Matching Items (15)

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An Analysis of Rules and a Token Economy in an Inclusive Preschool Classroom

Description

Token economies are a type of behavioral reinforcement that are particularly useful in classroom settings for increasing student compliance, for both typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder. During this study, we implemented a token economy in an

Token economies are a type of behavioral reinforcement that are particularly useful in classroom settings for increasing student compliance, for both typically developing children and children with autism spectrum disorder. During this study, we implemented a token economy in an inclusive preschool classroom with tokens contingent on compliance to classroom rules. Three participants, two with a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder and one considered typically developing, were included in the study. Results indicated that levels of compliance increased for both the typically developing participant and participants with autism, and did not drop below baseline levels during the withdrawal phase, suggesting there was no lack of intrinsic motivation. Further, the typically developing participant and one of the participants with autism spectrum disorder had very similar levels of compliance, while the other participant had much higher levels of compliance throughout every phase, suggesting that the compliance levels for peers with more advanced repertoires with autism may differ from both typically developing peers and peers who have less developed repertoires. The implications of these results are discussed as they relate to compliance from an ABA perspective.

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Date Created
2018-12

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An Investigation into the Influence of Dimensions of Containment on Externalizing Behaviors in Affluent Youth

Description

Recent evidence suggests that youth from affluent and upper-middle-class, white collar families are at high risk for maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, rule breaking, and substance use. A major hypothesized underlying factor is lax parental discipline that involves low repercussions

Recent evidence suggests that youth from affluent and upper-middle-class, white collar families are at high risk for maladaptive behaviors, such as aggression, rule breaking, and substance use. A major hypothesized underlying factor is lax parental discipline that involves low repercussions for errant behaviors such as substance use—also known as perceived parents’ “containment” of such behaviors. In this study, the focus is on multiple dimensions of perceived containment among parents and school authorities, in relation to both externalizing problems and drug use behaviors. These associations are examined in four different schools: two boarding schools and two day schools. Results show much stronger links with maladjustment for perceived containment by parents as opposed to perceived containment by school. The largest significant effects within the containment indices were found to be between parent containment of drug use and the levels of substance use behaviors reported by students. These effects were found across gender and all schools, indicating robust links. Overall, the most robust index studied was the perceived parental monitoring variables; monitoring effects were stronger than effects from any containment variables. Students who perceived the highest levels of parental monitoring exhibited the least amount of externalizing behaviors across all schools and genders. A possible explanation includes students perceiving that their parents monitor their behavior due to caring on the behalf of the parent, which then leads to fewer externalizing outcomes. These results suggest that the most effective means of decreasing substance use levels seem to lie within the parents of the students and not the schools.

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Date Created
2018-12

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Childhood adversity and its relationship with intimate partner violence in young adults.

Description

Childhood adversity, trauma and maltreatment have been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with many survivors experiencing revictimization. The majority of research in this area focuses on established adults, and does not highlight the mechanism between childhood adversity

Childhood adversity, trauma and maltreatment have been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, with many survivors experiencing revictimization. The majority of research in this area focuses on established adults, and does not highlight the mechanism between childhood adversity and IPV. This study examines the impact childhood adversity has on the perceived acceptability of less-obvious abusive behaviors, or “yellow flags”, in young adult romantic and friendly relationships amongst Arizona State University undergraduates (M age = 20.4). Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that young adults are more permissive of yellow flag behaviors in their friendships, as does the frequency of said behavior. Age, sex, minority status, and type of adversity experienced are significantly correlated with increased acceptability and frequency. No significant findings were found for romantic relationships, but may have been limited by sample demographics and the pool from which participants were drawn.

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Date Created
2020-05

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Erasing the Stigma Around Seeking Mental Help- Creating a Digital Campaign

Description

This honors thesis project provides analysis on the barriers to treatment seeking regarding mental health. Research on treatment seeking barriers was done, and then used to create a digital campaign that was run via organic sharing and a boosted Facebook

This honors thesis project provides analysis on the barriers to treatment seeking regarding mental health. Research on treatment seeking barriers was done, and then used to create a digital campaign that was run via organic sharing and a boosted Facebook post using custom audiences. The research begins to examine the relationships between stigma and help-seeking regarding mental health. The leading barriers for seeking mental health treatment include both social and self stigma. Social stigma involves fearing judgment from others regarding mental health, and self stigma involves people's negative judgments about having mental health issues themselves. There is a negative cycle between self and social stigma as people's self perceptions often reflect into society, and society's general opinions often influence people's perceptions of themselves. In order to decrease mental health stigma efforts must be made to erase both self and social stigma. Research on consumer psychology showed the effectiveness of targeting people's need for belonging. In order to target people's need for belonging the campaign was designed to show mental health issues as a commonality between people that can be solved, rather than as a negative discrepancy. Research into digital marketing trends showed Facebook as one of the most powerful platforms for reach and audience targeting, so it was chosen as the ideal platform for this campaign. The analysis of barriers to treatment seeking, consumer psychology, and digital marketing culminated in the digital campaign, "Just because you can't see it...doesn't mean it's not there," promoting mental health awareness, which ran for 5 days reaching 9,874 people and getting 5,117 views.

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Date Created
2017-05

UNDERSTANDING ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS: AN EXPRESSION THROUGH OIL PAINT

Description

This project aims to help with the stigma and mystery surrounding mental health through the combination of art and psychology. The project was created by first interviewing individuals with different disorders and then researching the disorders further to acquire an

This project aims to help with the stigma and mystery surrounding mental health through the combination of art and psychology. The project was created by first interviewing individuals with different disorders and then researching the disorders further to acquire an accurate idea of the experiences of those afflicted. Then paintings were created to depict the emotions and struggles faced by individuals with psychological disorders. The project focusses on five different abnormal disorders: Major Depressive Disorder, Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Bipolar Disorder, and Schizophrenia. These particular ailments were chosen because they include the main diagnoses that the average American thinks of when mental health is mentioned. My thesis contains interviews that I personally conducted, descriptions of the five disorders included, and artistic representations of those disorders in the form of oil paintings. It is my hope that this project will help unafflicted individuals to better understand others who live with abnormal psychological disorders, as well as help the afflicted see themselves represented in a way that they otherwise might not.

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Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Eating Disorders And Sexual Orientation

Description

In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across sexual orientations were examined. The sociocultural model of eating disorders

In this study, potential differences in the manifestation and rates of eating disorders and symptoms (body dissatisfaction, weight and shape concerns, food restriction, and compensatory behaviors) in college women across sexual orientations were examined. The sociocultural model of eating disorders was also examined for these women across sexual orientations. The participants were organized into three different sexual orientation groups for analysis: heterosexual (group 1), bisexual, pansexual, and polysexual (group 2), and lesbian, gay, queer, transsexual, asexual, and other (group 3). Using cross-sectional data, it was revealed that there were significant group differences when comparing the three sexual orientation groups on loss of control over eating, but no significant group differences on body dissatisfaction, thin ideal internalization, and weight-related eating pathology, and total eating disorder symptoms scores. The sociocultural model was not predictive of eating disorder symptoms among non-heterosexual groups. Longitudinal analyses revealed that the sociocultural model of eating disorders prospectively predicts eating disorder symptoms among heterosexual women, but not non-heterosexual women. Both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses indicate that non-heterosexual women may be protected from societal pressure to subscribe to the thin ideal and its subsequent internalization. However, the comparison group of heterosexual women in our study may not have been completely representative of undergraduate women in terms of total eating disorder symptoms or eating pathology. Additionally, regardless of sexual orientation, our sample reported more total eating disorder symptoms and emotional eating than previous studies. These findings have both clinical and research implications. Future research is needed to determine what risk factors and treatment target variables are relevant for non-heterosexual women.

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Date Created
2016-05

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The Influence of the ""War on Cancer"" Metaphor on Illness Perception and Treatment Decision

Description

The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a large southwestern university participated in an online survey experiment and

The purpose of this thesis study was to examine whether the "war on cancer" metaphor influences cancer perception and treatment decision. A total of 249 undergraduates (152 females) from a large southwestern university participated in an online survey experiment and were either randomly assigned to the control condition (N=123) or to the war prime condition (N=126). Participants in the control condition did not receive the metaphor manipulation while participants in the war prime condition received the subtle "war on cancer" metaphor prime. After the prime was given, participants read a scenario, answered questions related to the situation, and responded to demographic questions. The results suggested that, compared to participants in the no-prime condition, participants exposed to the war metaphor were more likely to (a) view melanoma as an acute disease, (b) choose chemotherapy over molecular tests, and (c) prefer more aggressive treatment. These findings illustrated the unintended consequences of the "war on cancer" slogan. The results were encouraging and in the predicted direction, but the effect size was small. The discussion section described possible future directions for research.

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Agent

Created

Date Created
2015-05

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Determining the Effects of Serving as a Peer Educator in an Eating Disorders Prevention Program

Description

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate women who voluntarily chose to become peer-educators in the eating

This study assessed the effects of running an eating prevention program on body image satisfaction/behavior and the leadership skills of collegiate women. The sample included a group of 43 undergraduate women who voluntarily chose to become peer-educators in the eating prevention program called the Body Project. Self-report questionnaires evaluating both the preoccupation with personal body image and general leadership skills were distributed and collected electronically. The results were analyzed to determine that being a peer leader in the Body project did not increase eating disorder symptoms but actually decreased the symptoms. It was also determined that being a peer educator had no effect on leadership skills. Therefore, being a peer leader is beneficial for reducing eating disorder symptoms, but not for advancing leadership skills.

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Agent

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Date Created
2015-05

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The Depiction of Schizophrenia in Film

Description

The depiction of mental illness, schizophrenia in particular, within film is a unique phenomenon that film directors have decided to undertake more so in the last 20 years than ever before in cinematic history (Wedding & Niemic, 2014; Robinson, 2004;

The depiction of mental illness, schizophrenia in particular, within film is a unique phenomenon that film directors have decided to undertake more so in the last 20 years than ever before in cinematic history (Wedding & Niemic, 2014; Robinson, 2004; Gabbard & Gabbard, 1999; Wahl, 1997). Countless filmmakers have taken on the challenge of depicting this complex, yet degenerative condition that entails auditory and visual hallucinations, disorganized thought and speech, and delusions. Its portrayals are usually exaggerated and romanticized, and convey a sense of separate "Otherness" with those who have a mental disorder. And while filmmakers try to encapsulate the schizophrenic experience, it is not without psychiatric error and regarding the person who has schizophrenia as a spectacle. This unfair and ostracizing view of people who have schizophrenia is fueled by films like A Beautiful Mind and The Shining where the film either creates impossibly high standards for schizophrenics to perform at, or the film paints the character as a violent savage. In either case, the end result is the marking and, usually, denouncement of the schizophrenic for their illness. What filmmakers tend to overlook is how much the public learns from the cinematic portrayals of these disorders, and that their films are contributing to an overarching issue of public presumptions of actual schizophrenia and how it is perceived. While the Hollywood approach offers a depiction that is usually more tangible and enjoyable for masses of audiences, spectators should recognize that these are artistic interpretations that take liberties in their depictions of schizophrenia. Viewing these films with an objective mindset to better understand the inner workings of schizophrenia is absolutely crucial in arriving anything close to the truth behind this mental illness that has been demonized long enough.

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Date Created
2015-05

Your Faith and Your Health: A Community Based Resource to Promote Mental Health Awareness

Description

An educational toolkit was developed and created to normalize the dialogue of mental health at the community level. The intended audience for the toolkit is the faith community. Clergy, ministers, and other prominent leaders play integral roles in shaping the

An educational toolkit was developed and created to normalize the dialogue of mental health at the community level. The intended audience for the toolkit is the faith community. Clergy, ministers, and other prominent leaders play integral roles in shaping the worldviews of parishioners, and thus have the capacity to promote mental health awareness in the communities they serve.

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Agent

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Date Created
2014-05