the other drivers around them. More specifically, how does one’s knowledge about autonomous vehicles (AV) affect positive and negative affect towards driving in their presence? Furthermore, how does trust of autonomous vehicles correlate with those emotions? These questions were addressed by conducting a survey to measure participant’s positive affect, negative affect, and trust when driving in the presence of autonomous vehicles. Participants’ were issued a pretest measuring existing knowledge of autonomous vehicles, followed by measures of affect and trust. After completing this pre-test portion of the study, participants were given information about how autonomous vehicles work, and were then presented with a posttest identical to the pretest. The educational intervention had no effect on positive or negative affect, though there was a positive relationship between positive affect and trust and a negative relationship between negative affect and trust. These findings will be used to inform future research endeavors researching trust and autonomous vehicles using a test bed developed at Arizona State University. This test bed allows for researchers to examine the behavior of multiple participants at the same time and include autonomous vehicles in studies.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

158244-Thumbnail Image.png

Semantic Network Model of Cold and Flu Medications

Description

ABSTRACT

The cold and the flu are two of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Many over the counter (OTC) medications have been created to combat the symptoms of

ABSTRACT

The cold and the flu are two of the most prevalent diseases in the world. Many over the counter (OTC) medications have been created to combat the symptoms of these illnesses. Some medications take a holistic approach by claiming to alleviate a wide range of symptoms, while others target a specific symptom. As these medications become more ubiquitous within the United State of America (USA), consumers form associations and mental models about the cold/flu field. The goal of Study 1 was to build a Pathfinder network based on the associations consumers make between cold/flu symptoms and medications. 100 participants, 18 years or older, fluent in English, and residing in the USA, completed a survey about the relatedness of cold/flu symptoms to OTC medications. They rated the relatedness on a scale of 1 (highly unrelated) to 7 (highly related) and those rankings were used to build a Pathfinder network that represented the average of those associations. Study 2 was conducted to validate the Pathfinder network. A different set of 90 participants with the same restrictions as those in Study 1 completed a matching associations test. They were prompted to match symptoms and medications they associated closely with each other. Results showered a significant negative correlation between the geodetic distance (the number of links between objects in the Pathfinder network) separating symptoms and medications and frequency of pairing symptoms with medication. This provides evidence of the validity of the Pathfinder network. It was also seen that, higher the relatedness rating between symptoms and medications in Study 1, higher the frequency of pairing symptom to medication in Study 2, and the more directly linked those symptoms and medications were in the Pathfinder network. This network can inform pharmaceutical companies about which symptoms they most closely associate with, who their competitors are, what symptoms they can dominate, and how to market their medications more effectively.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2020

157942-Thumbnail Image.png

The effects of an educational intervention on driving behavior and trust

Description

Vehicular automation and autonomy are emerging fields that are growing at an

exponential rate, expected to alter the very foundations of our transportation system within the next 10-25 years. A crucial

Vehicular automation and autonomy are emerging fields that are growing at an

exponential rate, expected to alter the very foundations of our transportation system within the next 10-25 years. A crucial interaction has been born out this new technology: Human and automated drivers operating within the same environment. Despite the well- known dangers of automobiles and driving, autonomous vehicles and their consequences on driving environments are not well understood by the population who will soon be interacting with them every day. Will an improvement in the understanding of autonomous vehicles have an effect on how humans behave when driving around them? And furthermore, will this improvement in the understanding of autonomous vehicles lead to higher levels of trust in them? This study addressed these questions by conducting a survey to measure participant’s driving behavior and trust when in the presence of autonomous vehicles. Participants were given several pre-tests to measure existing knowledge and trust of autonomous vehicles, as well as to see their driving behavior when in close proximity to autonomous vehicles. Then participants were presented with an educational intervention, detailing how autonomous vehicles work, including their decision processes. After examining the intervention, participants were asked to repeat post-tests identical to the ones administered before the intervention. Though a significant difference in self-reported driving behavior was measure between the pre-test and post- test, there was no significant relation found between improvement in scores on the education intervention knowledge check and driving behavior. There was also no significant relation found between improvement in scores on the education intervention knowledge check and the change in trust scores. These findings can be used to inform autonomous vehicle and infrastructure design as well as future studies of the effects of autonomous vehicles on human drivers in experimental settings.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019