Matching Items (43)

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Triangular Shape Factor for Pseudo Steady State Flow in Fractured Wells

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Pseudo-steady state (PSS) flow is a dominant time-dependent flow regime during constant rate production from a closed reservoir. Using Chen's (2016) exact analytical solution for the PSS flow of a fully-penetrated fractured vertical well with finite conductivity in an elliptical

Pseudo-steady state (PSS) flow is a dominant time-dependent flow regime during constant rate production from a closed reservoir. Using Chen's (2016) exact analytical solution for the PSS flow of a fully-penetrated fractured vertical well with finite conductivity in an elliptical drainage area, the computational time required to solve for the PSS constant b_D,PSS is greatly reduced. This constant is the inverse of the productivity index, J_D,PSS, which is often used in modern fracture design optimization. This paper correlates the PSS flow of a fully-penetrated fractured vertical well in triangular drainage areas to Chen's solution for an elliptical drainage area using shape factors. Numerical solutions for the PSS constant are created using COMSOL, which uses a 2D model of the fractured reservoir to output time and pressure data. For equivalent reservoir properties, the numerical data for the triangular reservoir yields a PSS constant that can be directly compared to the PSS constant obtained using Chen's solution. Lack of access to the Subsurface Flow Module of COMSOL greatly limited the number of simulations that could be run, thus more simulations would significantly improve the accuracy and applicability of the triangular shape factor by making it a function of the penetration ratio through nonlinear regression methods.

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2017-05

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Optimal Dimensions for Beam Power Harvester for Maximum Power Output

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In the last several years, there has been a significant growth in research in the field of power harvesting, the process of capturing the energy surrounding a system and converting it into usable electrical energy. This concept has received particular

In the last several years, there has been a significant growth in research in the field of power harvesting, the process of capturing the energy surrounding a system and converting it into usable electrical energy. This concept has received particular interest in recent years with the ever-increasing production of portable and wireless electronic devices. Many of these devices that are currently in production utilize electrochemical batteries as a power source, which while effective, maintain the drawback of having a finite energy supply, thus requiring periodic replacement. The concept of power harvesting, however, works to solve these issues through electronics that are designed to capture ambient energy surrounding them convert it into usable electronic energy. The use of power harvesting in energy scavenging devices allows for the possible development of devices that are self-powered and do not require their power sources to be replaced. Several models have been developed by Soldano et al [3] and Liao et al [2] that have been proven accurate at predicting the power output of a piezoelectric power harvester in a cantileaver beam configuration. The work in this paper will expand further on the model developed by Liao et al [2], and as its main goal will use a modified form of that model to predict the optimal dimensions for a beam power harvester to achieve the maximum power output possible. The model will be updated b replacing the mode shape function used to approximate the deflection of the beam with the true defletion, which is based on the complex wavenumber that incorporates the complex Young's modulus of the material used. Other changes to account for this replacement will also be presented, along with numerical results of the final model.

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2012-05

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Shape factors for pseudo-steady state flow of a fractured-well in reservoirs of square shape

Description

Pseudo-steady state (PSS) flow is a dominant time-dependent flow regime during constant rate production from a closed reservoir. Recently Chen (2016) has obtained an exact analytical solution for the PSS flow of a fully-penetrated fractured vertical well with finite conductivity

Pseudo-steady state (PSS) flow is a dominant time-dependent flow regime during constant rate production from a closed reservoir. Recently Chen (2016) has obtained an exact analytical solution for the PSS flow of a fully-penetrated fractured vertical well with finite conductivity in an elliptical drainage area. The availability of this analytical solution shortens the computational time required for such a solution by several orders of magnitude. This paper correlates the PSS flow of a fully-penetrated fractured vertical well in square drainage areas to Chen’s solution for an elliptical drainage area using shape factors. Specifically such a shape factor is established by equating the dimensionless productivity index of the PSS flow in a square domain to that in an elliptical domain of identical area. The shape factor was dependent on the proppant number and fracture penetration ratio. Productivity index data for fractured wells with finite conductivity in square drainage area and no skin from Romero et al. (2003) was compared to Chen’s solution assuming equivalent drainage areas and identical proppant numbers, with the penetration ratio as a parameter. A non-linear multi-variable regression analysis results in a unified shape factor function with a correlation coefficient of 0.80 and a minimized sum of squared error of 36.1. The achieved shape factor allows the analytical solution for PSS flow of fractured well in an elliptical drainage area to be applied to square drainage areas. This generalization of the PSS flow solution is of practical significance in fracture design optimization and production rate decline analysis. Future recommendations including testing the accuracy of the shape factor in predictions of proppant numbers not used in analysis using COMSOL™, and increasing the dataset pool to increase the model accuracy.

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2016-05

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TRANSIENT PRESSURE APPROXIMATION FOR AN OIL WELL IN A CLOSED CIRCULAR RESERVOIR

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Essential to the field of petroleum engineering, well testing is done to determine the important physical characteristics of a reservoir. In the case of a constant production rate (as opposed to a constant pressure), the well pressure drop is a

Essential to the field of petroleum engineering, well testing is done to determine the important physical characteristics of a reservoir. In the case of a constant production rate (as opposed to a constant pressure), the well pressure drop is a function of both time and the formation's boundary conditions. This pressure drop goes through several distinct stages before reaching steady state or semi-steady state production. This paper focuses on the analysis of a circular well with a closed outer boundary and details the derivation of a new approximation, intended for the transient stage, from an existing steady state solution. This new approximation is then compared to the numerical solution as well as an existing approximate solution. The new approximation is accurate with a maximum 10% margin of error well into the semi-steady state phase with that error decreasing significantly as the distance to the closed external boundary increases. More accurate over a longer period of time than the existing line source approximation, the relevance and applications of this new approximate solution deserve further exploration.

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2016-05

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A theoretical analysis of microchannel flow boiling enhancement via cross-sectional expansion

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Microchannel heat sinks can possess heat transfer characteristics unavailable in conventional heat exchangers; such sinks offer compact solutions to otherwise intractable thermal management problems, notably in small-scale electronics cooling. Flow boiling in microchannels allows a very high heat transfer rate,

Microchannel heat sinks can possess heat transfer characteristics unavailable in conventional heat exchangers; such sinks offer compact solutions to otherwise intractable thermal management problems, notably in small-scale electronics cooling. Flow boiling in microchannels allows a very high heat transfer rate, but is bounded by the critical heat flux (CHF). This thesis presents a theoretical-numerical study of a method to improve the heat rejection capability of a microchannel heat sink via expansion of the channel cross-section along the flow direction. The thermodynamic quality of the refrigerant increases during flow boiling, decreasing the density of the bulk coolant as it flows. This may effect pressure fluctuations in the channels, leading to nonuniform heat transfer and local dryout in regions exceeding CHF. This undesirable phenomenon is counteracted by permitting the cross-section of the microchannel to increase along the direction of flow, allowing more volume for the vapor. Governing equations are derived from a control-volume analysis of a single heated rectangular microchannel; the cross-section is allowed to expand in width and height. The resulting differential equations are solved numerically for a variety of channel expansion profiles and numbers of channels. The refrigerant is R-134a and channel parameters are based on a physical test bed in a related experiment. Significant improvement in CHF is possible with moderate area expansion. Minimal additional manufacturing costs could yield major gains in the utility of microchannel heat sinks. An optimum expansion rate occurred in certain cases, and alterations in the channel width are, in general, more effective at improving CHF than alterations in the channel height. Modest expansion in height enables small width expansions to be very effective.

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2011

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Compressible flow through a porous medium: choking at pore scale and its implications

Description

Production from a high pressure gas well at a high production-rate encounters the risk of operating near the choking condition for a compressible flow in porous media. The unbounded gas pressure gradient near the point of choking, which is located

Production from a high pressure gas well at a high production-rate encounters the risk of operating near the choking condition for a compressible flow in porous media. The unbounded gas pressure gradient near the point of choking, which is located near the wellbore, generates an effective tensile stress on the porous rock frame. This tensile stress almost always exceeds the tensile strength of the rock and it causes a tensile failure of the rock, leading to wellbore instability. In a porous rock, not all pores are choked at the same flow rate, and when just one pore is choked, the flow through the entire porous medium should be considered choked as the gas pressure gradient at the point of choking becomes singular. This thesis investigates the choking condition for compressible gas flow in a single microscopic pore. Quasi-one-dimensional analysis and axisymmetric numerical simulations of compressible gas flow in a pore scale varicose tube with a number of bumps are carried out, and the local Mach number and pressure along the tube are computed for the flow near choking condition. The effects of tube length, inlet-to-outlet pressure ratio, the number of bumps and the amplitude of the bumps on the choking condition are obtained. These critical values provide guidance for avoiding the choking condition in practice.

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2013

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Small-scale hybrid rocket test stand & characterization of swirl injectors

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Derived from the necessity to increase testing capabilities of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) propulsion systems for Daedalus Astronautics at Arizona State University, a small-scale motor and test stand were designed and developed to characterize all components of the system. The

Derived from the necessity to increase testing capabilities of hybrid rocket motor (HRM) propulsion systems for Daedalus Astronautics at Arizona State University, a small-scale motor and test stand were designed and developed to characterize all components of the system. The motor is designed for simple integration and setup, such that both the forward-end enclosure and end cap can be easily removed for rapid integration of components during testing. Each of the components of the motor is removable allowing for a broad range of testing capabilities. While examining injectors and their potential it is thought ideal to obtain the highest regression rates and overall motor performance possible. The oxidizer and fuel are N2O and hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), respectively, due to previous experience and simplicity. The injector designs, selected for the same reasons, are designed such that they vary only in the swirl angle. This system provides the platform for characterizing the effects of varying said swirl angle on HRM performance.

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2013

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Numerical simulation of dynamic contact angles and contact lines in multiphase flows using level set method

Description

Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall

Many physical phenomena and industrial applications involve multiphase fluid flows and hence it is of high importance to be able to simulate various aspects of these flows accurately. The Dynamic Contact Angles (DCA) and the contact lines at the wall boundaries are a couple of such important aspects. In the past few decades, many mathematical models were developed for predicting the contact angles of the inter-face with the wall boundary under various flow conditions. These models are used to incorporate the physics of DCA and contact line motion in numerical simulations using various interface capturing/tracking techniques. In the current thesis, a simple approach to incorporate the static and dynamic contact angle boundary conditions using the level set method is developed and implemented in multiphase CFD codes, LIT (Level set Interface Tracking) (Herrmann (2008)) and NGA (flow solver) (Desjardins et al (2008)). Various DCA models and associated boundary conditions are reviewed. In addition, numerical aspects such as the occurrence of a stress singularity at the contact lines and grid convergence of macroscopic interface shape are dealt with in the context of the level set approach.

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2015

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Optimization of complex thermal-fluid processes

Description

First, in a large-scale structure, a 3-D CFD model was built to simulate flow and temperature distributions. The flow patterns and temperature distributions are characterized and validated through spot measurements. The detailed understanding of them then allows for optimization of

First, in a large-scale structure, a 3-D CFD model was built to simulate flow and temperature distributions. The flow patterns and temperature distributions are characterized and validated through spot measurements. The detailed understanding of them then allows for optimization of the HVAC configuration because identification of the problematic flow patterns and temperature mis-distributions leads to some corrective measures. Second, an appropriate form of the viscous dissipation term in the integral form of the conservation equation was considered, and the effects of momentum terms on the computed drop size in pressure-atomized sprays were examined. The Sauter mean diameter (SMD) calculated in this manner agrees well with experimental data of the drop velocities and sizes. Using the suggested equation with the revised treatment of liquid momentum setup, injection parameters can be directly input to the system of equations. Thus, this approach is capable of incorporating the effects of injection parameters for further considerations of the drop and velocity distributions under a wide range of spray geometry and injection conditions. Lastly, groundwater level estimation was investigated using compressed sensing (CS). To satisfy a general property of CS, a random measurement matrix was used, the groundwater network was constructed, and finally the l-1 optimization was run. Through several validation tests, correct estimation of groundwater level by CS was shown. Using this setup, decreasing trends in groundwater level in the southwestern US was shown. The suggested method is effective in that the total measurements of registered wells can be reduced down by approximately 42 %, sparse data can be visualized and a possible approach for groundwater management during extreme weather changes, e.g. in California, was demonstrated.

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2015

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A GPU accelerated discontinuous Galerkin conservative level set method for simulating atomization

Description

This dissertation describes a process for interface capturing via an arbitrary-order, nearly quadrature free, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for the conservative level set method (Olsson et al., 2005, 2008). The DG numerical method is utilized to solve both advection and

This dissertation describes a process for interface capturing via an arbitrary-order, nearly quadrature free, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme for the conservative level set method (Olsson et al., 2005, 2008). The DG numerical method is utilized to solve both advection and reinitialization, and executed on a refined level set grid (Herrmann, 2008) for effective use of processing power. Computation is executed in parallel utilizing both CPU and GPU architectures to make the method feasible at high order. Finally, a sparse data structure is implemented to take full advantage of parallelism on the GPU, where performance relies on well-managed memory operations.

With solution variables projected into a kth order polynomial basis, a k+1 order convergence rate is found for both advection and reinitialization tests using the method of manufactured solutions. Other standard test cases, such as Zalesak's disk and deformation of columns and spheres in periodic vortices are also performed, showing several orders of magnitude improvement over traditional WENO level set methods. These tests also show the impact of reinitialization, which often increases shape and volume errors as a result of level set scalar trapping by normal vectors calculated from the local level set field.

Accelerating advection via GPU hardware is found to provide a 30x speedup factor comparing a 2.0GHz Intel Xeon E5-2620 CPU in serial vs. a Nvidia Tesla K20 GPU, with speedup factors increasing with polynomial degree until shared memory is filled. A similar algorithm is implemented for reinitialization, which relies on heavier use of shared and global memory and as a result fills them more quickly and produces smaller speedups of 18x.

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2015