The entirely soft-tissue anatomy of the octopus arm provides the animal with a large amount of freedom of movement, while still allowing the specimen to support itself despite the lack of a skeletal system. This is made possible through the use of various muscle layers within the octopus arm, which act as muscular hydrostats. Magnetic Resonance imaging of the octopus arm was employed to view the muscle layers within the octopus arm and observe trends and differences in these layers at the proximal, middle, and distal portions of the arms. A total of 39 arms from 6 specimens were imaged to give 112 total imaged sections (38 proximal, 37 middle, 37 distal). Significant increases in both the internal longitudinal muscle layer and the nervous core were found between the proximal and middle, proximal and distal, and middle and distal sections of the arms. This could reflect selection for these structures distally in the octopus arm for predator or other noxious stimuli avoidance. A significant decrease in the transverse muscle layer was found in the middle and distal sections of the arms. This could reflect selection for elongation in the proximal portion of the octopus arm or could be the result of selection for the internal longitudinal muscle layer and nervous core distally. Previous studies on Octopus vulgaris showed a preference for using the proximal arms in the pushing movement of crawling and a preference for using the anterior arms in exploring behaviors (Levy et al., 2015 and Byrne et al., 2006). Differences between the anterior and posterior arms for the transverse muscle layer, internal longitudinal muscle layer, and the nervous core were insignificant, reflecting a lack of structure-function relationships. This could also be due to a low sample size. Differences between the left and right arms for the transverse muscle layer, internal longitudinal muscle layer, and the nervous core were insignificant, supporting previous evidence that left versus right eye and arm preferences in octopus are not population-wide, but individual. Some slight trends can be found for individual arms, but the sample size was too small to make definitive statements regarding differences among specific arms.