Matching Items (24)

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Continuous control of spin polarization using a magnetic field

Description

The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of a point contact between a Co/Cu multilayer and a superconductor tip varies for different bias voltage. Direct measurement of spin polarization by Andreev reflection spectroscopy

The giant magnetoresistance (GMR) of a point contact between a Co/Cu multilayer and a superconductor tip varies for different bias voltage. Direct measurement of spin polarization by Andreev reflection spectroscopy reveals that the GMR change is due to a change in spin polarization. This work demonstrates that the GMR structure can be utilized as a spin source and that the spin polarization can be continuously controlled by using an external magnetic field.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05-23

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Above 400-K robust perpendicular ferromagnetic phase in a topological insulator

Description

The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) that emerges under broken time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators (TIs) exhibits many fascinating physical properties for potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. However, in

The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) that emerges under broken time-reversal symmetry in topological insulators (TIs) exhibits many fascinating physical properties for potential applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics. However, in transition metal–doped TIs, the only experimentally demonstrated QAHE system to date, the QAHE is lost at practically relevant temperatures. This constraint is imposed by the relatively low Curie temperature (T[subscript c]) and inherent spin disorder associated with the random magnetic dopants. We demonstrate drastically enhanced T[subscript c] by exchange coupling TIs to Tm[subscript 3]Fe[subscript 5]O[subscript 12], a high-T[subscript c] magnetic insulator with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Signatures showing that the TI surface states acquire robust ferromagnetism are revealed by distinct squared anomalous Hall hysteresis loops at 400 K. Point-contact Andreev reflection spectroscopy confirms that the TI surface is spin-polarized. The greatly enhanced T[subscript c], absence of spin disorder, and perpendicular anisotropy are all essential to the occurrence of the QAHE at high temperatures.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-06-23

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Determination of spin polarization using an unconventional iron superconductor

Description

An unconventional iron superconductor, SmO[subscript 0.7]F[subscript 0.3]FeAs, has been utilized to determine the spin polarization and temperature dependence of a highly spin-polarized material, La[subscript 0.67]Sr[subscript 0.33]MnO[subscript 3], with Andreev reflection

An unconventional iron superconductor, SmO[subscript 0.7]F[subscript 0.3]FeAs, has been utilized to determine the spin polarization and temperature dependence of a highly spin-polarized material, La[subscript 0.67]Sr[subscript 0.33]MnO[subscript 3], with Andreev reflection spectroscopy. The polarization value obtained is the same as that determined using a conventional superconductor Pb but the temperature dependence of the spin polarization can be measured up to 52 K, a temperature range, which is several times wider than that using a typical conventional superconductor. The result excludes spin-parallel triplet pairing in the iron superconductor.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-11-21

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Fabrication of highly spin-polarized Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 thin-films

Description

Ferromagnetic Heusler Co[subscript 2]FeAl[subscript 0.5]Si[subscript 0.5] epitaxial thin-films have been fabricated in the L2[subscript 1] structure with saturation magnetizations over 1200 emu/cm[superscript 3]. Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin

Ferromagnetic Heusler Co[subscript 2]FeAl[subscript 0.5]Si[subscript 0.5] epitaxial thin-films have been fabricated in the L2[subscript 1] structure with saturation magnetizations over 1200 emu/cm[superscript 3]. Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin polarization is as high as 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO (100) substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2014-04-15

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Photoluminescence enhancement of Ge quantum dots by exploiting the localized surface plasmon of epitaxial Ag islands

Description

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots

This dissertation presents research findings regarding the exploitation of localized surface plasmon (LSP) of epitaxial Ag islands as a means to enhance the photoluminescence (PL) of Germanium (Ge) quantum dots (QDs). The first step of this project was to investigate the growth of Ag islands on Si(100). Two distinct families of Ag islands have been observed. “Big islands” are clearly faceted and have basal dimensions in the few hundred nm to μm range with a variety of basal shapes. “Small islands” are not clearly faceted and have basal diameters in the 10s of nm range. Big islands form via a nucleation and growth mechanism, and small islands form via precipitation of Ag contained in a planar layer between the big islands that is thicker than the Stranski-Krastanov layer existing at room-temperature.

The pseudodielectric functions of epitaxial Ag islands on Si(100) substrates were investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. Comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions obtained for Si with and without Ag islands clearly identifies a plasmon mode with its dipole moment perpendicular to the surface. This observation is confirmed using a simulation based on the thin island film (TIF) theory. Another mode parallel to the surface may be identified by comparing the experimental pseudodielectric functions with the simulated ones from TIF theory. Additional results suggest that the LSP energy of Ag islands can be tuned from the ultra-violet to the infrared range by an amorphous Si (α-Si) cap layer.

Heterostructures were grown that incorporated Ge QDs, an epitaxial Si cap layer and Ag islands grown atop the Si cap layer. Optimum growth conditions for distinct Ge dot ensembles and Si cap layers were obtained. The density of Ag islands grown on the Si cap layer depends on its thickness. Factors contributing to this effect may include the average strain and Ge concentration on the surface of the Si cap layer.

The effects of the Ag LSP on the PL of Ge coherent domes were investigated for both α-Si capped and bare Ag islands. For samples with low-doped substrates, the LSPs reduce the Ge dot-related PL when the Si cap layer is below some critical thickness and have no effect on the PL when the Si cap layer is above the critical thickness. For samples grown on highly-doped wafers, the LSP of bare Ag islands enhanced the PL of Ge QDs by ~ 40%.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015

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Growth and characterization of novel thin films for microelectronic applications

Description

I studied the properties of novel Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 (CFAS), ZnGeAs2, and FeS2 (pyrite) thin films for microelectronic applications ranging from spintronic to photovoltaic. CFAS is a half metal with theoretical spin

I studied the properties of novel Co2FeAl0.5Si0.5 (CFAS), ZnGeAs2, and FeS2 (pyrite) thin films for microelectronic applications ranging from spintronic to photovoltaic. CFAS is a half metal with theoretical spin polarization of 100%. I investigated its potential as a spin injector, for spintronic applications, by studying the critical steps involved in the injection of spin polarized electron populations from tunnel junctions containing CFAS electrodes. Epitaxial CFAS thin films with L21 structure and saturation magnetizations of over 1200 emu/cm3 were produced by optimization of the sputtering growth conditions. Point contact Andreev reflection measurements show that the spin polarization at the CFAS electrode surface exceeds 70%. Analyses of the electrical properties of tunnel junctions with a superconducting Pb counter-electrode indicate that transport through native Al oxide barriers is mostly from direct tunneling, while that through the native CFAS oxide barriers is not. ZnGeAs2 is a semiconductor comprised of only inexpensive and earth-abundant elements. The electronic structure and defect properties are similar in many ways to GaAs. Thus, in theory, efficient solar cells could be made with ZnGeAs2 if similar quality material to that of GaAs could be produced. To understand the thermochemistry and determine the rate limiting steps of ZnGeAs2 thin-film synthesis, the (a) thermal decomposition rate and (b) elemental composition and deposition rate of films were measured. It is concluded that the ZnGeAs2 thin film synthesis is a metastable process with an activation energy of 1.08±0.05 eV for the kinetically-limited decomposition rate and an evaporation coefficient of ~10-3. The thermochemical analysis presented here can be used to predict optimal conditions of ZnGeAs2 physical vapor deposition and thermal processing. Pyrite (FeS2) is another semiconductor that has tremendous potential for use in photovoltaic applications if high quality materials could be made. Here, I present the layer-by-layer growth of single-phase pyrite thin-films on heated substrates using sequential evaporation of Fe under high-vacuum followed by sulfidation at S pressures between 1 mTorr and 1 Torr. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy reveals high-quality, defect-free pyrite grains were produces by this method. It is demonstrated that epitaxial pyrite layer was produced on natural pyrite substrates with this method.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Path integral Monte Carlo simulations of quantum wires

Description

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the

One dimensional (1D) and quasi-one dimensional quantum wires have been a subject of both theoretical and experimental interest since 1990s and before. Phenomena such as the "0.7 structure" in the conductance leave many open questions. In this dissertation, I study the properties and the internal electron states of semiconductor quantum wires with the path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) method. PIMC is a tool for simulating many-body quantum systems at finite temperature. Its ability to calculate thermodynamic properties and various correlation functions makes it an ideal tool in bridging experiments with theories. A general study of the features interpreted by the Luttinger liquid theory and observed in experiments is first presented, showing the need for new PIMC calculations in this field. I calculate the DC conductance at finite temperature for both noninteracting and interacting electrons. The quantized conductance is identified in PIMC simulations without making the same approximation in the Luttinger model. The low electron density regime is subject to strong interactions, since the kinetic energy decreases faster than the Coulomb interaction at low density. An electron state called the Wigner crystal has been proposed in this regime for quasi-1D wires. By using PIMC, I observe the zig-zag structure of the Wigner crystal. The quantum fluctuations suppress the long range correla- tions, making the order short-ranged. Spin correlations are calculated and used to evaluate the spin coupling strength in a zig-zag state. I also find that as the density increases, electrons undergo a structural phase transition to a dimer state, in which two electrons of opposite spins are coupled across the two rows of the zig-zag. A phase diagram is sketched for a range of densities and transverse confinements. The quantum point contact (QPC) is a typical realization of quantum wires. I study the QPC by explicitly simulating a system of electrons in and around a Timp potential (Timp, 1992). Localization of a single electron in the middle of the channel is observed at 5 K, as the split gate voltage increases. The DC conductance is calculated, which shows the effect of the Coulomb interaction. At 1 K and low electron density, a state similar to the Wigner crystal is found inside the channel.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Magnetic field sensing and nanoparticle induced ferromagnetism in graphene towards spintronics

Description

Graphene has been extensively researched for both scientific and technological interests since its first isolation from graphite. The excellent transport properties and long spin diffusion length of graphene make

Graphene has been extensively researched for both scientific and technological interests since its first isolation from graphite. The excellent transport properties and long spin diffusion length of graphene make it a promising material for electronic and spintronic device applications. This dissertation deals with the optimization of magnetic field sensing in graphene and the realization of nanoparticle induced ferromagnetism in graphene towards spintronic device applications.

Graphene has been used as a channel material for magnetic sensors demonstrating the potential for very high sensitivities, especially for Hall sensors, due to its extremely high mobility and low carrier concentration. However, the two-carrier nature of graphene near the charge neutrality point (CNP) causes a nonlinearity issue for graphene Hall sensors, which limits useful operating ranges and has not been fully studied. In this dissertation, a two-channel model was used to describe the transport of graphene near the CNP. The model was carefully validated by experiments and then was used to explore the optimization of graphene sensor performance by tuning the gate operating bias under realistic constraints on linearity and power dissipation.

The manipulation of spin in graphene that is desired for spintronic applications is limited by its weak spin-orbit coupling (SOC). Proximity induced ferromagnetism (PIFM) from an adjacent ferromagnetic insulator (FMI) provides a method for enhancing SOC in graphene without degrading its transport properties. However, suitable FMIs are uncommon and difficult to integrate with graphene. In this dissertation, PIFM in graphene from an adjacent Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticle (MNP) array was demonstrated for the first time. Observation of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in the device structures provided the signature of PIFM. Comparison of the test samples with different control samples conclusively proved that exchange interaction at the MNP/graphene interface was responsible for the observed characteristics. The PIFM in graphene was shown to persist at room temperature and to be gate-tunable, which are desirable features for electrically controlled spintronic device applications.

The observation of PIFM in the MNP/graphene devices indicates that the spin transfer torque (STT) from spin-polarized current in the graphene can interact with the magnetization of the MNPs. If there is sufficient STT, spin torque oscillation (STO) could be realized in this structure. In this dissertation, three methods were employed to search for signatures of STO in the devices. STO was not observed in our devices, most likely due to the weak spin-polarization for current injected from conventional ferromagnetic contacts to graphene. Calculation indicates that graphene should provide sufficient spin-polarized current for exciting STO in optimized structures that miniaturize the device area and utilize optimized tunnel-barrier contacts for improved spin injection.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2019

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Electronic, Spin and Valley Transport in Two Dimensional Dirac Systems

Description

This dissertation aims to study and understand relevant issues related to the electronic, spin and valley transport in two-dimensional Dirac systems for different given physical settings. In summary, four key

This dissertation aims to study and understand relevant issues related to the electronic, spin and valley transport in two-dimensional Dirac systems for different given physical settings. In summary, four key findings are achieved.

First, studying persistent currents in confined chaotic Dirac fermion systems with a ring geometry and an applied Aharonov-Bohm flux, unusual whispering-gallery modes with edge-dependent currents and spin polarization are identified. They can survive for highly asymmetric rings that host fully developed classical chaos. By sustaining robust persistent currents, these modes can be utilized to form a robust relativistic quantum two-level system.

Second, the quantized topological edge states in confined massive Dirac fermion systems exhibiting a remarkable reverse Stark effect in response to an applied electric field, and an electrically or optically controllable spin switching behavior are uncovered.

Third, novel wave scattering and transport in Dirac-like pseudospin-1 systems are reported. (a), for small scatterer size, a surprising revival resonant scattering with a peculiar boundary trapping by forming unusual vortices is uncovered. Intriguingly, it can persist in arbitrarily weak scatterer strength regime, which underlies a superscattering behavior beyond the conventional scenario. (b), for larger size, a perfect caustic phenomenon arises as a manifestation of the super-Klein tunneling effect. (c), in the far-field, an unexpected isotropic transport emerges at low energies.

Fourth, a geometric valley Hall effect (gVHE) originated from fractional singular Berry flux is revealed. It is shown that gVHE possesses a nonlinear dependence on the Berry flux with asymmetrical resonance features and can be considerably enhanced by electrically controllable resonant valley skew scattering. With the gVHE, efficient valley filtering can arise and these phenomena are robust against thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2017

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Andreev reflection spectroscopy: theory and experiment

Description

A theoretical study of a three-dimensional (3D) N/S interface with arbitrary spin

polarization and interface geometry is presented. The 3D model gives the same intrinsic

spin polarization and superconducting gap dependence as

A theoretical study of a three-dimensional (3D) N/S interface with arbitrary spin

polarization and interface geometry is presented. The 3D model gives the same intrinsic

spin polarization and superconducting gap dependence as the 1D model. This

demonstrates that the 1D model can be use to t 3D data.

Using this model, a Heusler alloy is investigated. Andreev reflection measurements

show that the spin polarization is 80% in samples sputtered on unheated MgO(100)

substrates and annealed at high temperatures. However, the spin polarization is

considerably smaller in samples deposited on heated substrates.

Ferromagnetic FexSi􀀀x alloys have been proposed as potential spin injectors into

silicon with a substantial spin polarization. Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy (ARS) is

utilized to determine the spin polarization of both amorphous and crystalline Fe65Si35

alloys. The amorphous phase has a significantly higher spin polarization than that of

the crystalline phase.

In this thesis, (1111) Fe SmO0:82F0:18FeAs and Pb superconductors are used to

measure the spin polarization of a highly spin-polarized material, La0:67Sr0:33MnO3.

Both materials yield the same intrinsic spin polarization, therefore, Fe-superconductors

can be used in ARS. Based on the behavior of the differential conductance for highly

spin polarized LSMO and small polarization of Au, it can be concluded that the Fe-Sc

is not a triplet superconductor.

Zero bias anomaly (ZBA), in point contact Andreev reflection (PCAR), has been

utilized as a characteristic feature to reveal many novel physics. Complexities at a

normal metal/superconducting interface often cause nonessential ZBA-like features,

which may be mistaken as ZBA. In this work, it is shown that an extrinsic ZBA,

which is due to the contact resistance, cannot be suppressed by a highly spin-polarized

current while a nonessential ZBA cannot be affected the contact resistance.

Finally, Cu/Cu multilayer GMR structures were fabricated and the GMR% measured

at 300 K and 4.5 K gave responses of 63% and 115% respectively. Not only

do the GMR structures have a large enhancement of resistance, but by applying an

external magnetic eld it is shown that, unlike most materials, the spin polarization

can be tuned to values of 0.386 to 0.415 from H = 0 kOe to H = 15 kOe.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015