Matching Items (414)
- Creators: School of Molecular Sciences
- Member of: Theses and Dissertations
- Resource Type: Text
U.S. border colonias, otherwise known as Disadvantaged Unincorporated Communities, are rural settlements along the U.S. Mexico border with substandard housing conditions. Colonia residents often face inadequate access to necessities such as appropriate shelter, septic and sewer systems, and potable water. Water insecurity in colonias poses a particularly difficult challenge for residents who require clean water not only for consumption, but also household use in sanitation and hygienic practices. As of 2015, an estimated 30% of over five million US colonia residents lack access to clean drinking water, resulting in health complications and unsanitary living conditions. Preliminary health data collected indicates that due to water insecurity, colonia residents are more likely to contract gastrointestinal disease, be exposed to carcinogenic compounds from contaminated water, and experience psychosocial distress. Yet more comprehensive research needs to be conducted to understand the full breadth of the public health issue. A scoping review on water insecurity in colonias has not been completed before and could be beneficial in informing policymakers and other stakeholders on the severity of the situation while advising possible solutions.
Building Unique Communities of Support on Instagram: An Analysis of Women’s Shared Experiences with Preeclampsia and HELLP Syndrome
This research highlights the experiences of mothers diagnosed with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome through qualitative data analysis of social media comments. I collected 300 comments from the Instagram accounts @preeclampsia.foundation and @HELLPsyndrome. The two overarching themes found were: (1) Experiences with maternal healthcare and (2) Virtual Healing Spaces. These Instagram accounts represented unique communities that provide support and information that cannot be found elsewhere. These findings address gaps in the literature on maternal experience with preeclampsia and HELLP syndrome and identify directions for further research. The conclusions drawn add to current research that points to the need for reform in maternal healthcare.
Annually approximately 1.5 million Americans suffer from a traumatic brain injury (TBI) increasing the risk of developing a further neurological complication later in life [1-3]. The molecular drivers of the subsequent ensuing pathologies after the initial injury event are vast and include signaling processes that may contribute to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). One such molecular signaling pathway that may link TBI to AD is necroptosis. Necroptosis is an atypical mode of cell death compared with traditional apoptosis, both of which have been demonstrated to be present post-TBI [4-6]. Necroptosis is initiated by tissue necrosis factor (TNF) signaling through the RIPK1/RIPK3/MLKL pathway, leading to cell failure and subsequent death. Prior studies in rodent TBI models report necroptotic activity acutely after injury, within 48 hours. Here, the study objective was to recapitulate prior data and characterize MLKL and RIPK1 cortical expression post-TBI with our lab’s controlled cortical impact mouse model. Using standard immunohistochemistry approaches, it was determined that the tissue sections acquired by prior lab members were of poor quality to conduct robust MLKL and RIPK1 immunostaining assessment. Therefore, the thesis focused on presenting the staining method completed. The discussion also expanded on expected results from these studies regarding the spatial distribution necroptotic signaling in this TBI model.
The present study researched the systematic biases in working memory and how items interact with each other in working memory. The first goal of the study was to assess whether working memory representations of one another or systematically interact. This was tested by the repulsion bias in the representations. The second goal was to test whether the interaction is modulated by attentional priority. Attended items exhibited a weaker repulsion bias indicating that attention helped to protect the representation from the impact of the un-attended item.The average mean error for the unattended item was 3.68º while for the attended item it was 2.19º. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that items in working memory systematically interact with each other and further suggests that the main theories in working memory that do not assume interactions need to be updated.
A case study using Bate Guide to Physical Examination and History Taking to look at gender and racial biases in medical school textbooks. 5 chapters were looked at specific based on their racial and gender themes present in the images in the chapters. Data from these chapters demonstrate the medical field as beneficial for white and male patients, while women and patients of racial minorities are underrepresented. This underrepresentation impacts future medical care, where these patients are dying as a result of this underdeveloped material.
Design and Isolation of a Novel Phosphine Functionalized Carbodiimide as a Versatile Precursor to Accessing Hemilabile Amidinate and Guanidinate Ligands
Amidinates and guanidinates are promising supporting ligands in organometallic and coordination chemistry, highly valued for their accessibility, tunability, and comparability with other popular anionic N-chelating hard donor ligands like β-diketiminates. By far the most powerful way to access these ligands involves direct metal-nucleophile insertion into N,N’- substituted carbodiimides. However, the majority of reported examples require the use of commercially accessible carbodiimide peptide coupling reagents with simple alkyl substituents leading to low variation in potential substituents. Presented here is the design, synthesis, and isolation of a novel N,N’-bis[3-(diphenylphosphino)propyl]carbodiimide via an Aza-Wittig reaction between two previously described air stable substrates. At room temperature, 3-(diphenylphosphanyl-borane)-propylisocyanate was added to N-(3-(diphenylphospino)propyl)-triphenylphosphinimine, leading to product formation in minutes. One-pot phosphine-borane deprotection, followed by simple filtration of the crude mixture through a small, basic silica plug using pentane and diethyl ether granted the corresponding carbodiimide in high purity and yield (over 70%), confirmed by 1H, 13C, and 31P NMR spectroscopy. In addition to accessing different central carbon substituents, modification of phosphine substituents should be easily accessible through minor variations in the synthesis. With these precursors, anionic amidinates and guanidinates capable of κ4 -N,N,P,P-coordination may be accessed. The ability of the labile phosphine arms to associate and dissociate may facilitate catalysis. Thus, this carbodiimide provides a tunable, reliable one step precursor to novel substituted amidinates and guanidinates for homogeneous transition metal catalysis.
Why We Wear Masks: An Examination of Factors that Have Influenced Mask-Wearing Among Arizona State University Honors Students During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Our thesis project is a 5-person group thesis that was created over the span of two years. In the summer of 2020, at the height of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, our group first met and discussed our shared interests in mask-wearing and individual factors that we each thought had significant impacts on mask-wearing among Barrett students. We each decided on factors that we wanted to investigate and subsequently split into three main groups based on our interests: culture and geography, medical humanities, and medical and psychological conditions. Despite these different interests, we continued to treat our thesis as a five-person project rather than three different projects. We then constructed a survey, followed by several focus group sessions and interview questions to ask Honors students. In January 2021, we received approval from the IRB for our project, and we quickly finalized our survey, focus group and interview questions. In February 2021, we sent out our survey via the Barrett Digest, which we kept open for approximately one month. We also sent out advertisements for our survey via social media platforms such as Twitter and Discord. Following completion of the survey, we contacted all of the respondents who stated that they were interested in participating in focus groups and interviews. Focus groups and interviews were conducted in March and April 2021, and results were analyzed and correlated to our individual subtopics. Each of the focus group and interview participants received $50 each, and three randomly-selected students who completed the survey received $25 each. From April 2021 until April 2022, we analyzed our results, came to conclusions based on our initial topics of interest, and constructed our paper.
This project investigates the adjustment to college life that first-year athletes must face. Through personal essay, a comprehensive survey of current college athletes at Arizona State University, and one-on-one interviews with self-selected, current athletes, the project presents the collection of challenges confronted and best practices adopted (and also missteps to be learned from) along the way in a college athlete’s first year and transition from high school to college. By looking systematically, this project brings awareness to the common stressors that athletes face and shares coping mechanisms in which these stressors can be overcome. This project also brings the survey statistics to life with individual stories, including both the author’s personal essay and interviews with individual athletes. While the first purpose of this thesis is to make clear to athletes struggling with this transition from high school to college sports that their experience is commonplace and expected, the second purpose is to set these athletes up for success: providing them with a one-stop shop of resources to assist athletes and any of their needs. The project analyzes athletes’ current use of resources and brings together the available resources for athletes into a single catalogue. This “guidebook” blends previous research on the adjustment to college for collegiate athletes, a new study analyzing the specific resource usage of the current Sun Devil athletes, and personal testimony. What this project revealed was that not only are first-year athletes experiencing common stressors and underutilizing resources available to them, so too are athletes in the second, third, and fourth years. All athletes would benefit from increasing awareness of the challenges and stressors often experienced by athletes and increased accessing of resources available to athletes that continue to be underutilized.
An immune regulatory network was constructed for the purpose of identifying target regulators in malignant pleural mesothelioma for therapies. An identified causal flow linked a mutation of D-dopachrome tautomerase to a heightened expression of regulator ASH1L and consequent down regulation of chemokine CCL5 and invasion of CD8+ T cells. Experimental validation of this initial use case indicates mRNA expression of CCL5 within the tumor cells and subsequent protein expression and secretion. Further analyses will explore the migration of CD8+ T cells in response to the chemotactic CCL5.
This paper outlines cumulative research on food deserts in relation to college students; namely, that there are communities classified as food deserts because significant numbers of the population lack access to grocery stores selling fresh produce or other goods normally called “healthy.” These areas are often also food swamps, or areas with intense access to sugar-dense, high-fat foods. Research as a whole suggests that three considerations primarily drive food insecurity for individuals caught in these food deserts: lack of access to a personal vehicle, low income or prohibitively expensive healthy foods, and personal education or culture (Wright et al., 2016). College students both fit into the geographical food deserts and are individuals who tend to have a worrying level of food insecurity (Kim, 2018). It is costly to make adjustments to entire environments to rid communities of food desert characteristics, and it is not always potent enough to end food insecurity or malnutrition; instead, it can be much more effective to focus on individuals within communities and help push cultures into a better direction. This project demonstrates that ASU students are experiencing food dissatisfaction and are in a food desert worthy of attention and action, and that students are motivated to see a solution. The solution that the paper focuses on is a food delivery system of fresh produce and foods for students, which addresses the three drivers of individual food deserts discussed by Wright et al. (2016).