Matching Items (46)

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Improving damage detection and localization in complex composites

Description

The goal of this research is to couple a physics-based model with adaptive algorithms to develop a more accurate and robust technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) in composite structures.

The goal of this research is to couple a physics-based model with adaptive algorithms to develop a more accurate and robust technique for structural health monitoring (SHM) in composite structures. The purpose of SHM is to localize and detect damage in structures, which has broad applications to improvements in aerospace technology. This technique employs PZT transducers to actuate and collect guided Lamb wave signals. Matching pursuit decomposition (MPD) is used to decompose the signal into a cross-term free time-frequency relation. This decoupling of time and frequency facilitates the calculation of a signal's time-of-flight along a path between an actuator and sensor. Using the time-of-flights, comparisons can be made between similar composite structures to find damaged regions by examining differences in the time of flight for each path between PZTs, with respect to direction. Relatively large differences in time-of-flight indicate the presence of new or more significant damage, which can be verified using a physics-based approach. Wave propagation modeling is used to implement a physics based approach to this method, which is coupled with adaptive algorithms that take into account currently existing damage to a composite structure. Previous SHM techniques for composite structures rely on the assumption that the composite is initially free of all damage on both a macro and micro-scale, which is never the case due to the inherent introduction of material defects in its fabrication. This method provides a novel technique for investigating the presence and nature of damage in composite structures. Further investigation into the technique can be done by testing structures with different sizes of damage and investigating the effects of different operating temperatures on this SHM system.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-05

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The Effects of Manufacturing Technology on the Microstructure of Carbon Nanotube Membranes

Description

Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes (buckypaper) are manufactured with multiple procedures, vacuum filtration, surfactant-free, and 3D printing. A post-manufacturing process for resin impregnation is subjected to the membranes. The effects of

Carbon nanotube (CNT) membranes (buckypaper) are manufactured with multiple procedures, vacuum filtration, surfactant-free, and 3D printing. A post-manufacturing process for resin impregnation is subjected to the membranes. The effects of manufacturing processes on the microstructure and material properties are investigated for both pristine and resin saturated samples manufactured using all procedures. Microstructural characteristics that are studied include specific surface area, porosity, pore size distribution, density, and permeability. Scanning electron microscopy is used to characterize the morphology of the membrane. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller analysis is conducted on membrane samples to determine the specific surface area. Barrett-Joyner-Halenda analysis is conducted on membrane samples to determine pore characteristics. Once the microstructure is characterized for each manufacturing process for both pristine and resin saturated samples, material properties of the membrane and nanocomposite structures are explored and compared on a manufacturing basis as well as a microstructural basis. Membranes samples are interleaved in the overlap of carbon fiber polymer matrix composite tubes, which are subjected to fracture testing. The effects of carbon nanotube membrane manufacturing technology on the fracture properties of nanocomposite structures with tubular geometries are explored. In parallel, the influences of manufacturing technology on the electromechanical properties of the membrane that effect a piezoresistive response are investigated for both pristine and resin saturated membranes manufactured using both methods. The result of this study is a better understanding of the relationships between manufacturing technology and the effected microstructure, and the resulting influences on material properties for both CNT membranes and derivative nanocomposite structures. Developing an understanding of these multiscale relationships leads to an increased capacity in designing manufacturing processes specific to optimizing the expression of desired characteristics for any given application.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Damage Detection and Quantification in Advanced Foam-core composites

Description

Composite structures, particularly carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been subject to significant development in recent years. They have become increasingly reliable, durable, and versatile, finding a role in a wide

Composite structures, particularly carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been subject to significant development in recent years. They have become increasingly reliable, durable, and versatile, finding a role in a wide variety of applications. When compared to conventional materials, CFRPs have several advantages, including extremely high strength, high in-plane and flexural stiffness, and very low weight. However, the application of CFRPs and other fiber-matrix composites is complicated due to the manner in which damage propagates throughout the structure, and the associated difficulty in identifying and repairing such damages prior to structural failure. In this paper, a methods of detecting and localizing delaminations withint a complex foam-core composite structure using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health montoring (SHM) is investigated. The two NDE techniques utilized are flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonic C-Scan, which were used to confirm the location of seeded damages within the specimens and to quantify the size of the damages. Macro fiber composite sensors (MFCs) and piezoelectric sensors (PZTs) were used as actuators and sensors in pitch-catch and pulse-echo configurations in order to study mode conversions and wave reflections of the propagated Lamb waves when interacting with interply delaminations and foam-core separations. The final results indicated that the investigated NDE and SHM techniques are capable of detecting and quantifying damages within complex X-COR composites, with the SHM techniques having the potential to be used \textit{in situ} with a high degree of accuracy. It was also observed that the presence of the X-COR significantly alters the behavior of the wave when compared to a standard CFRP composite plate, making it necessary to account for any variations if wave-base techniques are to be used for damage detection and quantification. Lastly, a time-space model was created to model the wave interactions with damages located within X-COR complex sandwich composites.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Mechanical Properties of Recycled 3D Print Filament

Description

Filament used in 3D printers can vary by size, color, and material. Most commonly thermoplastics are used for rapid prototyping by industry. Recycled filament has the potential to reduce cost

Filament used in 3D printers can vary by size, color, and material. Most commonly thermoplastics are used for rapid prototyping by industry. Recycled filament has the potential to reduce cost and provide a more sustainable and energy efficient approach to 3D printing. This can be a viable option if recycled parts show comparable mechanical characteristics to non-recycled material. This report focuses on the development of a methodology to efficiently characterize recycled filament for application in industry. A crush sample in the shape of a hollow cube and a dog-bone shaped specimen will be created using a filament extruder and 3D printer. The crush sample will be broken and extruded to produce a recycled filament. The crush sample will undergo a varying number of recycles (i.e. breakings) per sample group to simulate mechanical degradation; 0, 1, 2, and 5 recycling loops. The samples will undergo micro mechanical (microscopy analysis) and macro mechanical (tensile) characterization.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-12

Cyclic Initiation and Propagation Fracture Properties of Seamless and Stitch Bonded Composite Pipes

Description

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to longitudinal fiber toes is investigated. The process for observing and characterizing fatigue crack damage propagation is presented. The fatigue fracture behavior is compared with data acquired from compact tension samples subjected to static tension tests in order to develop damage tolerant design guidelines for tube structures under fatigue loading.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2017-05

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Dimeric anthracene-based mechanophore particles for damage precursor detection in reinforced epoxy matrix composites

Description

The problem of catastrophic damage purveys in any material application, and minimizing its occurrence is paramount for general health and safety. We have successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied dimeric 9-anthracene

The problem of catastrophic damage purveys in any material application, and minimizing its occurrence is paramount for general health and safety. We have successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied dimeric 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (Di-AC)-based mechanophores particles to form stress sensing epoxy matrix composites. As Di-AC had never been previously applied as a mechanophore and thermosets are rarely studied in mechanochemistry, this created an alternative avenue for study in the field. Under an applied stress, the cyclooctane-rings in the Di-AC particles reverted back to their fluorescent anthracene form, which linearly enhanced the overall fluorescence of the composite in response to the applied strain. The fluorescent signal further allowed for stress sensing in the elastic region of the stress\u2014strain curve, which is considered to be a form of damage precursor detection. Overall, the incorporation of Di-AC to the epoxy matrix added much desired stress sensing and damage precursor detection capabilities with good retention of the material properties.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Structural Health Monitoring of Fiber Reinforced Composite Structures under High Velocity Impact Loads

Description

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates,

This thesis encompasses research performed in the focus area of structural health monitoring. More specifically, this research focuses on high velocity impact testing of carbon fiber reinforced structures, especially plates, and evaluating the damage post-impact. To this end, various non-destructive evaluation techniques such as ultrasonic C-scan testing and flash thermography were utilized for post-impact analysis. MATLAB algorithms were written and refined for the localization and quantification of damage in plates using data from sensors such as piezoelectric and fiber Bragg gratings sensors. Throughout the thesis, the general plate theory and laminate plate theory, the operations and optimization of the gas gun, and the theory used for the damage localization algorithms will be discussed. Additional quantifiable results are to come in future semesters of experimentation, but this thesis outlines the framework upon which all the research will continue to advance.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016-05

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Shape memory polymers fabricated with recycled thermoplastics by 3D printing

Description

Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart polyurethane thermoplastics that can recover their original shape after undergoing deformation. This shape recovery can be actuated by raising the SMP above its glass

Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart polyurethane thermoplastics that can recover their original shape after undergoing deformation. This shape recovery can be actuated by raising the SMP above its glass transition temperature, Tg. This report outlines a process for repeatedly recycling SMPs using 3D printing. Cubes are printed, broken down into pellets mechanically, and re-extruded into filament. This simulates a recycling iteration that the material would undergo in industry. The samples are recycled 0, 1, 3, and 5 times, then printed into rectangular and dog-bone shapes. These shapes are used to perform dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and 3-point bending for shape recovery testing. Samples will also be used for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize their microstructure.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Damage Tolerant Design Guidelines for Seamless Carbon Fiber Composite Structures for Pressurized Cylinders

Description

Seamless carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix (CFRP) composites are being investigated in many structural applications with the purpose of withstanding the extreme pressures and maintaining stiffness in mechanical systems. This

Seamless carbon fiber reinforced polymer matrix (CFRP) composites are being investigated in many structural applications with the purpose of withstanding the extreme pressures and maintaining stiffness in mechanical systems. This report focuses on: fabrication of CFRP tubes and end caps, the production of a pressurization system to test standards set by Fiber Reinforced Composite (FRC) Pipe and Fittings for Underground Fire Protection Service [1], developing a library for different damage types for seamless composite pipes, and evaluating pre-existing flaws with flash thermography, carrying out hydrostatic testing, and performing nondestructive testing (NDT) to characterize damage induced on the pipes such as cracking, crazing, and fiber breakage. The tasks outlined will be used to develop design guidelines for different combinations of loading systems.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05

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Design of hygrothermal aging experiment for epoxy and composite samples

Description

Epoxy resins and composite materials are well characterized in their mechanical properties. However these properties change as the materials age under different conditions, as their microstructure undergoes changes from the

Epoxy resins and composite materials are well characterized in their mechanical properties. However these properties change as the materials age under different conditions, as their microstructure undergoes changes from the absorption or desorption of water. Many of these microstructural changes occur at the interfacial region between where the matrix of the composite meets the reinforcement fiber, but still result in significant effects in the material properties. These effects have been studied and characterized under a variety of conditions by artificially aging samples. The artificial aging process focuses on exposing samples to environmental conditions such as high temperature, UV light, and humidity. While conditions like this are important to study, in real world applications the materials will not be simply resting in a laboratory created environment. In most circumstances, they are subjected to some kind of stress or impact. This report will focus on designing an experiment to analyze aged samples under tensile loading and creating a fixture that will sustain loading while the samples are aged. . The conditions that will be tested are control conditions at standard temperature and humidity in the laboratory, submerged, thermal heating, submerged and heated, and hygrothermal.

Contributors

Created

Date Created
  • 2018-05