Matching Items (34)

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Driven-Dissipative Dynamics of the Hubbard Model Attached to a Fermionic Bath

Description

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by

In this project, we created a code that was able to simulate the dynamics of a three site Hubbard model ring connected to an infinite dissipative bath and driven by an electric field. We utilized the master equation approach, which will one day be able to be implemented efficiently on a quantum computer. For now we used classical computing to model one of the simplest nontrivial driven dissipative systems. This will serve as a verification of the master equation method and a baseline to test against when we are able to implement it on a quantum computer. For this report, we will mainly focus on classifying the DC component of the current around our ring. We notice several expected characteristics of this DC current including an inverse square tail at large values of the electric field and a linear response region at small values of the electric field.

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Date Created
  • 2020-05

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1/f noise from the laws of thermodynamics for finite-size fluctuations

Description

Computer simulations of the Ising model exhibit white noise if thermal fluctuations are governed by Boltzmann's factor alone; whereas we find that the same model exhibits 1/f noise if Boltzmann's

Computer simulations of the Ising model exhibit white noise if thermal fluctuations are governed by Boltzmann's factor alone; whereas we find that the same model exhibits 1/f noise if Boltzmann's factor is extended to include local alignment entropy to all orders. We show that this nonlinear correction maintains maximum entropy during equilibrium fluctuations. Indeed, as with the usual way to resolve Gibbs' paradox that avoids entropy reduction during reversible processes, the correction yields the statistics of indistinguishable particles. The correction also ensures conservation of energy if an instantaneous contribution from local entropy is included. Thus, a common mechanism for 1/f noise comes from assuming that finite-size fluctuations strictly obey the laws of thermodynamics, even in small parts of a large system. Empirical evidence for the model comes from its ability to match the measured temperature dependence of the spectral-density exponents in several metals and to show non-Gaussian fluctuations characteristic of nanoscale systems.

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Date Created
  • 2014-07-30

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The Big World of Nanothermodynamics

Description

Nanothermodynamics extends standard thermodynamics to facilitate finite-size effects on the scale of nanometers. A key ingredient is Hill’s subdivision potential that accommodates the non-extensive energy of independent small systems, similar

Nanothermodynamics extends standard thermodynamics to facilitate finite-size effects on the scale of nanometers. A key ingredient is Hill’s subdivision potential that accommodates the non-extensive energy of independent small systems, similar to how Gibbs’ chemical potential accommodates distinct particles. Nanothermodynamics is essential for characterizing the thermal equilibrium distribution of independently relaxing regions inside bulk samples, as is found for the primary response of most materials using various experimental techniques. The subdivision potential ensures strict adherence to the laws of thermodynamics: total energy is conserved by including an instantaneous contribution from the entropy of local configurations, and total entropy remains maximized by coupling to a thermal bath. A unique feature of nanothermodynamics is the completely-open nanocanonical ensemble. Another feature is that particles within each region become statistically indistinguishable, which avoids non-extensive entropy, and mimics quantum-mechanical behavior. Applied to mean-field theory, nanothermodynamics gives a heterogeneous distribution of regions that yields stretched-exponential relaxation and super-Arrhenius activation. Applied to Monte Carlo simulations, there is a nonlinear correction to Boltzmann’s factor that improves agreement between the Ising model and measured non-classical critical scaling in magnetic materials. Nanothermodynamics also provides a fundamental mechanism for the 1/f noise found in many materials.

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Date Created
  • 2015-01-01

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Effect of helium ion irradiation on the tunneling behavior in niobium/aluminum/aluminum oxide/niobium Josephson junctions

Description

The study of high energy particle irradiation effect on Josephson junction tri-layers is relevant to applications in space and radioactive environments. It also allows us to investigate the influence of

The study of high energy particle irradiation effect on Josephson junction tri-layers is relevant to applications in space and radioactive environments. It also allows us to investigate the influence of defects and interfacial intermixing on the junction electrical characteristics. In this work, we studied the influence of 2MeV Helium ion irradiation with doses up to 5.2×1016 ions/cm2 on the tunneling behavior of Nb/Al/AlOx/Nb Josephson junctions. Structural and analytical TEM characterization, combined with SRIM modeling, indicates that over 4nm of intermixing occurred at the interfaces. EDX analysis after irradiation, suggests that the Al and O compositions from the barrier are collectively distributed together over a few nanometers. Surprisingly, the IV characteristics were largely unchanged. The normal resistance, Rn, increased slightly (<20%) after the initial dose of 3.5×1015 ions/cm2 and remained constant after that. This suggests that tunnel barrier electrical properties were not affected much, despite the significant changes in the chemical distribution of the barrier's Al and O shown in SRIM modeling and TEM pictures. The onset of quasi-particle current, sum of energy gaps (2Δ), dropped systematically from 2.8meV to 2.6meV with increasing dosage. Similarly, the temperature onset of the Josephson current dropped from 9.2K to 9.0K. This suggests that the order parameter at the barrier interface has decreased as a result of a reduced mean free path in the Al proximity layer and a reduction in the transition temperature of the Nb electrode near the barrier. The dependence of Josephson current on the magnetic field and temperature does not change significantly with irradiation, suggesting that intermixing into the Nb electrode is significantly less than the penetration depth.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2012

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Multiscale Modeling of Structure-Property Relationships in Polymers with Heterogenous Structure

Description

The exceptional mechanical properties of polymers with heterogeneous structure, such as the high toughness of polyethylene and the excellent blast-protection capability of polyurea, are strongly related to their morphology and

The exceptional mechanical properties of polymers with heterogeneous structure, such as the high toughness of polyethylene and the excellent blast-protection capability of polyurea, are strongly related to their morphology and nanoscale structure. Different polymer microstructures, such as semicrystalline morphology and segregated nanophases, lead to coordinated molecular motions during deformation in order to preserve compatibility between the different material phases. To study molecular relaxation in polyethylene, a coarse-grained model of polyethylene was calibrated to match the local structural variable distributions sampled from supercooled atomistic melts. The coarse-grained model accurately reproduces structural properties, e.g., the local structure of both the amorphous and crystalline phases, and thermal properties, e.g., glass transition and melt temperatures, and dynamic properties: including the vastly different relaxation time scales of the amorphous and crystalline phases. A hybrid Monte Carlo routine was developed to generate realistic semicrystalline configurations of polyethylene. The generated systems accurately predict the activation energy of the alpha relaxation process within the crystalline phase. Furthermore, the models show that connectivity to long chain segments in the amorphous phase increases the energy barrier for chain slip within crystalline phase. This prediction can guide the development of tougher semicrystalline polymers by providing a fundamental understanding of how nanoscale morphology contributes to chain mobility. In a different study, the macroscopic shock response of polyurea, a phase segregated copolymer, was analyzed using density functional theory (DFT) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and classical MD simulations. The two models predict the shock response consistently up to shock pressures of 15 GPa, beyond which the DFT-based simulations predict a softer response. From the DFT simulations, an analysis of bond scission was performed as a first step in developing a more fundamental understanding of how shock induced material transformations effect the shock response and pressure dependent strength of polyurea subjected to extreme shocks.

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Date Created
  • 2017

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Mechanisms responsible for microwave properties in high performance dielectric materials

Description

Microwave properties of low-loss commercial dielectric materials are optimized by adding transition-metal dopants or alloying agents (i.e. Ni, Co, Mn) to tune the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) to

Microwave properties of low-loss commercial dielectric materials are optimized by adding transition-metal dopants or alloying agents (i.e. Ni, Co, Mn) to tune the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency (τf) to zero. This occurs as a result of the temperature dependence of dielectric constant offsetting the thermal expansion. At cryogenic temperatures, the microwave loss in these dielectric materials is dominated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) loss, which results from the spin-excitations of d-shell electron spins in exchange-coupled clusters. We show that the origin of the observed magnetically-induced shifts in the dielectric resonator frequency originates from the same mechanism, as described by the Kramers-Kronig relations. The temperature coefficient of resonator frequency, τf, is related to three material parameters according to the equation, τf = - (½ τε + ½ τµ + αL), where τε, τµ, and αL are the temperature coefficient of dielectric constant, magnetic permeability, and lattice constant, respectively. Each of these parameters for dielectric materials of interest are measured experimentally. These results, in combination with density functional simulations, developed a much improved understanding of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for τf. The same experimental methods have been used to characterize in-situ the physical nature and concentration of performance-degrading point defects in the dielectrics of superconducting planar microwave resonators.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Electronic single molecule measurements with the scanning tunneling microscope

Description

Richard Feynman said “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it

Richard Feynman said “There’s plenty of room at the bottom”. This inspired the techniques to improve the single molecule measurements. Since the first single molecule study was in 1961, it has been developed in various field and evolved into powerful tools to understand chemical and biological property of molecules. This thesis demonstrates electronic single molecule measurement with Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and two of applications of STM; Break Junction (BJ) and Recognition Tunneling (RT). First, the two series of carotenoid molecules with four different substituents were investigated to show how substituents relate to the conductance and molecular structure. The measured conductance by STM-BJ shows that Nitrogen induces molecular twist of phenyl distal substituents and conductivity increasing rather than Carbon. Also, the conductivity is adjustable by replacing the sort of residues at phenyl substituents. Next, amino acids and peptides were identified through STM-RT. The distribution of the intuitive features (such as amplitude or width) are mostly overlapped and gives only a little bit higher separation probability than random separation. By generating some features in frequency and cepstrum domain, the classification accuracy was dramatically increased. Because of large data size and many features, supporting vector machine (machine learning algorithm for big data) was used to identify the analyte from a data pool of all analytes RT data. The STM-RT opens a possibility of molecular sequencing in single molecule level. Similarly, carbohydrates were studied by STM-RT. Carbohydrates are difficult to read the sequence, due to their huge number of possible isomeric configurations. This study shows that STM-RT can identify not only isomers of mono-saccharides and disaccharides, but also various mono-saccharides from a data pool of eleven analytes. In addition, the binding affinity between recognition molecule and analyte was investigated by comparing with surface plasmon resonance. In present, the RT technique is applying to chip type sequencing device onto solid-state nanopore to read out glycosaminoglycans which is ubiquitous to all mammalian cells and controls biological activities.

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Date Created
  • 2016

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Development of dose verification detectors towards improving proton therapy outcomes

Description

The challenge of radiation therapy is to maximize the dose to the tumor while simultaneously minimizing the dose elsewhere. Proton therapy is well suited to this challenge due to the

The challenge of radiation therapy is to maximize the dose to the tumor while simultaneously minimizing the dose elsewhere. Proton therapy is well suited to this challenge due to the way protons slow down in matter. As the proton slows down, the rate of energy loss per unit path length continuously increases leading to a sharp dose near the end of range. Unlike conventional radiation therapy, protons stop inside the patient, sparing tissue beyond the tumor. Proton therapy should be superior to existing modalities, however, because protons stop inside the patient, there is uncertainty in the range. “Range uncertainty” causes doctors to take a conservative approach in treatment planning, counteracting the advantages offered by proton therapy. Range uncertainty prevents proton therapy from reaching its full potential.

A new method of delivering protons, pencil-beam scanning (PBS), has become the new standard for treatment over the past few years. PBS utilizes magnets to raster scan a thin proton beam across the tumor at discrete locations and using many discrete pulses of typically 10 ms duration each. The depth is controlled by changing the beam energy. The discretization in time of the proton delivery allows for new methods of dose verification, however few devices have been developed which can meet the bandwidth demands of PBS.

In this work, two devices have been developed to perform dose verification and monitoring with an emphasis placed on fast response times. Measurements were performed at the Mayo Clinic. One detector addresses range uncertainty by measuring prompt gamma-rays emitted during treatment. The range detector presented in this work is able to measure the proton range in-vivo to within 1.1 mm at depths up to 11 cm in less than 500 ms and up to 7.5 cm in less than 200 ms. A beam fluence detector presented in this work is able to measure the position and shape of each beam spot. It is hoped that this work may lead to a further maturation of detection techniques in proton therapy, helping the treatment to reach its full potential to improve the outcomes in patients.

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Date Created
  • 2019

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Techniques for the analysis and understanding of cosmic evolution

Description

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided precise information on the evolution of the Universe and the current cosmological paradigm. The CMB has not yet provided definitive information on the

The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) has provided precise information on the evolution of the Universe and the current cosmological paradigm. The CMB has not yet provided definitive information on the origin and strength of any primordial magnetic fields or how they affect the presence of magnetic fields observed throughout the cosmos. This work outlines an alternative method to investigating and identifying the presence of cosmic magnetic fields. This method searches for Faraday Rotation (FR) and specifically uses polarized CMB photons as back-light. I find that current generation CMB experiments may be not sensitive enough to detect FR but next generation experiments should be able to make highly significant detections. Identifying FR with the CMB will provide information on the component of magnetic fields along the line of sight of observation.

The 21cm emission from the hyperfine splitting of neutral Hydrogen in the early universe is predicted to provide precise information about the formation and evolution of cosmic structure, complementing the wealth of knowledge gained from the CMB.

21cm cosmology is a relatively new field, and precise measurements of the Epoch of Reionization (EoR) have not yet been achieved. In this work I present 2σ upper limits on the power spectrum of 21cm fluctuations (Δ²(k)) probed at the cosmological wave number k from the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) 64 element deployment. I find upper limits on Δ²(k) in the range 0.3 < k < 0.6 h/Mpc to be (650 mK)², (450 mK)², (390 mK)², (250 mK)², (280mK)², (250 mK)² at redshifts z = 10.87, 9.93, 8.91, 8.37, 8.13 and 7.48 respectively

Building on the power spectrum analysis, I identify a major limiting factor in detecting the 21cm power spectrum.

This work is concluded by outlining a metric to evaluate the predisposition of redshifted 21cm interferometers to foreground contamination in power spectrum estimation. This will help inform the construction of future arrays and enable high fidelity imaging and

cross-correlation analysis with other high redshift cosmic probes like the CMB and other upcoming all sky surveys. I find future

arrays with uniform (u,v) coverage and small spectral evolution of their response in the (u,v,f) cube can minimize foreground leakage while pursuing 21cm imaging.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2018

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Characterization of oxide thin films and interfaces using transmission electron microscopy

Description

Multifunctional oxide thin-films grown on silicon and several oxide substrates have been characterized using High Resolution (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS).

Multifunctional oxide thin-films grown on silicon and several oxide substrates have been characterized using High Resolution (Scanning) Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), and Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy (EELS). Oxide thin films grown on SrTiO3/Si pseudo-substrate showed the presence of amorphised SrTiO3 (STO) at the STO/Si interface. Oxide/oxide interfaces were observed to be atomically clean with very few defects.

Al-doped SrTiO3 thin films grown on Si were of high crystalline quality. The Ti/O ratio estimated from EELS line scans revealed that substitution of Ti by Al created associated O vacancies. The strength of the crystal field in STO was measured using EELS, and decreased by ~1.0 eV as Ti4+ was substituted by Al3+. The damping of O-K EELS peaks confirmed the rise in oxygen vacancies. For Co-substituted STO films grown on Si, the EDS and EELS spectra across samples showed Co doping was quite random. The substitution of Ti4+ with Co3+ or Co2+ created associated oxygen vacancies for charge balance. Presence of oxygen vacancies was also confirmed by shift of Ti-L EELS peaks towards lower energy by ~0.4 eV. The crystal-field strength decreased by ~0.6 eV as Ti4+ was partially substituted by Co3+ or Co2+.

Spinel Co3O4 thin films grown on MgAl2O4 (110) were observed to have excellent crystalline quality. The structure of the Co3O4/MgAl2O4 interface was determined using HRTEM and image simulations. It was found that MgAl2O4 substrate is terminated with Al and oxygen. Stacking faults and associated strain fields in spinel Co3O4 were found along [111], [001], and [113] using Geometrical Phase Analysis.

NbO2 films on STO (111) were observed to be tetragonal with lattice parameter of 13.8 Å and NbO films on LSAT (111) were observed to be cubic with lattice parameter of 4.26 Å. HRTEM showed formation of high quality NbOx films and excellent coherent interface. HRTEM of SrAl4 on LAO (001) confirmed an island growth mode. The SrAl4 islands were highly crystalline with excellent epitaxial registry with LAO. By comparing HRTEM images with image simulations, the interface structure was determined to consist of Sr-terminated SrAl4 (001) on AlO2-terminated LAO (001).

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Created

Date Created
  • 2015