Matching Items (55)

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Shape memory polymers fabricated with recycled thermoplastics by 3D printing

Description

Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart polyurethane thermoplastics that can recover their original shape after undergoing deformation. This shape recovery can be actuated by raising the SMP above its glass transition temperature, Tg. This report outlines a process for repeatedly

Shape Memory Polymers (SMPs) are smart polyurethane thermoplastics that can recover their original shape after undergoing deformation. This shape recovery can be actuated by raising the SMP above its glass transition temperature, Tg. This report outlines a process for repeatedly recycling SMPs using 3D printing. Cubes are printed, broken down into pellets mechanically, and re-extruded into filament. This simulates a recycling iteration that the material would undergo in industry. The samples are recycled 0, 1, 3, and 5 times, then printed into rectangular and dog-bone shapes. These shapes are used to perform dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and 3-point bending for shape recovery testing. Samples will also be used for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to characterize their microstructure.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

Structural Health Monitoring: Acoustic Emissions

Description

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is integral to preserving the structural health of materials. Techniques that fall under the NDT category are able to evaluate integrity and condition of a material without permanently altering any property of the material. Additionally,

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is integral to preserving the structural health of materials. Techniques that fall under the NDT category are able to evaluate integrity and condition of a material without permanently altering any property of the material. Additionally, they can typically be used while the material is in active use instead of needing downtime for inspection.
The two general categories of structural health monitoring (SHM) systems include passive and active monitoring. Active SHM systems utilize an input of energy to monitor the health of a structure (such as sound waves in ultrasonics), while passive systems do not. As such, passive SHM tends to be more desirable. A system could be permanently fixed to a critical location, passively accepting signals until it records a damage event, then localize and characterize the damage. This is the goal of acoustic emissions testing.
When certain types of damage occur, such as matrix cracking or delamination in composites, the corresponding release of energy creates sound waves, or acoustic emissions, that propagate through the material. Audio sensors fixed to the surface can pick up data from both the time and frequency domains of the wave. With proper data analysis, a time of arrival (TOA) can be calculated for each sensor allowing for localization of the damage event. The frequency data can be used to characterize the damage.
In traditional acoustic emissions testing, the TOA combined with wave velocity and information about signal attenuation in the material is used to localize events. However, in instances of complex geometries or anisotropic materials (such as carbon fibre composites), velocity and attenuation can vary wildly based on the direction of interest. In these cases, localization can be based off of the time of arrival distances for each sensor pair. This technique is called Delta T mapping, and is the main focus of this study.

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Created

Date Created
2019-05

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Design of hygrothermal aging experiment for epoxy and composite samples

Description

Epoxy resins and composite materials are well characterized in their mechanical properties. However these properties change as the materials age under different conditions, as their microstructure undergoes changes from the absorption or desorption of water. Many of these microstructural changes

Epoxy resins and composite materials are well characterized in their mechanical properties. However these properties change as the materials age under different conditions, as their microstructure undergoes changes from the absorption or desorption of water. Many of these microstructural changes occur at the interfacial region between where the matrix of the composite meets the reinforcement fiber, but still result in significant effects in the material properties. These effects have been studied and characterized under a variety of conditions by artificially aging samples. The artificial aging process focuses on exposing samples to environmental conditions such as high temperature, UV light, and humidity. While conditions like this are important to study, in real world applications the materials will not be simply resting in a laboratory created environment. In most circumstances, they are subjected to some kind of stress or impact. This report will focus on designing an experiment to analyze aged samples under tensile loading and creating a fixture that will sustain loading while the samples are aged. . The conditions that will be tested are control conditions at standard temperature and humidity in the laboratory, submerged, thermal heating, submerged and heated, and hygrothermal.

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Created

Date Created
2018-05

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Damage Detection and Quantification in Advanced Foam-core composites

Description

Composite structures, particularly carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been subject to significant development in recent years. They have become increasingly reliable, durable, and versatile, finding a role in a wide variety of applications. When compared to conventional materials, CFRPs have

Composite structures, particularly carbon-fiber reinforced polymers (CFRPs) have been subject to significant development in recent years. They have become increasingly reliable, durable, and versatile, finding a role in a wide variety of applications. When compared to conventional materials, CFRPs have several advantages, including extremely high strength, high in-plane and flexural stiffness, and very low weight. However, the application of CFRPs and other fiber-matrix composites is complicated due to the manner in which damage propagates throughout the structure, and the associated difficulty in identifying and repairing such damages prior to structural failure. In this paper, a methods of detecting and localizing delaminations withint a complex foam-core composite structure using non-destructive evaluation (NDE) and structural health montoring (SHM) is investigated. The two NDE techniques utilized are flash thermography and low frequency ultrasonic C-Scan, which were used to confirm the location of seeded damages within the specimens and to quantify the size of the damages. Macro fiber composite sensors (MFCs) and piezoelectric sensors (PZTs) were used as actuators and sensors in pitch-catch and pulse-echo configurations in order to study mode conversions and wave reflections of the propagated Lamb waves when interacting with interply delaminations and foam-core separations. The final results indicated that the investigated NDE and SHM techniques are capable of detecting and quantifying damages within complex X-COR composites, with the SHM techniques having the potential to be used \textit{in situ} with a high degree of accuracy. It was also observed that the presence of the X-COR significantly alters the behavior of the wave when compared to a standard CFRP composite plate, making it necessary to account for any variations if wave-base techniques are to be used for damage detection and quantification. Lastly, a time-space model was created to model the wave interactions with damages located within X-COR complex sandwich composites.

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Created

Date Created
2017-05

Cyclic Initiation and Propagation Fracture Properties of Seamless and Stitch Bonded Composite Pipes

Description

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to

This paper presents the methods and materials used to investigate the fatigue fracture properties of i) seamless twill weave carbon fiber and ii) stitch bonded biaxial carbon fiber polymer matrix composite. Additionally, the effect of notch tip placement relative to longitudinal fiber toes is investigated. The process for observing and characterizing fatigue crack damage propagation is presented. The fatigue fracture behavior is compared with data acquired from compact tension samples subjected to static tension tests in order to develop damage tolerant design guidelines for tube structures under fatigue loading.

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Created

Date Created
2017-05

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Fatigue Life Prediction Using Hybrid Prognosis for Structural Health Monitoring

Description

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft components and at the same time reduce the life-cycle costs

Because metallic aircraft components are subject to a variety of in-service loading conditions, predicting their fatigue life has become a critical challenge. To address the failure mode mitigation of aircraft components and at the same time reduce the life-cycle costs of aerospace systems, a reliable prognostics framework is essential. In this paper, a hybrid prognosis model that accurately predicts the crack growth regime and the residual-useful-life estimate of aluminum components is developed. The methodology integrates physics-based modeling with a data-driven approach. Different types of loading conditions such as constant amplitude, random, and overload are investigated. The developed methodology is validated on an Al 2024-T351 lug joint under fatigue loading conditions. The results indicate that fusing the measured data and physics-based models improves the accuracy of prediction compared to a purely data-driven or physics-based approach.

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Created

Date Created
2014-04-01

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The ratio of flexural strength to uniaxial tensile strength in bulk epoxy resin polymeric materials

Description

The flexural behavior of epoxies was investigated by performing mechanical tests and applying statistical Weibull theory and analytical methods to the results. The effects of loading systems and environmental conditions were also considered. Three kinds of epoxies were studied: Epon

The flexural behavior of epoxies was investigated by performing mechanical tests and applying statistical Weibull theory and analytical methods to the results. The effects of loading systems and environmental conditions were also considered. Three kinds of epoxies were studied: Epon E863, PRI 2002, and PR520. In total, 53 three-point-bending (3PB) Epon E863 samples and 26 3PB PR520 were tested immediately after curing, together with 26 four-point-bending (4PB) PRI2002 samples stored at 60°C and 90% Rh for 48 weeks. The Weibull parameters were estimated using both linear regression and the moments method. The statistical character of the Weibull model leads to uncertainty in the evaluated parameters, even for a large number of experiments. This study analyzed the ratio of flexural strength to tensile strength in bulk epoxy resin polymers. An analytical method previously developed by the authors to study the relationship between uniaxial tension/compression stress-strain curves and flexural load-deflection response was used to obtain the ratio. The results show that the Weibull model overpredicted the aforementioned ratio in different load arrangements.

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Created

Date Created
2014-12-01

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Early damage detection in epoxy matrix using cyclobutane-based polymers

Description

Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence

Identification of early damage in polymer composites is of great importance. We have incorporated cyclobutane-containing cross-linked polymers into an epoxy matrix, studied the effect on thermal and mechanical properties, and, more importantly, demonstrated early damage detection through mechanically induced fluorescence generation. Two cinnamate derivatives, 1,1,1-tris(cinnamoyloxymethyl) ethane (TCE) and poly(vinyl cinnamate) (PVCi), were photoirradiated to produce cyclobutane-containing polymer. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of cyclobutane-containing polymer into epoxy matrix were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescence at a strain level just beyond the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with accumulation of strain. Overall, the results show that damage can be detected through fluorescence generation along crack propagation.

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Created

Date Created
2014-09-01

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A novel statistical spring-bead based network model for self-sensing smart polymer materials

Description

This paper presents a multiscale modeling approach to simulating the self-sensing behavior of a load sensitive smart polymer material. A statistical spring-bead based network model is developed to bridge the molecular dynamics simulations at the nanoscale and the finite element

This paper presents a multiscale modeling approach to simulating the self-sensing behavior of a load sensitive smart polymer material. A statistical spring-bead based network model is developed to bridge the molecular dynamics simulations at the nanoscale and the finite element model at the macroscale. Parametric studies are conducted on the developed network model to investigate the effects of the thermoset crosslinking degree on the mechanical response of the self-sensing material. A comparison between experimental and simulation results shows that the multiscale framework is able to capture the global mechanical response with adequate accuracy and the network model is also capable of simulating the self-sensing phenomenon of the smart polymer. Finally, the molecular dynamics simulation and network model based simulation are implemented to evaluate damage initiation in the self-sensing material under monotonic loading.

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Created

Date Created
2015-08-01

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Dimeric anthracene-based mechanophore particles for damage precursor detection in reinforced epoxy matrix composites

Description

The problem of catastrophic damage purveys in any material application, and minimizing its occurrence is paramount for general health and safety. We have successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied dimeric 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (Di-AC)-based mechanophores particles to form stress sensing epoxy

The problem of catastrophic damage purveys in any material application, and minimizing its occurrence is paramount for general health and safety. We have successfully synthesized, characterized, and applied dimeric 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (Di-AC)-based mechanophores particles to form stress sensing epoxy matrix composites. As Di-AC had never been previously applied as a mechanophore and thermosets are rarely studied in mechanochemistry, this created an alternative avenue for study in the field. Under an applied stress, the cyclooctane-rings in the Di-AC particles reverted back to their fluorescent anthracene form, which linearly enhanced the overall fluorescence of the composite in response to the applied strain. The fluorescent signal further allowed for stress sensing in the elastic region of the stress\u2014strain curve, which is considered to be a form of damage precursor detection. Overall, the incorporation of Di-AC to the epoxy matrix added much desired stress sensing and damage precursor detection capabilities with good retention of the material properties.

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Created

Date Created
2016-05