In the face of the world's most pressing sustainability challenges, such as climate change, ecosystem degradation, and loss of biodiversity, the following questions must be explored: Why are these situation occurring? How can we understand their complexity? How can we research these challenges to mitigate negative outcomes? This thesis investigates the relationships between people and nature through coupled human and natural systems, or CHANS, and argues for a transdisciplinary research approach for sustainability science. The following questions and topics are discussed: 1. The Complexity of Sustainability and Implications for Traditional Research Approaches 2. Coupled Human and Natural Systems Research 3. What is Transdisciplinary Research, and How Does it Relate to the Living With Locusts Team's Coupled Human and Natural Systems Research? This thesis uses the case of a team researching international locust plagues to argue for this approach. The team's project is titled "Living With Locusts" and is directed by Arianne Cease of Arizona State University's School of Sustainability.