Matching Items (23)

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How George Washington's Generalship and Presidency Constituted Early American Republican Ideals

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Republican ideals influenced George Washington during his tenure as the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and as president of the United States. These ideals included: virtue, reputation (which was the

Republican ideals influenced George Washington during his tenure as the Commander-in-Chief of the Continental Army and as president of the United States. These ideals included: virtue, reputation (which was the mark of a true 18th century gentleman), and encouraging individual citizens to perform their civic duties to safeguard their liberties. While there exist some instances where Washington had to put the good over the country over republicanism, it was done to further republicanism in the long run. Washington valued his reputation which compensated for his lack of a formal education. While not formally educated, Washington did receive more beneficial education by surveying the Ohio Country; an education which led him to his generalship and ultimately, the presidency.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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Building an Identity: Exploring the Relationship between Colonial and Georgian Architecture to Colonial Culture in Old Virginia in the Seventeenth Century to Eighteenth Century

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The aim of this thesis is to explore the relationship between architecture and history in Virginia from 1607 to the eve of the American Revolution to create a complete historical

The aim of this thesis is to explore the relationship between architecture and history in Virginia from 1607 to the eve of the American Revolution to create a complete historical narrative. The interdependency of history and architecture creates culturally important pieces and projects the colonist's need to connect to the past as well as their innovations in their own cultural exploration. The thesis examines the living conditions of the colonists that formed Jamestown, and describes the architectural achievements and the historical events that were taking place at the time. After Jamestown, the paper moves on to the innovations of early Virginian architecture from Colonial architecture to Georgian architecture found in Williamsburg. Conclusively, the thesis presents a historical narrative on how architecture displays a collection of ideals from the Virginian colonists at the time. The external display of architecture parallels the events as well as the economic conditions of Virginia, creating a social dialogue between the gentry and the common class in the colony of Virginia.

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Date Created
  • 2015-05

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A Promotion of Historical Efficacy: How Six Overlooked Women Shaped the Course of History Through Their Individual Pursuits

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This paper is composed of six micro-biographies of inspiring female figures from history: Ziniada Portnova, Nancy Wake, Katherine Johnson, Sunitha Krishnan, Huda Shaarawi, and Fe del Mundo. Traditionally, historians have

This paper is composed of six micro-biographies of inspiring female figures from history: Ziniada Portnova, Nancy Wake, Katherine Johnson, Sunitha Krishnan, Huda Shaarawi, and Fe del Mundo. Traditionally, historians have failed to portray the value of ordinary people who have accomplished extraordinary things. In attempting to change this, the purpose of this project is to educate the public on the role that one person can play in the course of historical events and inspire others to follow the example of these women. Irrespective of geographic location, time period, or social position, each of these women have individually overcame the prevailing sentiment that their voices did not matter and maintained a desire to make a difference in their worlds in defense of their convictions. They made selfless sacrifices of action in order to advance their causes when the role of women was often overlooked. Despite the existing social boundaries and barriers, their confidence in themselves and the faith that they maintained in their convictions allowed them to successfully make a difference. The biographies will highlight the individual power of women who exercised their historical efficacy in the face of adversity. Beyond this written thesis, I am practicing public history by presenting these women at my defense as live women in costume. Similar to a museum exhibit, this use of visuals will further emphasize the reality of their lives, existence, and accomplishments. In narrating and presenting their stories, I hope to do two things. First, to give these women proper recognition for their courage, achievements, and strength. Second, to encourage you, the reader and audience, to believe in your power as an individual and to exercise your historical efficacy.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

Harrington the Hungry Hare: A Children's Book on the Irish Potato Famine

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The Irish Potato Famine, sometimes known as the Great Famine, is arguably one of the most infamous famines to occur in documented history. Between the years of 1845-1849, more than

The Irish Potato Famine, sometimes known as the Great Famine, is arguably one of the most infamous famines to occur in documented history. Between the years of 1845-1849, more than 1 million Irish people either died of starvation or were forced to flee the country because of this catastrophe. To truly understand how such a devastating event occurred, it is important to understand the political climate of the time period – particularly in regard to Ireland’s relationship with England. Although the famine was caused, in part, by the failure of Ireland’s potato crop due to a disease dubbed the “blight,” the death rate was exacerbated by the lack of English aid – as Ireland was, at the time, an English colony. The mass death and immigration from Ireland within such a short time period were largely caused by negligence and mismanagement of the crisis by the English rulers.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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The wicked man's portion: discourses of vice and boundaries of moral citizenship in early New England

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"The Wicked Man's Portion" uses crime writing as a means to measure modernity in early America. Crime writing does things all too familiarly "modern"; it imagines audiences in need of

"The Wicked Man's Portion" uses crime writing as a means to measure modernity in early America. Crime writing does things all too familiarly "modern"; it imagines audiences in need of moral instruction, citizens questioning the decisions of those in power, and men and women seeking reassurance that their community was safe, just, and moral. Crime writing pries open the dialectic between the expectations of authority and individuals' experiences. What emerges is the concept of a moral citizen, a self-reliant individual sharing responsibility for a well-ordered community. The first chapter examines typological interpretations of scripture in execution sermons revealing the interrelation between religion and law. Chapters two and three focus on the interaction between criminal law and beliefs in the supernatural; chapter two looks at supernatural crimes and forensic methods, such as those surrounding witch trials, and chapter three examines arguments for capital punishment that hinged upon divine involvement in human affairs. The fourth chapter discusses gallows publications' functions in the public sphere and contributions to inchoate democracy. The final chapter asks how equity defined punishment in economic terms. This chapter pays particular attention variations of punishment determined by race, class, and gender.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2013

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Revolt, religion, and dissent in the Dutch-American Atlantic: Francis Adrian van der Kemp's pursuit of civil and religious liberty

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This project explores the histories of the Dutch Republic and the United States during the Age of Revolutions, using as a lens the life of Francis Adrian van der Kemp.

This project explores the histories of the Dutch Republic and the United States during the Age of Revolutions, using as a lens the life of Francis Adrian van der Kemp. Connections between the Netherlands and the United States have been understudied in histories of the Revolutionary Atlantic. Yet the nations' political and religious histories are entwined both thematically and practically. Van der Kemp's life makes it possible to examine republicanism and liberal religion anew, as they developed and changed during the era of Atlantic revolutions. The project draws on numerous archival collections that house van der Kemp's voluminous correspondence, political and religious writings, his autobiography, and the unpublished records of the Reformed Christian Church, now the Unitarian Church of Barneveld. With his activity in both countries, van der Kemp offers a unique perspective into the continued role of the Dutch in the development of the United States. The dissertation argues that the political divisions and incomplete religious freedom that frustrated van der Kemp in the Dutch Republic similarly manifested in America. Politically, the partisanship that became the hallmark of the early American republic echoed the experiences van der Kemp had during the Patriot Revolt. While parties would eventually stabilize radical politics, the collapse of the Dutch Republic in the Atlantic world and the divisiveness of American politics in those early decades, led van der Kemp to blunt his once radically democratic opinions. Heavily influenced by John Adams, he adopted a more conservative politics of balance that guaranteed religious and civil liberty regardless of governmental structure. In the realm of religion, van der Kemp discovered that American religious freedom reflected the same begrudging acceptance that constituted Dutch religious tolerance. Van der Kemp found that even in one of the most pluralistic states, New York, his belief in the unlimited liberty of conscience remained a dissenting opinion. The democracy and individualism celebrated in early American politics were controversial in religion, given the growing authority of denominations and hierarchical church institutions.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2014

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Republican mother, Republican daughter: a critical reassessment of Hannah Webster Foster

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This dissertation provides a critical reassessment of the historical and modern conceptions of early American novelist Hannah Webster Foster as part of a larger disciplinary move toward recovering authors, primarily

This dissertation provides a critical reassessment of the historical and modern conceptions of early American novelist Hannah Webster Foster as part of a larger disciplinary move toward recovering authors, primarily women, whose work has been lost or neglected by scholars. Although Foster is a fairly prominent writer from this early national period, remarkably little is known about her life due to her desire for anonymity and personal privacy. As a result, much of Foster’s legacy has been constructed through a combination of problematic assumptions related to the author’s class and gender as well as biases by those attempting to refashion the author according to contemporary approaches. While these concerns are examined in this study, much of this dissertation hinges on new opportunities for Foster scholarship by offering historical evidence related to and annotation of a recovered text to present a fuller perspective of Foster than has previously been available. Through an analysis of this recovered text, this dissertation challenges modern perceptions of Foster to show that Foster may best be understood through the ways she consistently models republicanism through her writings.

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Date Created
  • 2018

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Cultivating the domain: Alexander Campbell, print capitalism, and denomination building in the trans-Appalachian West, 1810-1850

Description

This study examines how a populist religious leader, Alexander Campbell, altered the economic value system of religious material production in the early United States and, subsequently, the long-term value structure

This study examines how a populist religious leader, Alexander Campbell, altered the economic value system of religious material production in the early United States and, subsequently, the long-term value structure of religious economic systems generally. As religious publishing societies in the early nineteenth century were pioneering the not-for-profit corporation and as many popular itinerants manufactured religious spectacles around the country, Campbell combined the promotional methods of revivalism and the business practices of religious printers, with a conspicuously pugilistic tone to simultaneously build religious and business empires. He was a religious entrepreneur who capitalized on the opportunities of American revivalism for personal and religious gain. His opponents attacked his theology and his wealth as signs of his obvious error but few were prepared for the vigor of his answer. He invited conflict and challenged prominent opponents to grow his celebrity and extend his brand into new markets. He argued that his labor as a printer was deserving of compensation and that, unlike his “venal” clerical opponents, he offered his services as a preacher for free. As Americans in the early national period increasingly felt obligated to find the “right kind of Christianity,” Campbell packaged and sold a compelling product. In the decades that followed his first debate in 1820, he built a religious following that by 1850 numbered well over 100,000 followers. This dissertation considers the importance of marketing, promotion, investment capital, distribution networks, property law, print culture, and ideology, to the success of a given religious prescription in the nineteenth century American marketplace of religion. Campbell’s success reveals important social, political, and economic structures in the nineteenth century trans-Appalachian west. It also illuminates a form of religious entrepreneurialism that continues to be important to American Christianity.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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The Life and Afterlives of Patrick Francis Healy, S.J.

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This dissertation centers on the life of Patrick Francis Healy, the son of an enslaved woman and an Irish slaveholder. Born in 1834, Healy became a Jesuit priest in 1864

This dissertation centers on the life of Patrick Francis Healy, the son of an enslaved woman and an Irish slaveholder. Born in 1834, Healy became a Jesuit priest in 1864 and the president of Georgetown University in 1874, seven decades before Georgetown admitted its first African American student. In the twentieth century, historical investigations of race and American Catholicism cast Healy and his family in a new light. Today, the Healys are upheld in some circles as African American Catholic icons. Patrick Healy is now remembered as the first African American Jesuit and Catholic university president, as well as the first African American to receive a doctorate. This dissertation pursues both the life of Patrick Healy as well as what I call his “afterlives,” or the ways in which he has been remembered since the 1950s, when Albert S. Foley, S.J. discovered that the Healys’ mother was enslaved and refashioned them from white Irish Americans to white-passing African Americans. How and why did Patrick Francis Healy understand and comport himself as a white, upper-class Catholic? How and why have others sought to construct him as African American in the years since his ancestry was made widely known? How has Georgetown incorporated Healy’s legacy, in the context of its and other universities’ coming-to-terms with their dealings with slavery more broadly? I pursue these questions through archival sources (primarily Healy’s diaries and letters) at Georgetown University and College of the Holy Cross, as well as secondary literature on passing, subjectivity, and hagiography.

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Date Created
  • 2020

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Beyond Bradford's journal: the Scrooby Puritans in context

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This dissertation explores the claims, put forth by William Bradford in his journal Of Plimoth Plantation, that persecution was the primary motivation for removal from England to Holland by the

This dissertation explores the claims, put forth by William Bradford in his journal Of Plimoth Plantation, that persecution was the primary motivation for removal from England to Holland by the Scrooby Puritans in 1608, and challenges the historiographical acceptance of those claims. The dissertation examines monarchical, ecclesiastical and historical records from 1590-1620 to determine if there was any evidence to support Bradford’s claims of persecution. Finding scant evidence of physical persecution at the hands of royal, civil, or ecclesiastical authorities, the dissertation turns to the socioeconomic factors which may have contributed to the Scrooby Puritans decision to leave England and take up residence in Holland for twelve years. Finding no significant socioeconomic push factors, attention is then turned to the theological underpinnings of the group to determine if theology may have driven their persecution narrative. It concludes that the Scrooby Puritans may not have been fleeing from authorities trying to confine them for their religious beliefs, but from the corruption of their very souls, had they remained in England and under the theological influences of the Church of England.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015