Matching Items (29)

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Toward Differentiating Between Ischemic and Hemorrhagic Strokes Using Microwave Tomography

Description

Microwave tomography (MWT) differs from the current forms of biomedical imaging modalities by measuring the dielectric properties in different tissues in order to create an image of the object under

Microwave tomography (MWT) differs from the current forms of biomedical imaging modalities by measuring the dielectric properties in different tissues in order to create an image of the object under evaluation. This technology could be harnessed for the evaluation of a stroke because the areas of the brain that are not being provided oxygen will have a reduced concentration of blood, leading to a reduced relative permittivity (also referred to as dielectric constant). Strokes themselves require accurate diagnosis for proper treatment to be administered. Microwave tomography offers advantages of stroke diagnosis over imaging methods such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized tomography (CT). Like MRIs, microwave tomography passes only non-ionizing radiation through the patient, allowing for multiple safe scans. Because MWT requires only an array of antennas sending a non-ionizing electromagnetic field, which is on the level of the fields sent in cell phones, a patient undergoing a stroke could be diagnosed inside an ambulance with multiple MWT scans, greatly reducing the time before treatment. The challenge for this thesis is to correctly solve an ill-posed problem presented in a microwave tomography system and output an image of the object's electrical properties. The system itself is an inverse problem because the object to be imaged and its properties are unknown. Rather, the incident field and resulting scattered field due to interaction with the object of interest are known. To achieve a unique solution for this problem, a software implementation of a common microwave inversion method known as Born's Iterative Method is realized through MATLAB.

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Date Created
  • 2016-12

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Wireless Sensors and Actuators to Enhance Golf Putting Practice

Description

The team has designed and built a golf swing analyzer that informs the user of his mistakes while putting with a golf club. The team also interfaced a Linux program

The team has designed and built a golf swing analyzer that informs the user of his mistakes while putting with a golf club. The team also interfaced a Linux program with the analyzer that allows the user to review the flaws in his golf swing. In addition, the application is more personalized than existing devices and tailored to the individual based on his level of experience. The analyzer consists of an accelerometer, gyroscope, magnetometer, vibration motor, and microcontroller that are connected on a board that attaches to the top of the shaft of a golf club, fitting inside a 3D printed case. The team has assembled all of the necessary hardware, and is able to successfully display critical parameters of a golf putt, as well as send instant feedback to the user. The final budget for this project was $378.24

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Date Created
  • 2015-12

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In-vitro validation of a novel miniaturized hydrogel wafer check valve for the treatment of hydrocephalus

Description

Hydrocephalus is a chronic medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. It is estimated that 1-2 of every 1000 babies in the United States

Hydrocephalus is a chronic medical condition characterized by the excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid in the brain. It is estimated that 1-2 of every 1000 babies in the United States is born with congenital hydrocephalus, with many individuals acquiring hydrocephalus later in life through brain injury. Despite these alarming statistics, current shunts for the treatment of hydrocephalus display operational failure rates as high as 40-50% within two years following implantation. Failure of current shunts is attributed to complexity of design, external implantation, and the requirement of multiple catheters. The presented hydrogel wafer check valve avoids all the debilitating features of current shunts, relying only on the swelling of hydrogel for operation, and is designed to directly replace failed arachnoid granulations- the brain’s natural cerebrospinal fluid drainage valves. The valve was validated via bench-top (1) hydrodynamic pressure-flow response characterizations, (2) transient response analysis, and (3) overtime performance response in brain-analogous conditions. In-vitro measurements display operation in range of natural CSF draining (cracking pressure, PT ~ 1–110 mmH2O and outflow hydraulic resistance, Rh ~ 24 – 152 mmH2O/mL/min), negligible reverse flow leakages (flow, QO > -10 µL/min), and demonstrate the valve’s operational reproducibility of this new valve as an implantable treatment.

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Date Created
  • 2016-05

Wireless Machine-learning Enabled Reconfigurable ""Button-type"" Pressure Sensors for Gait Analysis

Description

This paper introduces a wireless reconfigurable “button-type” pressure sensor system, via machine learning, for gait analysis application. The pressure sensor system consists of an array of independent button-type pressure sensing

This paper introduces a wireless reconfigurable “button-type” pressure sensor system, via machine learning, for gait analysis application. The pressure sensor system consists of an array of independent button-type pressure sensing units interfaced with a remote computer. The pressure sensing unit contains pressure-sensitive resistors, readout electronics, and a wireless Bluetooth module, which are assembled within footprint of 40 × 25 × 6mm3. The small-footprint, low-profile sensors are populated onto a shoe insole, like buttons, to collect temporal pressure data. The pressure sensing unit measures pressures up to 2,000 kPa while maintaining an error under 10%. The reconfigurable pressure sensor array reduces the total power consumption of the system by 50%, allowing extended period of operation, up to 82.5 hrs. A robust machine learning program identifies the optimal pressure sensing units in any given configuration at an accuracy of up to 98%.

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Date Created
  • 2018-12

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A High-Sensitivity Fully Passive Neurosensing System for Wireless Brain Signal Monitoring

Description

A high-sensitivity, fully passive neurosensing system is presented for wireless brain signal monitoring. The proposed system is able to detect very low-power brain-like signals, viz. as low as -82 dBm

A high-sensitivity, fully passive neurosensing system is presented for wireless brain signal monitoring. The proposed system is able to detect very low-power brain-like signals, viz. as low as -82 dBm (50 μVpp) at fneuro > 1 kHz. It is also able to read emulated neural signals as low as -70 dBm (200 μVpp) at fneuro > 100 Hz. This is an improvement of up to 22 dB in sensitivity as compared with previously reported neural signals. The system is comprised of an implanted neurosensor and an exterior interrogator. The neurosensor receives an external carrier signal and mixes it with the neural signals prior to retransmitting to the interrogator. Of importance is that the implanted neurosensor is fully passive and does not require a battery nor rectifier/regulator but is concurrently wireless for unobtrusive neurosensing with minimal impact to the individual's activity. To achieve this remarkable high sensitivity, the sensing system employed: 1) a subharmonic mixer using an anti-parallel diode pair; 2) a pair of implanted/interrogator antennas with high transmission coefficient |S21|;and 3) a matching circuit between the implanted antenna and the mixer. This neurosensing system brings forward a new possibility of wireless neural signal detection using passive brain implants.

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Date Created
  • 2015-06-01

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Synthesis and Characterization of Novel HEMA Hydrogels Cross-linked with Methacrylated Jeffamines

Description

Hydrocephalus is a chronic neurological condition affecting an estimated 1 in every 500 infants born. The most common treatment method involves surgical implantation of a shunt system; however these systems

Hydrocephalus is a chronic neurological condition affecting an estimated 1 in every 500 infants born. The most common treatment method involves surgical implantation of a shunt system; however these systems have a high failure rate resulting in repeat invasive surgeries. A promising approach being researched to treat hydrocephalus is a miniaturized valve composed of silicon and a hydrogel material. The current chemical cross-linker used in the hydrogel, EGDMA, however is susceptible to hydrolytic cleavage due to the ester groups.

This thesis proposed a novel hydrogel composed of a HEMA backbone and methacrylated Jeffamines as the chemical cross-linker as a possible replacement for the HEMA and EGDMA hydrogel used currently in the hydrocephalus valve. Jeffamine EDR-148 was methacrylated through reaction with methacryloyl chloride and characterized using 1H NMR spectroscopy. Subsequently, hydrogels were synthesized, using both EGDMA and EDR-MA, and the properties were compared through swelling and rotational rheology. Finally, degradation tests were performed to compare the hydrolytic stability of the two cross-linkers.

Results of this work demonstrated that Jeffamine EDR-148 was able to be successfully methacrylated and used to synthesize a hydrogel. The new hydrogel was shown to have comparable mechanical behavior and robustness to the EGDMA hydrogel, with slightly increased swelling capabilities. Degradation tests did not confirm the theory that the EDR-MA gels would exhibit greater hydrolytic stability however. Future work includes perfecting the purification of the EDR-MA, conducting a longer-term degradation study at physiologically relevant conditions, and demonstrating the tunability of the Jeffamine hydrogels.

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Date Created
  • 2019-05

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Emerging neural coincidences in rats agranular medial and agranular lateral cortices during learning of a directional choice task

Description

To uncover the neural correlates to go-directed behavior, single unit action potentials are considered fundamental computing units and have been examined by different analytical methodologies under a broad set of

To uncover the neural correlates to go-directed behavior, single unit action potentials are considered fundamental computing units and have been examined by different analytical methodologies under a broad set of hypotheses. Using a behaving rat performing a directional choice learning task, we aim to study changes in rat's cortical neural patterns while he improved his task performance accuracy from chance to 80% or higher. Specifically, simultaneous multi-channel single unit neural recordings from the rat's agranular medial (AGm) and Agranular lateral (AGl) cortices were analyzed using joint peristimulus time histogram (JPSTHs), which effectively unveils firing coincidences in neural action potentials. My results based on data from six rats revealed that coincidences of pair-wise neural action potentials are higher when rats were performing the task than they were not at the learning stage, and this trend abated after the rats learned the task. Another finding is that the coincidences at the learning stage are stronger than that when the rats learned the task especially when they were performing the task. Therefore, this coincidence measure is the highest when the rats were performing the task at the learning stage. This may suggest that neural coincidences play a role in the coordination and communication among populations of neurons engaged in a purposeful act. Additionally, attention and working memory may have contributed to the modulation of neural coincidences during the designed task.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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Programmable metallization cell devices for flexible electronics

Description

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between

Programmable metallization cell (PMC) technology is based on an electrochemical phenomenon in which a metallic electrodeposit can be grown or dissolved between two electrodes depending on the voltage applied between them. Devices based on this phenomenon exhibit a unique, self-healing property, as a broken metallic structure can be healed by applying an appropriate voltage between the two broken ends. This work explores methods of fabricating interconnects and switches based on PMC technology on flexible substrates. The objective was the evaluation of the feasibility of using this technology in flexible electronics applications in which reliability is a primary concern. The re-healable property of the interconnect is characterized for the silver doped germanium selenide (Ag-Ge-Se) solid electrolyte system. This property was evaluated by measuring the resistances of the healed interconnect structures and comparing these to the resistances of the unbroken structures. The reliability of the interconnects in both unbroken and healed states is studied by investigating the resistances of the structures to DC voltages, AC voltages and different temperatures as a function of time. This work also explores replacing silver with copper for these interconnects to enhance their reliability. A model for PMC-based switches on flexible substrates is proposed and compared to the observed device behavior with the objective of developing a formal design methodology for these devices. The switches were subjected to voltage sweeps and their resistance was investigated as a function of sweep voltage. The resistance of the switches as a function of voltage pulse magnitude when placed in series with a resistance was also investigated. A model was then developed to explain the behavior of these devices. All observations were based on statistical measurements to account for random errors. The results of this work demonstrate that solid electrolyte based interconnects display self-healing capability, which depends on the applied healing voltage and the current limit. However, they fail at lower current densities than metal interconnects due to an ion-drift induced failure mechanism. The results on the PMC based switches demonstrate that a model comprising a Schottky diode in parallel with a variable resistor predicts the behavior of the device.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2011

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Fully passive wireless acquisition of neuropotentials

Description

The ability to monitor electrophysiological signals from the sentient brain is requisite to decipher its enormously complex workings and initiate remedial solutions for the vast amount of neurologically-based disorders. Despite

The ability to monitor electrophysiological signals from the sentient brain is requisite to decipher its enormously complex workings and initiate remedial solutions for the vast amount of neurologically-based disorders. Despite immense advancements in creating a variety of instruments to record signals from the brain, the translation of such neurorecording instrumentation to real clinical domains places heavy demands on their safety and reliability, both of which are not entirely portrayed by presently existing implantable recording solutions. In an attempt to lower these barriers, alternative wireless radar backscattering techniques are proposed to render the technical burdens of the implant chip to entirely passive neurorecording processes that transpire in the absence of formal integrated power sources or powering schemes along with any active circuitry. These radar-like wireless backscattering mechanisms are used to conceive of fully passive neurorecording operations of an implantable microsystem. The fully passive device potentially manifests inherent advantages over current wireless implantable and wired recording systems: negligible heat dissipation to reduce risks of brain tissue damage and minimal circuitry for long term reliability as a chronic implant. Fully passive neurorecording operations are realized via intrinsic nonlinear mixing properties of the varactor diode. These mixing and recording operations are directly activated by wirelessly interrogating the fully passive device with a microwave carrier signal. This fundamental carrier signal, acquired by the implant antenna, mixes through the varactor diode along with the internal targeted neuropotential brain signals to produce higher frequency harmonics containing the targeted neuropotential signals. These harmonics are backscattered wirelessly to the external interrogator that retrieves and recovers the original neuropotential brain signal. The passive approach removes the need for internal power sources and may alleviate heat trauma and reliability issues that limit practical implementation of existing implantable neurorecorders.

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Date Created
  • 2014

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High performance microbial fuel cells and supercapacitors using Micro-Electro-Mechanical System (MEMS) technology

Description

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the

A Microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bio-inspired carbon-neutral, renewable electrochemical converter to extract electricity from catabolic reaction of micro-organisms. It is a promising technology capable of directly converting the abundant biomass on the planet into electricity and potentially alleviate the emerging global warming and energy crisis. The current and power density of MFCs are low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. Since its debut in 2002, many studies have been performed by adopting a variety of new configurations and structures to improve the power density. The reported maximum areal and volumetric power densities range from 19 mW/m2 to 1.57 W/m2 and from 6.3 W/m3 to 392 W/m3, respectively, which are still low compared with conventional energy conversion techniques. In this dissertation, the impact of scaling effect on the performance of MFCs are investigated, and it is found that by scaling down the characteristic length of MFCs, the surface area to volume ratio increases and the current and power density improves. As a result, a miniaturized MFC fabricated by Micro-Electro-Mechanical System(MEMS) technology with gold anode is presented in this dissertation, which demonstrate a high power density of 3300 W/m3. The performance of the MEMS MFC is further improved by adopting anodes with higher surface area to volume ratio, such as carbon nanotube (CNT) and graphene based anodes, and the maximum power density is further improved to a record high power density of 11220 W/m3. A novel supercapacitor by regulating the respiration of the bacteria is also presented, and a high power density of 531.2 A/m2 (1,060,000 A/m3) and 197.5 W/m2 (395,000 W/m3), respectively, are marked, which are one to two orders of magnitude higher than any previously reported microbial electrochemical techniques.

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Created

Date Created
  • 2016