Matching Items (2)

128325-Thumbnail Image.png

Altered Expression Patterns of Inflammation-Associated and Trophic Molecules in Substantia Nigra and Striatum Brain Samples from Parkinson's Disease, Incidental Lewy Body Disease and Normal Control Cases

Description

Evidence of inflammation has been consistently associated with pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD)-affected brains, and has been suggested as a causative factor. Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars

Evidence of inflammation has been consistently associated with pathology in Parkinson's disease (PD)-affected brains, and has been suggested as a causative factor. Dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) pars compacta, whose loss results in the clinical symptoms associated with PD, are particularly susceptible to inflammatory damage and oxidative stress. Inflammation in the striatum, where SN dopaminergic neurons project, is also a feature of PD brains. It is not known whether inflammatory changes occur first in striatum or SN. Many animal models of PD have implicated certain inflammatory molecules with dopaminergic cell neuronal loss; however, there have been few studies to validate these findings by measuring the levels of these and other inflammatory factors in human PD brain samples. This study also included samples from incidental Lewy body disease (ILBD) cases, since ILBD is considered a non-symptomatic precursor to PD, with subjects having significant loss of tyrosine hydroxylase-producing neurons. We hypothesized that there may be a progressive change in key inflammatory factors in ILBD samples intermediate between neurologically normal and PD. To address this, we used a quantitative antibody-array platform (Raybiotech-Quantibody arrays) to measure the levels of 160 different inflammation-associated cytokines, chemokines, growth factors, and related molecules in extracts of SN and striatum from clinically and neuropathologically characterized PD, ILBD, and normal control cases. Patterns of changes in inflammation and related molecules were distinctly different between SN and striatum. Our results showed significantly different levels of interleukin (IL)-5, IL-15, monokine induced by gamma interferon, and IL-6 soluble receptor in SN between disease groups. A different panel of 13 proteins with significant changes in striatum, with IL-15 as the common feature, was identified. Although the ability to detect some proteins was limited by sensitivity, patterns of expression indicated involvement of certain T-cell cytokines, vascular changes, and loss of certain growth factors, with disease progression. The results demonstrate the feasibility of profiling inflammatory molecules using diseased human brain samples, and have provided additional targets to validate in relation to PD pathology.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2016-01-14

129284-Thumbnail Image.png

Cortical characterization of the perception of intelligible and unintelligible speech measured via high-density electroencephalography

Description

High-density electroencephalography was used to evaluate cortical activity during speech comprehension via a sentence verification task. Twenty-four participants assigned true or false to sentences produced with 3 noise-vocoded channel levels

High-density electroencephalography was used to evaluate cortical activity during speech comprehension via a sentence verification task. Twenty-four participants assigned true or false to sentences produced with 3 noise-vocoded channel levels (1-unintelligible, 6-decipherable, 16-intelligible), during simultaneous EEG recording. Participant data were sorted into higher- (HP) and lower-performing (LP) groups. The identification of a late-event related potential for LP listeners in the intelligible condition and in all listeners when challenged with a 6-Ch signal supports the notion that this induced potential may be related to either processing degraded speech, or degraded processing of intelligible speech. Different cortical locations are identified as neural generators responsible for this activity; HP listeners are engaging motor aspects of their language system, utilizing an acoustic–phonetic based strategy to help resolve the sentence, while LP listeners do not. This study presents evidence for neurophysiological indices associated with more or less successful speech comprehension performance across listening conditions.

Contributors

Agent

Created

Date Created
  • 2015-01-01